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Full text of "10th to 16th Annual Reports of the State Forester of Massachusetts (1913-1919)"

Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FO BESTER 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



TENTH ANNUAL REPORT, 
1913. 

F. W. RANE, State Forester. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1914. 



Appeoved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



:£> 

®f)C Commontoeoltl) of illassacliusetta. 

To the General Court. 

I herewith am pleased to present this the tenth annual report 
of the State Forester, which designates the activities of the 
department throughout the year, together with recommenda- 
tions for the future. 

The g>T)sy and brown-tail moth work, which this department 
has been able to reduce $115,000 a year, compared with 1911, 
has amalgamated nicely into the State Forester's department 
and is herein reported upon. The present general outlook for 
this work is more promising than ever. 

This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions 
of chapter 409, section 5, Acts of 1904. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RAXE, 

State Forester. 

Dec. 20, 1913. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, ........... 7 

Acti%'ities of the department, ......... 10 

Organization, ........... 14 

Forest wardens and local moth superintendents, ..... 17 

Winchendon sho-wdng much interest in forestry, ..... 26 

Forestry practices as a key to moth control, ...... 27 

Woik accomplished this year, ........ 32 

Cost data of operation on Karlstein estate, ...... 35 

Forest mapping, ........... 35 

Forest .survey acreage estimates, town of Bolton, Mass., .... 38 

Forest repoit of town of Bolton, ........ 40 

Reforestation work, .......... 41 

Forest nursery, ........... 42 

State plantations, .......... 43 

Amherst nursery, . . . . . . . . 44 

Hopkinton nursery, .......... 44 

Bridgewater nursery, .......... 44 

Planting done under the advice of this office, ...... 44 

Summary of lots taken under reforestation act, ..... 45 

Complete list of lots taken under the reforestation act (by counties), . . 45 

Forest management work, ......... 47 

Surveys 49 

Chestnut bark disease, .......... 54 

Report of the State Fire Warden 59 

Forest fire equipment, .......... 62 

Railroad fires, ........... 63 

Rural mail carriers, .......... 66 

Federal co-operation, .......... 67 

Danger from slash, .......... 67 

Boy scouts, ............ 67 

Inventory of equipment purchased under the reimbursement act, . . 69 

Towns receiving fire-equipment reimbursement during year 1913, . . 72 

Comparative damages by forest fires for the past five years, ... 73 

Forest fires of 1913, 73 

Comparative causes of forest fires for the past three years, ... 73 
Precipitation in inches for the years 1911, 1912 and 1913, with December 

of previous year, .......... 74 

Gypsy and brown-tail moth work, ........ 75 

Private property work and the moth superintendent, .... 77 

The tent caterpillar, .......... 78 

Benefits to come from birds, ......... 79 

Work on State highways, ......... 80 

Parasite work, ........... 83 



6 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Tho wilt disease or "Flacherie," ........ 85 

The fungous disease of the brown-tail moth, ...... 85 

North Shore work, 86 

Lectures and addresses, ......... 87 

Field meetings of the State Grange, ....... 88 

Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science at Washington, D. C, . 88 

The Fifth National Conservation Congress, ...... 94 

New legislation, ........... 95 

Financial statements, .......... 101 

Financial summary of moth work by towns, ...... 107 

Summary- of recommendations of the State Forester, . . . .114 



The town of Wincliendon forest fire auto truck. Has carried ten men and 
necessary equipment. It is also used as an auxiliary hose truck for house fires. 
By an ingenious arrangement the hose-reel and box containing hand extin- 
guishers are quickly interchangeable, and hence the truck serves a double pur- 
pose. Cost of truck, .S 1,000. 




A four-year plantation of Scotch pine, planted by the Murdock Company of 
Winchendon. The whole farm was purchased for the value of its wood growth, 
and the run-out fields, as here shown, have been planted. This farm is located 
in Ashburnham. A good example of what the Winchendon manufacturers are 
doing They also plant cut-over lands in the same way. 



®l)e (lotnmontDealtf) of iBa00acl)U0ettB. 



TENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

With this report the office of State Forester completes the 
first decade of its existence. It is a pleasure at this time not 
only to report upon the activities and accomplishments of the 
year just closing, but to also call brief attention to our ten 
years of sturdy growth and our increasing usefulness to this 
grand old Bay State, whose natural resources we are striving 
to protect and augment. The people of Massachusetts are 
second to none in public sentiment, and now that forestry is 
definitely recognized as of fundamental importance to both our 
economic and aesthetic development, in what direction, may I 
ask, should our efforts toward usefulness tend during the next 
ten years? 

Let us all have a hand in this most promising and captivat- 
ing work, and I am sure that future decades as they roll by will 
each point to the earnest beginning of this generation. 

If our interest in the work maintains its steady growth 
throughout the State, the next ten years will accomplish far 
more than most people realize, and hence even we, ourselves, 
may live to enjoy some of the first fruits of our labors. 

It is proverbial that we Americans are rather deliberate and 
desire to get our bearings before we really set ourselves to a 
task, but once satisfied we are right, then we break all precedent 
in our ability to accomplish results. What Germany, Austria, 
France, Denmark, Belgium and other countries have taken 
centuries to learn, we can quickly adopt and put into practice. 
To allow 1,000,000 acres of depleted and waste lands to He idle 
in a live and progressive State like Massachusetts, where the 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



markets are the best in the world, is accounted for only by 
the fact that forest products, like all other natural resources, 
have been cheap in the immediate past, it being necessary only 
to harvest the crop. From now on we shall find it necessary 
to plant and grow the crop to secure us a harvest. 

Besides the 1,000,000 acres of so-called waste land capable 
of reforestation, it is estimated that there are 2,000,000 more 
in forests of varying conditions, one-half of which, it is safe to 
say, comprising sprout or scrub growth of little financial value, 
while the remainder is in merchantable condition. 

This office has made sufficient study of the growth of white 
pine alone to show that, at present prices even, we might in the 
future, under modern forestry practices, cut lumber annually 
that would yield millions of dollars to this Commonwealth. 

Most of our people think that Massachusetts is so depleted 
and cut over from a forestry standpoint that we are in a very 
humiliating position, and they are right; and yet our scattered 
remnants of forests continue to supply trees enough to keep 
300 saw mills, mostly of the portable type, busily engaged every 
day throughout the year in some section of the State. The 
lumber produced in the State to-day, therefore, is a very great 
asset, probably approximately 500,000,000 feet, board measure, 
and representing ' an annual investment of S15,000,000 and a 
net profit of from $2,500,000 to $7,500,000 to our people. 

It is estimated that we grow only 5 per cent, of the forest 
products used in the State. Massachusetts is a busy and 
bustling manufacturing center, and her demands for lumber 
and other forest products are no small matter. A bulletin — 
the first of its kind to be published in this country — has been 
issued by the State Forester and contains a list of our various 
wood-using industries, their location throughout the State, the 
kinds of forest products used, the finished product and other 
very interesting information. At the present time we are draw- 
ing on Washington and Oregon at almost prohibitive prices for 
our better soft woods, and from the Carolinas and Tennessee 
for our hard woods; but may we pause to ask where shall our 
mill owners turn next, once these virgin sources are depleted. 
Surely, w^e must feather our nest now while we can depend 
upon the outside supply, so that when this begins to ebb we 
may be able to turn to our own home-grown products. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



9 



It costs $20 or more a thousand to ship lumber from the 
Pacific Coast to us, and we can plant, grow, harvest and make 
a profit right here at home for this expenditure. 

As State Forester, I desire to see our people enthused on 
such a broad and comprehensive scale in reforestation and the 
practice of modern forestry methods as to make this old Bay 
State a veritable forest park from the tip of Cape Ann to the 
town of Mount Washington, and from the summit of Greylock 
Mountain to Provincetown and our islands in the sea. Let 
the slogan, "Boost forestry!" prevail everywhere. 

Our lumbermen without exception are everywhere practicing 
more economic methods, especially upon the properties owned 
by them; boards of trade and merchant associations are rec- 
ognizing the importance of better forestry as a great future 
asset to their respective sections, while clubs and other organiza- 
tions are surely no less interested. 

The Massachusetts State Forestry Association, which has a 
permanent paid secretary who gives his whole time to the work 
of the association, has found more real interest in forests and 
trees on the part of our people generally throughout the past 
year than has been shown heretofore. The membership alone, 
which is entirely voluntary, is indicative of the present interest, 
having increased from 1,800 to 3,200. The membership was 
only 800 three years ago. It is needless to point out that this 
association has been and is of valued assistance to the State 
Forester; in fact, it was this organization that labored so dili- 
gently for forestry in the decades before this office was created. 

The State Board of Agriculture, backed by its strong con- 
stituency of agricultural societies, which represent the rural 
industries of most of our stalwart farming sections, is also show- 
ing splendid interest in forestry. 

The Massachusetts State Grange, our own order of Patrons 
of Husbandry, which is recognized in every rural community 
in Massachusetts as life-giving and comprising a social center, 
has been of great help to this department as a medium for 
getting into personal touch with landowners interested in our 
work. It was the enthusiastic support of the State Grange, I 
am frank to say, that aided as much as any one factor in the 
enactment of our present and most efficient forest fire permit 
law. 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Federation of Woman's Clubs, it is needless to point out, 
has ever been in the front rank in promoting better forestry. 

So I might continue to elaborate upon the good will and 
assistance of organizations and associations which are aiding 
the State Forester in his work; but suffice it to say that we 
appreciate their co-operation and trust in its continuance. We 
feel sure of this continued co-operation, since our cause is so 
worthy and so dear to the hearts of all of us. 

Activities of the Department. 

The work that was so fully outlined in the introduction of 
last year's report I refrain from again reviewing here. While 
we thought our activities were many and effective at that time 
we are frank to confess that during the past twelve months the 
work has increased, both in new directions and in the enlarge- 
ment of old methods. The number of observation or look-out 
stations for forest fires was increased from 18 to 21, and the 
State Fire Warden's work strengthened in every way. The 
inspection of railroad locomotives has been conducted for the 
first time by our own men, which co-operation has resulted in 
far better service, in improved spark arresters and ash pans. 

The chestnut blight work was greatly augmented by our 
being able, through the continued co-operation with the United 
States Department of Agriculture, to secure the services of Mr. 
Roy G. Pierce, a graduate in forestry who had been in the 
employ of the Pennsylvania Chestnut Blight Commission until 
that work was discontinued. Mr. Pierce has entered heartily 
into the State Forester's plans, and it is believed that our activ- 
ities have been recognized in every section where the chestnut 
grows. A report on chestnut blight published elsewhere will 
be of interest. 

The activities in the moth work have been fully as encourag- 
ing as any phase of the State Forester's undertakings. Not- 
withstanding the fact that we are spending $115,000 less than 
we were two years ago, the work has gone on with equal 
efficiency. We have studied carefully the conditions of each 
city and town, and our efforts, due to more experience on the 
part of both State and local oflacials, have resulted in far greater 
efficiency and economy. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



The introduction of sylvicultural methods and better forestry 
practices has made the outlook in moth suppression more en- 
couraging than at any previous time. Step by step, each year 
seems to give us a new vantage point in the moth work, and 
while it is conceded by all experts that our problem is now one 
of suppression and not extermination, we in this State are pre- 
pared to handle the problem in the most rational and economic 
way. The moth work in our cities and towns is resolving itself 
down to a definite business undertaking in which each is lessen- 
ing its expenditures in proportion to the thoroughness with 
which the work is done each year. Towns and cities alive 
and active are beginning already to look with relatively little 
concern on the problem, especially throughout their residential 
sections. Woodlands are also being properly managed by this 
department as regards the gypsy and brown-tail moths, and 
with a greater degree of success than ever. 

During the stripping stage of the gypsy moth this year we 
notified all the division superintendents to list all forest prop- 
erties within their respective territories thus affected, and to 
report the names of the owners, the location of the tracts and 
the number of acres stripped. Upon receipt of these data a 
notice was sent each landow^ner in which the services of a 
trained forester were offered, at no expense, to meet the said 
owner and advise him, on the ground, as to the best methods 
of management to pursue. The only condition on the part of 
the owner was that he sign and return the request and plan to 
carry out the meeting. This work is the continuation of that 
alluded to under the heading, "Better Forestry the Solution of 
the Moth Problem," in last year's report. 

The scheme has worked out marvelously, and over 300 
requests have been received for examinations and advice, and 
they are still coming in. Mr. Paul Kneeland, who succeeded 
Mr. H. F. Gould, the latter resigning to go into private forestry 
work, has organized and carried out this work with the aid of 
Mr. Smith and certain of the division superintendents, until 
at the present time he has examined 10,000 acres. Already 
forestry operations have resulted in actually carrying out the 
work on 1,000 acres. At the present time, organized opera- 
tions in improvement cuttings are being practiced in 12 different 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



places. The results of this work, together with more detailed 
information as to cost, etc., will be given elsewhere in this 
report. 

The parasite work has already begun to show very good 
results, as must be evidenced by all casual observers. Partic- 
ularly is this true in the case of the imported calosoma beetle 
which, in both the adult or beetle and the larval stages, was 
extremely numerous this past year. In neglected woodlands, 
where the moths were bad, the writer is of the opinion that the 
calosoma destroyed at least one-tenth of the moths present. 
Other parasites are reported upon elsewhere by Dr. L. O. 
Howard, United States Entomologist, who has co-operated 
with us. 

Of the mechanical methods of suppression, spraying with 
arsenate of lead is still one of the great factors in our hands for 
ameliorating conditions. Several more towns have added high- 
power spraying machines during the year. 

Approximately 750 tons of arsenate of lead were used 
throughout the season. The Metropolitan Water and Sewerage 
Board purchased an auto truck sprayer the past season, which 
makes the third now in use. 

The plans for enlarging the output from our nurseries, 
through utilizing the labor of some of our State penal institu- 
tions, are very promising indeed. Three acres of transplant 
stock were set out on land turned over to the State Forester 
for this purpose on the land of the State Farm at Bridgewater 
this fall, and Captain Blackstone, the superintendent of the 
institution, has promised us enough more land to make 10 acres 
in all by next spring. 

The Foxborough State Hospital is also preparing a plot for 
a nursery on a very conspicuous site along the State high- 
way at Norfolk, and it is believed this institution, through its 
being able to co-operate in aiding the State in the work of 
reforestation, can render splendid service to the State. Dr. 
Xeff, the superintendent, and the board of trustees are all 
very enthusiastic over the undertaking. The State Forester's 
nursery at Amherst is as great a success as ever, and our total 
capacity is estimated at about 7,000,000 seedlings and trans- 
plants at the present time. We have donated several hundred 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 13 



thousand to various State institutions, as the nursery report 
will show. This is printed elsewhere in the report. 

The last General Court created, and Governor Foss ap- 
pointed, a commission on the taxation of waste and forest lands. 
This commission has been arduously at work holding hearings 
throughout the State and making a study of the subject during 
the summer and fall. These deliberations will be incorporated 
into a bill to be submitted to the incoming Legislature for its 
approval. I am sure we all will welcome a more wholesome 
and definitely regulated system of taxation, to encourage the 
practice of modern forestry in the State. 

Our present method of leaving slash after lumbering opera- 
tions continues to be one of our greatest menaces, and results 
in constant loss and damages to forest property owners. In 
talking with some of our best lumbermen it is generally agreed 
that if we were to require that the slash be disposed of, it 
w^ould do more for future forestry possibilities in the State than 
any other one thing. Our really great forest-fire losses are 
inevitably caused, not by the average fire that is found in the 
woods, but from the fact that these fires occasionally reach 
large bodies of slash where they get the momentum that be- 
comes uncontrollable. The time is bound to come when this 
slash menace must be regulated. Why not give it due con- 
sideration at the present time? 

It is believed that the time is ripe for the State to enlarge 
upon its forest policy to the extent of establishing State forests. 
The work under our reforestation act has been a pronounced 
success and very useful as a beginning, but we need a much 
more pretentious undertaking to do justice to the needs of the 
State. Massachusetts surely can afford as extensive a policy 
as many other States are practicing. With our present outlook 
in utiHzing the State institutions for growing our small trees 
cheaply, we could reforest and manage large tracts of present 
w^orthless or waste lands in a practical and economic way. I 
would respectfully urge the incoming Legislature to give this 
subject due consideration. 



14 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Organization. 

It has been my purpose to have the organization of the State 
Forester's department composed of loyal, wide awake, enthusi- 
astic, experienced men. 

A clear-cut organization, in which each official not only has 
a definite field of usefulness but is alert and full of enthusiastic 
interest, is absolutely necessary to success at our present stage 
of forestry development. We now have a corps of men famihar 
with tree and forest conditions throughout the State. The 
various divisions of the department are in charge of trained 
men; foresters for the most part, but a few so-called practical 
men, have been developed, there being no trained foresters of 
experience and efficiency available. The State policy is to 
utilize the whole organization in the bettering of our forestry 
conditions, and while each employee has his definite routine of 
duty to perform, he at the same time intuitively assists in the 
control of all forest depredations, such as fires, insects and 
diseases. While our men are not all experts in entomology or 
mycology, nevertheless they are familiar with the fundamentals 
in these sciences, and expert enough to observe new and extra- 
ordinary conditions. Where experts are needed they are dele- 
gated to direct the task, but they in turn utilize the State 
Forester's general organization as auxiliary in the work. 

The splendid organization of forest wardens and moth super- 
intendents, one in each town and city, forms an army of public- 
spirited men who become more efficient each year, and therefore 
of greater value to the community. There are 353 forest 
wardens, with over 1,000 deputies, and 282 moth superintend- 
ents throughout the State. 

There were a few changes in the staff of assistants the past 
year, as is inevitable each year. 

Mr. H. F. Gould, who had been an assistant for several years 
in forestry management, resigned to engage in forestry work as 
general manager of the Franklin Forestry Company. It was 
with reluctance that we parted with his services, as his work 
was certainly appreciated and of a high order. Mr. Gould had 
been placed in charge of the work of forestry management as 
applied to moth control, and he very kindly remained with, us 
several weeks after the term of his resignation, in order that 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



15 



his successor, Mr. Paul D. Kneeland, could get the work 
suflBciently in hand. This was highly appreciated by the State 
Forester. 

Mr. Paul D. Kneeland, who succeeded Mr. Gould, is a grad- 
uate of the Harvard Forestry School, and has had experience 
in the United States Forest Service in the west, and has been 
in the employ of Fisher, Bryant & Olmstead of Boston, fores- 
ters. 

Miss Charlotte Jacobs, who was the State Forester's only 
assistant and stenographer when he first came to his present 
position in the State, resigned last spring after seven years^ 
faithful service. 'Her regularity, thoroughness and enthusiastic 
interest in the w^ork of the department are missed. 

The office of inspector in the moth work has been discon- 
tinued, this going into effect on August 1 last. The office of 
local moth superintendent has so increased in efficiency that it 
was found unnecessary to incur this extra expense longer. 

The remainder of the organization remains practically intact, 
the work being shifted more or less to suit our greatest needs. 

The organization at present is as follows: — 



General Staff. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.S., 
H. O. Cook, M.F., . 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

George A. Smith, 
R. S. Langdell, 
Paul D. Kneeland, M.F., 
W. D. Clark, M.F., . 
Roy G. Pierce, M.F., 
Frank L. Haynes, B.F., 
John Murdoch, Jr., M.F., 
Charles O. Bailey, . 
Elizabeth Hubbard, 
Elizabeth T. Harraghy, 
JosEPHA L. Gallagher, 
Frank Garbarino, 



. Clerk. 

. Office boy. 



State Forester. 

Assistant Forester. 

State Fire Warden. * 

Asiistant, moth work. 

Assistant, reforestation. 

Assistant moth work. 

Assistant, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 
Assistant, chestnut blight work. 
Assistant, forestry management. 
Assistant, moth work. 
Secretary. 
Bookkeeper. 
Stenographer. 



Staff, 



Forest Fire Prevention. 
. State Forester, 
. State Fire Warden. 
. Assistant. 

Locomotive inspector. 
. District Forest Warden No. 1. 
. District Forest Warden No. 2. 
. District Forest W'arden No. 3. 
. District Forest W'arden No. 4. 



F. W. Rane, 
Maxwell C. Hutchins, 



Miner E. Fenn, 
James E. Moloy, 
Oscar L. Noyes, 
J. J. Shepherd, . 
John P. Crowe, 



Albert R. Ordway, 



16 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Observers and Observation Stations. 



District 1: — 
Wm. Brat, 
M. L. Carpenter, 
Henry Fay, 
J. Frank Hammond, . 
Elliot C. Harrington, 
Caplis McCormick, . 

District 2: — 
Calvin Benson, 
Frank L. Buckingham, 
Walter L. Eames, 
S. Matthews, 
Gushing O. Thomas, , 



District 3: — 
A. M. Bennett, 
W. J. Halloran, 
F. H. Lombard, . 
James Maley, . 
Harold McKinstry, 
George W. Sherman, 



District 4-' — 
Claude E. G. Cain, . 
James S. Rose, , 
Geo. C. Miller, 
Nelson C. Woodward, 



Bald Pate Hill, Georgetown. 
Moose Hill, Sharon. 
Hart Hill, Wakefield. 
Robbins Hill, Chelmsford. 
Blue Hill, MiltoD. 
Morse Hill, Essex. 



Shoot Fljang Hill, Barnstable. 

Reservoir Hill, Plymouth. 

Richmond Hill, Dighton. 

Middleborough. 

Bonney Hill, North Hanson. 



Lincoln Mountain, Pelham. 
Fay Mountain, Westborough. 
Grace Mountain, Warwick. 
Wachusett Mountain, Princeton. 
Little Muggett Hill, Charlton. 
Steerage Pt.ock Mountain, Brimfield. 



Tower Mountain, Savoy. 
Becket Mountain, Becket. 
Mount Tom, Easthampton. 
Massaemet Mountain, Shelburne. 



Staff, Moth Work. 

F. W. Rane, . . . State Forester. 

Georse a. Smith, . . Assistant. 
Paul D. Kneeland, Assistant, forestry moth work. 
John Murdoch, Jr., Assistant, forestry moth work. 
Francis V. Learoyd, in charge of supply store. 
Frederick P. Halpin and Claude E. Towle, Mechanics. 
John F. Lanergan, Assistant at supply store. 
John W. En-wright, District 1, 299 Fellsway, Medford. 
Saul Phillips, District 2, Box 266, Beverly. 
John J. Fitzgerald, District 3, 50 Howard Street, Haverhill, 
William A. Hatch, District 4, Lakeside Ave., Marlborough. 
Harry B. Ramsey, District 5, 27 Duxbury Road, Worcester. 
Clarence W. Parkhurst, District 6, Box 472, Medfield. 
Walter F. Holmes, District 7, 181 Allen Street, E. Braintree. 
John A. Farley, District 8, Pb-mouth, R. F. D. 



L. O. Howard, Ph.D. 



Theobald Smith. Ph.B., M.D 



Roland Thaxter. Ph.D 



W. M. Wheeler, Ph.D., 



Co-operative Scientific Staff. 

. Chief, Bureau of Entomologj', L'nited States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C, parasites and predaceous insects. 
Professor of Comparative Pathology, Harvard 

University, diseases of insects. 
Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 
University, fungous diseases affecting in- 
sects. 

Professor of Entomology, Harvard University, 
experimental entomologist. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



17 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by towns and cities.] 



Telephoxe 
Number. 


! 

Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


57-W, Rockland, . 


Arthur B. Reed, 


Abington, . 


C. F. Shaw, . 


8 


10-4, . 


W. H. Kingsley, 


Acton, . 


J. O'Neil, . 


5 


2003-M, 


Henry F. Taber, 


Acushnet, . 


A. P. R. Gilmore, 


9 


2-0, Kippers, 


John Clancy, . 


Adams, 


John Clancy, 


6 


3165-11, 


E. M. Hitchcock, . 


Agawam, 






151-32, Great Har- 
rington . 
274-M, 


J. H. Wilcox, State Line, 
James E. Feltham, . 


Alford, 
Amesbury, . 


_ 

A. L. Stover, 


3 


174-Y, 


A. F. Bardwell, 


Amherst, 


W. H. Smith, 


6 ' 


212, . 


John H. Baker, 


Andover, 


J. H. Playdon, . 


4 


35 or 206, . 


Walter H. Pierce, . 


Arlington, . 


W. H. Bradley, . 


1 


2-12, . 


J. T. Withington, . 


Ashburnham, 


Chas. H. Pratt, . 


5 


8014, . 


Wm. S. Green, 


Ashby, 


Fred C. Allen, . 


5 


4-12, . 


Chas. A. Hall, 


Ashfield, 






479-W, 


Horace H. Piper, 


Ashland, 


M. Geoghan, 


7 


48-J or 72-4, 


Frank P. Hall, 


Athol, 


W. S. Penniman, . 


6 


34-4, . 


Hiram R. Packard, 


Attleborough, . 


W. E. S. Smith, . 


7 


5-17, . 


J. F. Searle, . 


Auburn, 


J. F. Searle, . 


6 


3259-M, 


J. W. McCarty, 


Avon, . 


W. W. Beals, 


8 


96-4 or 47-4, 


Chas. E. Perrin, 


Ayer, . 


D. C. Smith, 


5 


144-2, . 


Henry C. Bacon, Hyannis, 


Barnstable, 


H. C. Bodfish, . 


9 


83-4, . 


A. E. Traver, . 


Barre, . 


G. R. Simonds, . 


6 


11-4, . 


P. B. McCormick, . 


Becket, 






No telephone. 


Chas. E. WilUams, . 


Bedford, 


W. A. Cutler, 


1 


10, . . . 


Jas. A. Peeso, . 


Belchertown, 


E. C. Howard, 


6 


8157-22, Milford, 


L. Francis Thayer, . 


Bellingham, 


H. A. Whitney, . 


7 


409-W, 


John F. Leonard, 


Belmont, 


C. H. Houlahan, . 


1 


1367-M, 
14-6, . 


G. H. Babbitt, Taunton, 

R. F. D. 
Walter Cole, . 


Berkley, 
Berlin, 


J. M. Alexander, , 
E. C. Ross, . 


5 


2-13, . 


Edson W. Hale, 


Bemardston, 


Edwin B. Hale, . 


6 


319-2, . 


Robert H. Grant, . 


Beverly, 


J. B. Brown, 


2 

1 


22-2, . 


E. N. Bartlett, 


Billerica, 


W. H. O'Brien, . 


4 


875-L-l, Woon- 

socket. 
12-2, . 


Thomas Reilly, 
I. E. Whitney, 


Blackstone, 
Blandford, . 


A. J. Gibbons, 


6 


9-14, . 


E. Eliot Hurlbut, . 


Bolton, 


C. E. Mace, 


5 






Boston, 


D. H. Sullivan, . 


1 


No telephone, . 


Emory A. Ellis, Bourne- 
dale. 
H. J. Livermore, 


Bourne, 
Boxborough, 


Edward D. Nick- 
erson, 
ICE. Sherry, 


9 



IS THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens axd Local Moth Superixtexdexts — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


IjOcal Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div 
No. 


42-21, George- 
town. 
4-4, 


Harry L. Cole, George- 
town, r. F. D. 
John X. Flagg, 


Boxford, 
1 Boylston, 


C. Perley, 
R. B. Smith, 


3 
6 


Xo telephone. 
No telephone, 


Jas. M. Cutting, South 

Braintree. 
T. B. Tubman, 


Braintree, . 
Brewster, 


Clarence R. Bes- 
tick. 

Russell D. Eaton, 


8 
9 


8-6, .. . 


Edwin S. Rhoades, . 


Bridgewater, 


A. W. MacFarland, 


8 


14-3, 


Geo. t,. Hitchcock, . 


Brimfield, 


(j. K. Hitchcock, . 


6 


1U41 or J'JJU, 


Harry L. Marston, . 


Brockton, 


E. P. Neafsey, 


8 


101-13, 


JiilDert Jj. Uemis, 


jsrooKiieia., 


J. H. Conant, 


6 


376, 


Geo. H. Johnson, . 


Brookline, . 


Ernest B. Dane, . 


1 


Lampson & Good- 

now Mfg. Co. 
2-2, 


Wm. Bauer, bhelburne 

Falls. 
W. W. Skelton, 


Buckland, . 
Burlington, 


TXT ITT Ol 1 i 

W. W. bkelton. 


^ 


51-4, 


Robert C. Hughes, . 


Canton, 


A. Hemenway, 


8 






Cambridge, 


J. F. Donnelly, . 


1 


7G-5, Concord, 


(jeo. Cj. WuKins, 


Carlisle, 


G. G. W'ilkins, 


1 


10-2, 


Herbert r . Atwood, 


Carver, . 


H. F. Atwood, 


9 


10, 


Edwin C. Vincent, . 


Charlemont , 






32-22, . 


Chas. S. McKinstry, 


Charlton, . 


J. D. Fellows, 


6 


28-3, 

loy/-4, JLX)^ell, 


Geo. W. Ryder, West 

Chatham. 
Arnold U. r^ernam, . 


Chatham, . 
Chelmsford, 


Meroyn R. Martin, 
M. A. Bean, . 


9 
4 






Chelsea, 


J. A. O'Brien, 


1 


167-3, . 


Chas. D. Cummings, 


Cheshire, 






33-2, 
8004, 


Myron E. Turner, . 
Chas. A. Bisbee, Bisbees, 


Chester, 
unesterfiela, 






149-11 or 149-W, . 


John E. Pomphret, . 


Chicopee, . 


Z. Pilland, . 


6 


Xo telephone. 


Ernest C. May hew, 


Chihnark, . 


A. S. Tilton, 


9 


No telephone, 
551-M, 


Danforth Blanchard, 
Xorth Adams, R. F. D. 
Patrick H. Kelley, 


Clarksburg, 
Clinton, 


Geo. Tisdale, 
John B. Connery, 


6 
5 


177-3 or 260, 


Wm. J. Brennock, . 


Cohasset, 


Wm. H. McArthur, 


8 


13-12, . 
75-3, 


J. D. Gilchrest, Griswold- 
ville. 

Frank W. Holden, . 


Colrain, 
Concord, 


H. P. Richardson, 


5 


5-3, .. . 


Edgar Jones, . 


Conway, 






8001, 


Thos. A. Gabb, 


Cummingrton, 






57-11. . 


S. L. Caesar, . 


Dalton, 






No telephone, 
295-W, 


Thos. L. Thayer, Xorth 

Dana. 
Michael H. Barry, . 


Dana, . 
Danyers, 


T. L. Thayer, 
T. E. Tinsley, 


6 
2 


14-3, Westport, . 
35-R, . 


Ezekiel W. Reed, North 

Dartmouth. 
H. J. Harrigan, 


Dartmouth, 
Dedham, 


E. M. Munson, 
J. T. Kennedy, . 


9 
7 


273-14, Greenfield, 


Wm. L. Harris, 


Deerfield, . 

1 


_ 

! 





1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephoxe 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


No telephone, 


Alpheus P. Baker, . 


Dennis, 


H. H. Sears, 


9 


29-3, . 


Ralph Earle, 


Dighton, 


D. F. Lane, 


7 


11-4, . 


Wm. L. Church, 


Douglas, 


F. J. Libby, . 


6 


373-3, . 


John Breagy, . 


Dover, . 


H. L. MacKenzie, 


7 


3353-2, 


Frank H. Gunther, 


Dracut, 


T. F. Carrick, 


4 


152-2, Webster, . 

5-11, Tyngsbor- 
ough. 


F. A. Putnam, 
Archie W. Swallow, 
Eden W. Soule, 


Dudley, 
Dunstable, . 
Duxbury, 


Frank W. Bate- 
W. H. 'Savill, 
H. A. Fish. . 


6 
4 
9 


146-5, . 

8-5, .. . 


Richard H. Copeland, 

J30X 110, XLilulvVOOQ. 

Asher Markham, 


E. Bridgewater, . 
E. Longmeadow, 


Frank H. Taylor, 


8 


24-3, . 


Adin L. Gill, . 


Eastham, 


N. P. Clark, 


9 


2-11, . 


J. M. Dineen, 


Easthampton, . 






76, . . . 

241-2, . 


Frederick Hanlon, North 

Easton. 
Manuel S. Roberts, 


Easton, 
Edgartown, 


R. W. Melendy, . 
John P. Fuller, . 


7 
9 


165-25, 
2-11, . 


Frank W. Bradford, Great 

Barrington. 
Herbert A. Coolbeth, 


Egremont, . 
Enfield, 


- 

C. H. Morse, 


- 
6 


No telephone, 
23-5, . 


Chas. H. Holmes, Far- 
ley. 

Otis 0. Story, . 


Erving, 
Essex, . 


Chas. H. Holmes, 
0. 0. Story, . 


6 
2 


- 




Everett, 


J. Davidson, 


1 


675-R or 675-W, 


Wm. P. Shaw, . 


Fairhaven, . 


G. W. King, . 


9 


822-W, 


Wm. Stevenson, 


Fall River, . 


Wm. Stevenson, . 


9 


136-2, . 
745 or 148-J, 


H. H. Lawrence, Tea- 
ticket. 
W. W. Colton, . 


Falmouth, . 
Fitchburg, . 


W. B. Bosworth, . 
W. W. Colton, 


9 
5 


Hoosac Tunnel 

p&y station. 
15-5 or 76-3, 


H. B. Brown, Drury, 
Ernest A. White, 


Florida, 
Fozborough, 


F. S. Richardson, 


7 


352-4 South Fram- 
66-12, . 


B. P. Winch, . 


Framingham, 


N. I. Bowditch, . 


7 


Edward S. Cook, . 


Franklin, . 


J. W. Stobbart, . 


7 


3-12, . 
191-M, 


Andrew Hathaway, As- 
Geo. S. Hodgman, . 


Freetown, . 
Gardner, 


G. M. Nichols, 
T. W. Danforth, . 


9 
6 


31-4, . 


Leander B. Smalley, Me- 

nemsha. 
Clinton J. Eaton, 


Gay Head, . 
Greorgetown, 


J. W. Belain, 
C. J. Eaton, . 


9 
3 


4-15, Bernardston, 
547-5, . 


Lewis C. Munn, Turners 
Sydney F. Haskell, 


Gill, . 
Gloucester, 


A. Tuttle, . 
H. J. Worth, 


6 
2 


18-4, 

No telephone, 


John S. Mollison, Wil- 
liamsburg. 
Rodney E. Bennett, 


Goshen, 
Gosnold, 






8000, . 


Sumner F. Leonard, 


Grafton, 


C. K. Despeau, . 


6 


55^, . 


C. N. Rust, . 


Granby, 


Chas. N. Rust, . 


6 


4-12. . . . 


Harry A. Root, 


Granville, . 







20 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local IMoth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


1 

Forest Warden. 

1 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


5-W, . 


Daniel W. Flynn, . 


Gt. Barrington, 


T. J. Kearin, 


6 


439-J, . . . 


J. W. Bragg, . 


Greenfield, . 


J. W. Bragg, . 


6 


33-24 Enfield. . 
- 


Wm. H. Walker, Green- 
wich Village. 
Chas. M. Raddin, . 


Greenwich, . 
Groton, 


E. A. Sawtelle, . 
J. F. Bateman, 


6 
4 


2939-X, 


Sidney E. Johnson, 


Groveland, . 


R. B. Larive, 


3 


651-33, 


Edward P. West, . 


Hadley, 


Edw. P. West, 


6 


5-21, . 


Albion D. Estes, 


Halifax, 


F. D. Lyons, 


9 


128-2, . 

~ ~ 


Fred Berry, Essex, R. 

F. D. 
Edward P. Lyons, . 


Hamilton, . 
Hampden, . 


E, G. Brewer, 
~ ~ 


2 
- 


17-F-2, 


Chas. F. Tucker, . 


Hancock, . 






8175-12, 

8012-6 Bryant- 
ville. 


Chas. E. Damon, North 

Hanover. 
Albert L. Dame, South 

Hanson. 
Henry J. Breen, 


Hanover, 
Hanson, 
Hardwick, . 


L. Russell, . 

A. L. Dame, 

P. J. Humphrey, . 


8 
9 
6 


46-3, . 


Benj. J. Priest, 


Harvard, 


G. C. Maynard, . 


5 


Central, 


John Condon, . 


Harwich, 


Arthur F. Gaboon, 


9 


6-3, .. . 
4-2 or 4-1, . 


John M. Strong, West 

Hatfield. 
John B. Gordon, 


Hatfield, 
Haverhill, . 


Seth W. Kingsley, 
M. J. Fitzgerald, . 


6 
4 


12-13, . 
5-18, . 


Melvin H. White, Charle- 

mont. 
S. G. Benson, . 


Hawley, 
Heath, 






21305, 


Geo. Gushing, . 
Louis B. Brague, 


Hingham, . 
Hinsdale, . 


T. L. Murphy, 
- 


8 
~ 


No telephone, 


Walter E. Hooker, . 


Holbrook, . 


F. T. White, 


8 


42-4, . 
5-21, . 
1-2, . 


Winfred H. Stearns, Jef- 
ferson. 

Oliver L. Howlett, South- 
bridge, R. F. D. 
W. A. Collins, . 


Holden, 
Holland, 
Holliston, . 


W. H. Stearns, 
A. F. Blodgett, . 
Herbert E. Jones, 


6 
6 
7 


2295-W, 


C. J. Healey, . 


Holyoke, 






283-12, 


Walter F. Durgin, . 


Hopedale, . 


W. F. Durgin, 


6 


Central, 


R. I. Frail, 


Hopkinton, 


W. A. MacMillan, . 


6 


6-13, . 


E. A. Young, . 


Hubbardston, . 


E. A. Young, 


6 


207-M, 


Wm. L. Wolcott, 


Hudson, 


F. P. Hosmer, 


5 


248-W, 

: ; 


Smith F. Sturges, Aller- 

ton. 
John J. Kirby, 


Hull, . 
Huntington, 


J. Knowles, . 


8 




Pindar F. Bussell, . 


Ipswich, 


J. A. Morey, 


3 




Arthur B. Holmes, . 


Kingston, . 


R. F. Randall, . 


9 


261-2, . 


Nathan F. Washburn, 


Lakeville, . 


N. F. Washburn, . 


9 


218-J, . 


Arthur W. Blood, . 


Lancaster, . 


L. R. Griswold, 


5 


717-5, Pittsfield, . 


King D. Keeler, 


Lanesborough, . 






362, . 


Dennis E. Carey, 


Lawrence, . 


I. B. Kelly, . 


4 



19U.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 21 

List of Forest Wardens axd Loc.vl Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephoxe 

NCitBEB. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


66-3, . 


Jas. W. Bossidy. 


Lee, . . . 


- 


- 




B. H. Fogwell, 


Leicester, 


J. H. Woodhead. . 


6 


135. .. . 


0. R. Hutchinson. 


Lenox, . 


T. Francis Mac key. 


6 


546 (H- 23, . 


Fred A. Russell, . 


Leominster, 


D. E. Bassett, 


5 


&-44, Coolesrvillc, 
468. . 


0. C. Marvel. North Ler- 

erett. 
Aior P. Howe. 


LeTerett, 
Lexin^on, . 


H. W. Field, 
A. P. Howe, . 


6 
1 




Jacob Sauter. . 


Leyden, 


Wm. A. CampbeU, 


6 




J. J. Kelliher. 


Lincoln, 


J. J. Kelliher, 


5 


17-4. . .'- . 


A. E. Hopkins. 


Littleton, . 


A. E. Hopkins, 


5 


1233-2. 


0. C. Pomeroy, 


Lon^eadow, 






::'i-i2. 


E. F. Saunders, 


LoweU, 


J. H. Gordon, 


4 


17-13, . 


Edward E. Chapman, 


Ludlow, 


- 


- 




Jas. S. Gilchrest. . 


Lunenburg, 


James S. Gilchrest, 


5 


.174, . 


Herbert C. Baj-rd. . 


Lynn, . 


G. H. McPhetres, . 


2 


.-3. Lynnfield 
Center. 


Thos. E. Cox, Wakefield. 

R. F. D. 
R. W. Noyes. . 


Lynnfield, . 
Maiden, 


L. H. Twi38. 
W. B. Gould, 


1 

1 


319-W, 


Peter A. Sheahan. . 


Manchester, 


R. I. Crocker, 


2 


1-3 or 1-2, . 


Herbert E. King. . 


Mansfield, . 


Marvin J. Hills, . 


7 




Wm. H. Stevens, 


BCarblehead, 


W. H. Stevens. 


2 


117-2. . 


Geo. B. Nye, . 


Marion, 


J. AUenack. 


9 


416 or 151-M. 


E. C. Minehan. 


Marlborough, 


M. E. Lyons, 


5 


- -3, 


Wm. G. Ford, . 


Marshfield. . 


P. R. Livermore, . 


9 


ld-11. Cotuit, 


Joe. A. Peters. . 


Mashpee, 


W. F. Hammond, . 


9 


5-2-4. . 


Chas. W. Ellis. 


Mattapoisett, 


Thos. C. Tinkham, 


9 


13S-3, . 


Geo. H. Gutteridee. 


Maynard, . 


A. Coughlin, 


5 


106-4. . 


Waldo E. Kingsbury. 


Medfield, . 


G. L. L. Allen, . 


7 


53 or 138, . 


Chas. E. Bacon. 


Medford, 


W. J. Gannon, 


^ 


No telephone, 


A. Le Barron Treen. West 
Med way. 


Medway, . 

Melrose, 


F. Hager, 

J. J. McCullough, 


7 
1 


i5e-6. . 


Frank M. Aldrich. . 


Mendon, 


F. M. Aldrich, . 


6 


:i-3. . 


Edgar P. Sargent. . 


Merrimac, . 


C. R. Ford, 


3 


229. .. . 


Herbert Nichols. 


Methuen, 


A. H. Wagland, . 


4 


36 or 5. 


Chester E. Weston. . 


Middleborough, 


A. D. Nelson, 


9 


s>:t3-2, 

No telephone. 


Thos. H. Reming, Ban- 
croft. 

Oscar H. Sheldon. . 


Middlefield, 

Middleton, . 


B. T. McGlauflin, 


3 


55-3. . 


Elbert M. Crockett, 


Milford, 


P. F. Fitigerald, . 


6 




Harry L. Snellrng^ . 


MiUbtiry, . 


E. F. Roach, 


6 


5-2. .. . 


Chas. LaCroix. 


Millis, . 


E. W. Stafford, 





22 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 



Forest Warden. 



Town or City. 



Local Moth 
Superintendent. 



322, . 

No telephone, 

12-22, . 

278-15, Greenfield, 

164-4, . 

3-24, Russell, 

17-21 Copoke, 
N. Y. 



31 or 244-2, , 
195-1, . 
No telephone, 
2280 or 353, . 
6-4, 

13- 6, Sheffield, . 

Pay Station, 

173-5, Newbury- 

port. 
380, . 

30, N. S. 

41-5, . 

205-W or 265 

821-W, 

17-2, 

26-14, 

33-3, 

165, 

14- 5, 
71-5, 
2-3, 
29-11, 
11-4, 
55-4, 
119-4, 
17-5, 
67-13, 



Nathaniel T. Kidder 
S. R. Tower, . 
O. E. Bradway, 
Fred T. Lyman, 
D. C. Tryon, . 
Andrew J. Hall, 
G. W. Patterson, 



Richard A. Brooks, 
Bernard E. Darling, 
Howard H. Upham, 
Chas. S. Baker, 
Edward F. Dahill, . 
Frank A. Morse, 

E. M. Stanton, Mill River, 
Rawson King, . 

Wm. P. Bailey, 

Chas. P. Kelley, 

W. B. Randlett, Newton 

Center. 
Jas. T. Buckley, 

H. J. Montgomery, . 

Geo. A. Rea, . 

Chas. F. Gehrung, . 

Geo. O. Rollins, 

Henry Upton, . 

F. E. Chase, . 

T. p. Haskell, . 

W. E. Biirnap, Whitins- 

ville. 
Fred W. Doane, 

Geo. H. Storer, 

John Whalen, . 

Frank W. Talbot, . 

Frank W. Chase, 

Chas. H. Trowbridge, 

Frank M. Jennison, 

James Boland, 

Durand A. Witter, . 

Clin D. Vickers, 



Milton, 
Monroe, 
Monson, 
Montague, 
Monterey, 
Montgomery, 
Mt. Washington, 
Nahant, 
Nantucket, . 
Natick, 
Needham, . 
New Ashford, 
New Bedford, 
New Eraintree, 
N. Marlborough 
New Salem, 
Newbury, . 
Newburyport, 
Newton, 
Norfolk, 
North Adams, 
North Andover, 
N. Attleborough 
N. Brookfield, . 
North Reading, 
Northampton, . 
Northborough, . 
Northbridge, 
Northfield, 
Norton, 
Nor well, 
Norwood, 
Oak BluSs, 
Oakham, 
Orange, 
Orleans, 
Otis, 
Oxford, 



N. T. Kidder, 

Robert S. Fay, 
Dennis F. Shea, 



T. Roland, . 
C. C. Macy, . 
H. S. Hunnewell, 
E. E. Riley, . 

C. F. Lawton, 

E. L. Havens, 

R. King, 
Percy Oliver, 
C. P. Kelly, . 
C. I. Buckman, 
James T. Buckley, 
Franklin B. Locke, 
Fred W. Phelan 

F. P. Toner, 
S. D. Colburn, 

G. E. Eaton, 
Christopher Clarke, 
T. P. Haskell, 

A. F. Whitin, 

F. W. Doane, 

G. H. Storer, 
J. H. Sparrell, 
Ebin F. Gray, 
P. P. Hurley, 

C. H. Trowbridge 
F. M. Jennison, 
A. Smith, 

C. G. Lamed, 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 23 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 

i^UMBER. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 

IN O. 


53-12 or 53-3, 


James Summers, 


Palmer, 


C. H. Keith, 


6 




Fred L. Durgin, 


Paxton, 


F. L. Durgin, 


6 


18-3, . 


M. V. McCarthy, . 


Peabody, 


J. F. Callahan, . 


1 


242-4, . 


Myron N. Allen, 


Pelham, 






7-23, Bryantville, 


Jos. J. Shepherd, 


Pembroke, . 


J. J. MacFarlan. . 


9 


54-3 or 12-5, 


Geo. G. Tarbell, East Pep- 

perell. 
Walter H. Pike, 


Pepperell, . 
Peru, . 


J. Tune, 


4 


13-2, . 


Geo. P. Marsh, 


Petersham, 


David Broderick, 


6 


176-6, Athol, 
149 or 964, . 


Wm. Cowlbeck, Athol, R. 

F. D. 
Wm. C. Shepard, . 


Phillipston, 
Pittsfield, . 


W. H. Cowlbeck, . 
- 


6 
- 


33-22, . 


Albert F. Dyer, 


Plainfield, . 






283-J, North At- 

tleborough. 
88-W or 197-W, . 


R. p. Rhodes, . 
Herbert Morissey, . 


Piainville, . 
Plymouth, . 


Ralph Snell, 

A. A. Raymond, . 


7 
9 


11-14, . 


Thos. W. Blanchard, 


Plympton, . 


D. Bricknell, 


9 


19-4, Highland, . 
13-4, . 


A. W. Doubleday, Green- 
wich Village. 
Fred W. Bryant, 


Prescott, 
Princeton, . 


C. M. Pierce, 
F. A. Skinner, 


6 
6 


17, Special, . 


Albert W. Fuller, . 


Provincetown, . 


J. M. Burch, 


9 


601 or 1, 


A. L. Litchfield, 


Quincy, 


A. J. Stewart, 


8 


35-4, Randolph, . 


R. F. Forrest, . 


Randolph, 


Chas. Cole, . 


8 


1284-R, 


John V. Festing, 


Baynham, . 


G. M. Leach, 


7 


518-W, 


H. E. Mclntire. 


Reading, 


H. M. Donegan, . 


1 


11-12, . 

_ _ 


Benj. F. Monroe, Attle- 
borough, R. F. D. 


Rehoboth, . 
Revere, 


S. W. Robinson, . 
G. P. Babson, 


7 
1 


8-2, . 


T. B. Salmon, . 


Richmond, . 


_ 


_ 


No telephone, 
65-4, . 


Daniel E. Hartley, Mat- 

tapoisett, R. F. D. 
John H. Burke, 


Rochester, . 
Rockland, . 


Edw. F. Handy, . 
F. H. Shaw. . 


9 
8 


27-3, . 


A. J. McFarland, 


Rockport, . 


F. A. Babcock, . 


2 


21-6, Charlemont, 


Merritt A. Peck, Zoar, 


Rowe, 


_ 


_ 


3-15, . 


Daniel O'Brien, 


Rowley, 


L. R. Bishop, 


3 


279-2. Athol. 


L. G. Forbes, . 
S. S. Shurtleff, 


Royalston, . 
Russell, 


A. H. Brown, 


6 


13-3, . 


Henry Converse, 


Rutland, 


H. E. Wheeler, 


6 


- 


- 


Salem, . 


Warren P. Hale, . 


2 




Chas. I. Dow, . 


Salisbury, . 


H. C. Rich, 


3 


202-14, Winsted, 

Conn. 
52-14, Sagamore, . 


Lyman H. Clark, New 

Boston. 
John F. Carlton, 


Sandisfield, 
Sandwich, . 


B. F. Dennison, . 


9 


115, 


Chas. L. Davis, 


Saugus, 


T. E. Berrett, 


1 


3-3, . 


Herbert H. Fitzroy, 


Savoy, . 







24 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan, 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con, 



Telephone 
Number. 




Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


9S-2, . 


Henry T. Cole, 


Scituate, 


P. S. Brown, 


8 


399-L-5, Paw- 
tucket. 
121-2, . 


John L. Baker, Attlebor- 

ough, R. F. D. 
A. Alden Carpenter, 


Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


C. W. Thompson, . 
J. J. Geissler, 


7 
7 


24-2 


Arthur H. Tuttle, . 


Sheffield, 






130-2, . 
11-4, Natick, 


Chas. S. Dole, Shelburne 

Falls. 
Milo F. Campbell, . 


Shelburne, . 
Sherbom, 


J. P. Dowse, 


7 


16-21, . 


A. A. Adams, . 


Shirley, 


A. A. Adams, 


5 


48-3, . 


Edward A. Logan, . 


Shrewsbury, 


C. R. Webb, 


6 


2-21, . 


FredAldrich, . 


Shutesbury, 


E. Colfax Johnson, 


6 




Wm. F. Griffiths, Swan- 
sea, R. F. D. 


Somerset, 
SomerYille, . 


C. Riley, 

A. B. Pritchard, . 


7 
1 


471-W, Holyoke, . 
153-2, . 


Louis H. Lamb, South 

Hadley FaUs. 
Dana Howland, 


South Hadley, . 
Southampton, . 


Wm. McLeod, 
C. S. Olds, . 


6 
6 


13, Marlborough, 


Harry Burnett, 


Southborough, . 


H. Burnett, 


6 


11, . . . 


Aimee Langevin, 


Southbridge, 


A. Lange^'in, 


6 


8-2, 


Benj. M. Hastings, . 


Southwick, 






77-4, . 


A. F. Howlett, 


Spencer, 


G. Ramer, 


6 


20, Indian Or-i 

chard. 
5-12, . 


T. J. Clifford, Indian 

Orchard. 
Joel T. Wilder, 


Springfield, 
Sterling, 


W. F. Gale, . 
J. H. Kilburn, 


6 
5 


Post Office, . 


Geo. Schneyer, Glendale, 


Stockbridge, 


Brown Caldwell, . 


6 


207-11 or 127-M, . 


Louis F. Bruce, 


Stoneham, . 


G. M. Jefts, 


1 


121-3 or 8120, 


James Curley, . 


Stoughton, 


W. P. Kennedy, . 


8 


134-J, Hudson, , 
6-21, . 


W. H. Parker, Gleason- 
dale. 

Chas. M. Clark, Fiskdale, 


Stow, . 
Stxirbridge, . 


G. A. Patterson, . 
C. M. Clark, 


5 
6 


5-5, 

46, . . . 


S. W. Hall, South Sud- 
bury. 
A. C. Warner, . 


Sudbury, 
Sunderland, 


W. E. Baldwin, 
Richard Graves, . 


5 
6 


49-16, Millbury, . 
3S06or82, . 


R. H. Richardson, . 
Geo. P. Cahoon, 


Sutton, 
Swampscott, 


Ransom H. Rich- 
ardson. 
E. P. Mudge, 


6 
2 


468-W, 


Thos. L. Mason, 


Swansea, 


A. E. Arnold, 


7 


320 or 1-3, . 


Fred A. Leonard, 


Taunton, 


L. W. Hodgkins, . 


7 


23-3, . 
12-2, . 


A. R. Paine, Baldwins- 

ville. 
Harris M. Briggs, 


Templeton, 
Tewksbury, 


J. B. Wheeler, 
H. M. Briggs, 


6 
4 


161-4 or 102-3, . 
No telephone, 


Elmer C. Chadwick, Vine- 
yard Haven. 
Clayton H. Deming, 


Tisbury, 
Tolland, 


H. W. McLellan, . 


9 


Central, 


Chas. W. Floyd, 


Topsfield, . 


C. W. Floyd, 


3 


11-2 or 37-2, 


F, J. Piper, 


i Townsend, . 


G. E. King, . 


4 




Walter F. Rich, 


t Truro, . 


J. H. Atwood, 


9 


1, . . . 


Otis L. Wright, 


Tyngsborough, . 


C. J. Allgrove, 


4 





1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 25 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone I 
Number. j 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 1 


Local Moth j 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


1-2, Lee, 


H. E. Moore, . 


Tsrringham, 


_ _ 


_ 


7-2, 


E. M. Baker, Upton Cen- 
ter. 

Lewis F. Rawson, . 


Upton, 


G. H. Evans, 


6 


51-5, . 


Uxbridge, . 


WiUard Holbrook, ' 


6 


455-M or 58, 


Wm. E. Cade, . 


Wakefield, . 


W. W. Whittredge, 


1 


No telephone. 


Warren W. Eager, . . . 


Wales, . . . 1 


M. C. Royce, 


6 


43-11, . 


J. J. Hennessy, . . ' 


Walpole, 


P. R. Allen, . 


7 


6, . . . 


Geo. L. Johnson, 


Waltham, . 


W. M. Ryan, 


1 


5-13, . 


Louis A. Charbonneau, . 


Ware, . 


F. Zeissig, 


6 


45- 23, . 

46- 6, . 
73-3, Orange, 


Delbert C. Keyes, South 

Wareham. 
Jos. D. Vigneaux, West 

Warren. 
Chas. A. Williams, . 


Wareham, . 

Warren, 

Warwick, 


J. J. Walsh, . 
A. A. Warriner, 
Chas. E. Stone, . 


9 
6 
6 


12-4, . 


Lester Heath, . 


Washington, 






116, Newton 
North. ■ 


John C. Ford, . 
William Stearns, 


Watertown, 
Wayland, . 


J. C. Ford, . 
D. J. Graham, 


1 

5 


113-4, . 


Timothy Toome^', . 


Webster, 


C. Klebart, . 


6 


172-W, 

_ _ 


Wm. W. Diehl, Wellesley 

Hills. 
John Holbrook, 


Wellesley, . 
Wellfleet, 


F. M. Abbott, 
E. S. Jacobs, 


7 

9 


74-41, Orange, 
74-2, . 


Harry J. McCoy, Wendell 

Depot. 
Jacob D. Barnes, 


Wendell, 
Wenham, 


G. E. Mills, . 
J. D. Barnes, 


2 


3-21, . 


Fred E. Clark, 


West Boylston, . 


C. H. Baldwin, . 


6 


768, Brockton, 


W. P. Laughton, 


W. Bridgewater, 


0. Belmore, . 


8 


37-13, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


W. Brookfield, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


6 


5-6, . 


Louis H. Flook, 


W. Newbury, 


Frank D. Bailey, . 


3 


2067-1, 


Dana S. Moore, 
Geo. B. Latour, 


W. Springfield, . 
W. Stockbridge, . 


Geo. W. Hayden, . 


6 


203-23, 


Wm. J. Rotch, 


West Tisbury, 


H. W. Athearn, . 


9 


75-3, . 


Thos. H. Treadway, 


Westborough, . 


Geo. Hayden, 


6 


111-Y, 


T. H. Mahoney, 


Westfield, . 


- - 


_ 


_ 


Harry L. Nesmith, 


Westford, . 


1 H. L. Nesmith, . 


4 


148-14, 
29-4, . 


C. A. Bartlett, Northamp- 
ton, Stage. 
W. H. Water house, . 


Westhampton, . 
; Westminster, 


! _ _ 

G. A. Sargent, 


_ 
6 


1392-M, 


Benj. R. Parker, . 


Weston, 


E. P. Ripley, 




No telephone, 


Herbert A. Saniord, 


Westport, . 


H. A. Sanford, . 


9 




Elmer E. Smith, Islington 

1 


Westwood, . 


C. H. Southerland, 


7 


154-W, 


j Edgar S. Wright, . 


Weymouth, 


C. L. Merritt, 


8 


69-2, South Deer- 
field. 
104-14, 


j James A. Wood, 
; C. A. Randall, 


Whately, 
Whitman, . 


C. A. Randall, . 




1-4, . 


j Henry I. Edson, 


Wilbraham. 


F. B. Metcalf, 


6 



26 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth. 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


46-2, . 


J. Edward Pierpont, 


Williamsburg, 


- 




34-14 


William Davies, . . 


111 SLtw 4f* /wn 

vf XlllwlXlOvVTVXXf 




g 


34-4 




1 m "i Ti orf". ft n 

TV X1U1XXA{( vVUlt 






CM, 


Arlon D. Bailey, 


^^iixcliGiidoii 1 


vT. vt . urury, 


M 


123-2 


j-/2i\iu XX. j-'cv^uurcy , . 




S S S vm m 

KJt O* Ojr llilllcaf . 






Amos Ferry, . 


TTiXLUaUxy 

Winthrop, . 


W. A. Whittemore, 


2 


110, . 


Frank E. Tracy, 


Wobum, 


J. H. KeUey, 




7112, Park, . 


Arthur V. Parker, . 


Worcester, . 


H. J. Neale, . 


6 


10-22, . 


Chas. Kilbourn, 


Worthington, 








Geo. H. E. Mayshaw, 


Wrentham, . 


W. Gilmore, . 


7 


53-33, . 


Jos. W. Hamblin, . 


Yarmouth, 


C. R. Bassett, 


9 



WiNCHEXDON SHOWING MUCH INTEREST IN FORESTRY. 

One of the first towns in the State to co-operate with this 
department was the town of Winchendon. Practical undertak- 
ings were begun by some of the farsighted and stable business 
men of the town, and these have been splendid object lessons. 
The late Mr. John Folsom, who had been the official in charge 
of the town trees for years, spent his last days in interesting 
his townsmen in reforestation and in practicing modern forestry. 
Winchendon village is a beautiful New England hamlet nestling 
in a valley of the town, which borders the New Hampshire line, 
and at an elevation of over 1,000 feet. The chief industries of 
the town are those requiring quantities of forest products, 
particularly white pine. Winchendon is noted for its produc- 
tions of wooden pails, tubs, toys, ice-cream freezers and a 
variety of manufactured wooden products. The numerous fac- 
tories here established are dependent for their future raw ma- 
terial upon the forests. The country about Winchendon is 
ideally adapted for forestry, and offers an exceptional opportu- 
nity to demonstrate how valuable an asset modern forestry can 
be made to a Massachusetts or New England town. In a 
natural forest country, like that found in rural sections of this 
State, there are great possibilities for our people to gain a 



A view from the lookout station on Robbins Hill, Chelmsford, looking toward 
Boston. Note the amount of forest country. 




A forest nursery in the town of Neustadt, Ger. Were some of our rural towns to 
start such an enterprise in connection with the office of forest warden, tree 
warden and moth superintendent, it could be made a valuable auxiliary toward 
establishing town forests. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



27 



splendid and permanent livelihood, were we to develop similar 
industries for using and manufacturing home-grown forest prod- 
ucts, as Winchendon is doing. This type of em-ironment also 
builds up and engenders a healthful and happy people. 

The moth scourge is just beginning to make some inroads 
in Winchendon, but it is believed that it will never amount to 
amthing here, as the town immediately purchased up-to-date 
equipment, and ^sill not allow the moths to trespass. At a 
recent meeting at which the State Forester gave an illustrated 
talk, showing slides comparing conditions in Massachusetts 
with the Black Forest of Germany, he emphasized how the 
town of ^Yinchendon might be made the Black Forest town of 
New England, and the idea seemed to meet the general ap- 
proval of both officials and citizens. 

The town set out 10 acres to white pine last year as a start 
toward a municipal forest, and plans are already made for 
setting a much larger area next spring, and the acquisition of 
more territory. The Murdock Company, the Brown Brothers, 
the Converse Company and various indi\'iduals have already 
set out several hundred acres in this and adjoining towns. The 
Brown Brothers have about 1,000,000 two-year-old seedlings in 
their nursen.' at the present time, and Mr. EUsha Whitney, the 
president of the Murdock Company, has purchased for next 
spring's deliver^' a very large consignment. The accompaming 
photograph (see frontispiece) was taken by the wTiter of one 
of the Murdock Company's foiu'-year Scotch pine plantations 
in the town of Ashburnham. 

The true forestry spirit is to be found in Winchendon, and 
it is hoped that other rural towns may emulate this example. 
See, also, the Winchendon forest fire auto truck, a photograph 
of which is to be found in this report. 

Forestry Practices as a Key to Moth Control. 
This year for the first time an organized attempt has been 
made to apply forestry to the moth problem. Work along 
this line has been done for several years, notably on the North 
Shore, but the immediate purpose of most of the thinnings 
made was to facilitate spra\'ing and creosoting rather than to 



2S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



eradicate the favorable moth food. This year a special depart- 
ment was inaugurated to carry on this work under a trained 
forester. 

The various means of controlUng the moths may be classified 
under three heads, — direct entomological methods, indirect 
entomological methods and forestry methods. The direct ento- 
mological methods seek the destruction of the moths in one of 
their various forms by human agency, as in spraying or creosot- 
ing. The indirect methods seek the propagation of parasites 
or disease which will destroy the moths. The forestry methods 
seek the encouragement of tree gro-^-th which is unfavorable to 
the moths. 

It has been found, from our ovra and from European observa- 
tions and experiments, that although it will eat practically all 
kinds of vegetation, the g^^sy moth thrives only on a Hmited 
number of species of trees. These trees, which are the oaks 
(especially the white oak), \\'illow, fruit and cherry trees, and 
probably the gray birch, may be called "non-resistant'' trees. 
Unless a large proportion of their food consists of the leaves of 
these "non-resistant" trees, under ordinary conditions the 
moths vriW soon pass on to a more favorable feeding ground or 
die. Therefore forestry methods, rather than attempting to 
destroy the moths themselves, would destroy their food. If we 
grow forests of resistant species, as conifers, maple, chestnut, 
ash, etc., the moths will cease to be destructive. 

To shade trees and to ornamental or park woodland, where 
hardly a tree can be spared, these forestry methods do not 
apply very extensively, but in wild woodland sprajdng is too 
expensive and other methods ar€ costly or inefficient, and we 
must rely on parasites, disease and resistant forest conditions 
if we are to control the moths. This is the way they are con- 
trolled in Eiu-ope, where they have existed from time imme- 
morial, and this is the way we must eventually control them 
in this country. It is a vast work, the changing the forest con- 
ditions of this State, but if we can change the poor oak forests 
into pine forests, for which most of the land is naturally suited, 
the gypsy moth will turn out a blessing in disguise. 

The white oak seems a doomed tree in the moth-infested 
region. Weakened by moth attacks, the '^agrilus," or chestnut 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



borer, finds an easy entrance and soon kills it. The other oaks 
seem a little more resistant to both the moths and the borer, 
but except in very favorable soil it would not seem advisable 
to attempt to grow them unless they can be well taken care of 
by spraying. If oak is grown it should be kept in pure stands, 
for if grown in mixture, as with pine, both the oak and pine 
will be attacked. One owner of a very fine stand, consisting 
mostly of large white oaks, desired very much to save them. 
They were badly infested, and he spent large sums of money 
in spraying and creosoting them for several years. On account 
of the height of the trees, and the difficulty in always getting 
them sprayed thoroughly, they were eaten enough so that the 
borers found entrance, and this year it has been necessary for 
him to cut them all off after a large part of the stand had died. 
This shows the difficulty in saving white oak. 

The primary purpose of moth thinnings is to remove from 
a stand non-resistant trees, and to leave and encourage the 
growth and reproduction of the resistant species. The second- 
ary purposes are to aid in taking care of the stand by other 
and more direct methods of moth control; to increase the 
sesthetic value of the stand; to decrease the fire danger; to 
salvage the dead and dying trees; and increase the growth and 
health of the remaining trees by giving them more Ught and 
room. A moth thinning will not be efficient in checking the 
moths without the aid of spraying, unless practically all the 
non-resistant trees are removed and kept out. In a stand of 
pure oak, for instance, it will be necessary to cut clear and 
replant with resistant trees. In a stand which is 50 per cent, 
or more resistant, and the rest oak, the removal of all the oaks 
would still leave the ground fairly well shaded, and no replant- 
ing or spraying would be necessary. Owners should realize 
that it is foolish, year after year, to creosote and spray a grove 
of trees which is mostly resistant, when if they would only cut 
out the non-resistant trees and brush no other care would be 
necessary. This thing has been observed in a number of cases 
and persisted in, even after emphatic advice to the contrary. 
An interesting case was noted in Cohasset this year. There 
was a small area of large mixed hard woods surrounded by a 
growth of similar character. About half the trees were oak 



30 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



and about half were of resistant species, as ash, hickory and 
maple. The moth infestation was very heavy, and when the 
area was examined in the early spring there were several hun- 
dred gypsy moth egg clusters on each tree. The owner did 
not want to spray, and he was advised to cut down all the oaks 
and await results. He did this, leaving only a very few oaks. 
He neither painted nor sprayed, nor did any of the surrounding 
owners. In July, when the moth eating was about completed, 
the area was again examined. The results surprised even the 
one who had advised this treatment. Whereas in the surround- 
ing area there was almost a complete defoliation of all. species, 
on the thinned tract practically all the leaves were intact, with 
the exception of those on the oaks that were not cut out. Of 
course this case may be exceptional, yet we believe it reveals 
the possibilities of resistant thinnings. 

In the many areas of woodland where, on account of the 
large proportion of oak and the aesthetic value of the woods, a 
totally resistant thinning is impractical, moth thinnings are of 
great value as an aid to spraying. In fact, it is almost im- 
possible to spray woodland effectively unless a certain amount 
of thinning has been done. The thinning makes the work more 
effective and lessens the cost from 25 to 60 per cent. In one 
area that a year ago was sprayed, unthinned, at a cost of 
nearly $10 per acre, and even then was partly defoliated, this 
year, after thinning and brush -cutting, was sprayed at a cost 
of a little more than $4 per acre, and practically no stripping 
occurred. The cost of thinning, including cutting and burning 
the brush, was about $5 per acre, deducting the value of the 
wood cut. From this it is evident that in one year this thin- 
ning was a paying proposition to the owner. In thinning that 
is to be followed by spraying, and wherein the element of looks 
enters considerably, it is necessary to do much more cutting 
and disposing of brush than in straight, resistant thinnings. 
The care of the brush is one of the large factors of expense in 
this work. In purely resistant thinnings it is only necessary 
to cut the non-resistant brush, as scrub oak, witch-hazel and 
gray birch. 

A good method of handling a stand that has a very high 
percentage of oak growth is to make a heavy thinning, cutting 



A neglected and badly moth -infested woodland. The growth here is not large 
enough to pay for thinning, and contains quantities of dead trees, which condi- 
tion is one of the worst to deal with. About all that can be done is to cut it 
clean and replant. There are many acres of this type and they are most dis- 
couraging propositions to the owners. Starvation methods may be practiced 
under favorable circumstances. 




A woodland thinning to assist in controlling tlie gypsy moth. The favorite 
food trees are removed. The white pine is encouraged. A process of build- 
ing over the forest. A thinned forest like this can be sprayed and looked after 
at far less expense. The forest products removed pay for the treatment. One 
hundred acres on the Weld estate, Dedham. 



19U.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



31 



all white oaks if possible, and to follow this with underplanting 
of pine. Within ten years or so the rest of the oaks can be 
removed and a pine stand will result. This is not practicable, 
however, unless the area can be sprayed if necessary in the 
meantime. In many places examined there . was considerable 
natural pine reproduction, and a thinning would aid very much 
in bringing it along. In other places, where the woodland is 
desired for landscape effect, as along roads or bordering fields, 
and where the growth is largely non-resistant, and spraying 
impractical over the whole area, then a strip can be left along 
the edge, but a clean cutting made in the interior followed by 
natural resistant reproduction, if possible, or planting. The 
outside strip can be cared for, and the interior will eventually 
sustain a moth-resistant growth, while the effect will not be 
injured. 

Although we have not had sufficient experience as yet in this 
thinning work to show many results or make absolute conclu- 
sions, there are a few opinions which we have arrived at and 
which may be of interest to owners of infested woodland. They 
are as follows: — 

1. ^loth thinnings are constructive. The owner who uses 
direct methods of moth control must expect to keep them up 
year after year "vsithout any sure relief. By gro^-ing a resistant 
forest he is making the moth problem solve itself. 

2. ^loth thinnings are advantageous to the owners of park 
or ornamental woodland or land awaiting development. The 
main factor in land of this type is that the wooded character of 
the area be maintained and at the least possible expense. 
Thinnings will improve the general condition and attractiveness 
of the area and will make it much easier and cheaper to take 
care of in the futiu-e. 

3. Moth thinnings are advantageous to the owners of wood- 
land which is chiefly valuable for the wood it produces, pro- 
vided the growth is of merchantable size. Woodland of this 
type cannot be annually sprayed because it is not worth it. 
If the owner leaves it alone, eventually most of the non-resist- 
ant trees, and many of the resistant species, will be killed and 
the stand greatly depreciate in value. A thinning of the non- 
resistant trees in woodland of fair to good quality will pay for 



32 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



itself at least, and will leave a more valuable stand than if it 
had been left alone. It is also easier to cut live trees than dead 
ones. 

4. iSIoth tliinnings are advantageous to the owners of poor 
or sprout growth, where there is a considerable proportion of 
young pine present. The wood will not pay for the work, but 
the development of pine will. If left alone, especially where 
the growth is gray birch mixed with pine, the moths will prac- 
tically destroy the whole value of the groTsi:h, which if properly 
conserved would prove to be considerable. 

5. jNIoth thinnings are cheaper and more effective if under- 
taken before the moth infestation becomes serious than if made 
afterwards. 

Considerable cost data have been collected from the thinning 
operations carried out under the direction of this department, 
but not enough to give any certain figures as yet. The main 
factors in the cost are the efficiency of the labor, the size and 
thickness of the gro\si:h, the severity of the thinning, the 
amount and method of brush-cutting and disposal, and the 
utilization and market of the product. In general terms it 
may be said that a thinning which •^'ill yield 7 or 8 cords to 
the acre pay for itself, allowing for the burning of the slash- 
ing, provided that there is not an unusual amount of brush to 
be cut, and that ordinary labor and market conditions prevail. 
The cost mounts rapidly if large quantities of brush are to be 
cut. The cheapest way of doing work is by the cord, under 
good supervision, or an experienced crew working by the day 
may do as well. The profits may be considerable if there are 
many ties, poles or piles to be cut. 

TT^or^ accomplished this Year. 
Since this work was organized a gratifying amount of interest 
has been shown in thinning work. The work carried on has 
not been primarily experimental in character, but rather educa- 
tional and practical. The United States Bureau of Entomology 
in connection with the Forest Service, is now carrying on ex- 
periments in moth thinnings under Mr. Clement, from which 
we anticipate some very practical data. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



33 



On account of the ob^'ious necessity of getting this work 
started as rapidly as possible, we did not await the usual course 
of events and have the owners come in to us for advice and 
assistance, but rather went out after the owners and proffered 
our services. With the aid of the district and local moth super- 
intendents a list was made of the owners of the infested wood- 
land of the State, and to each owner was sent a letter offering 
our advice and help, and enclosing a blank to be signed if an 
examination of the property was desired. Over 2,000 such 
letters were sent out, and about 340 have returned the signed 
examination application to date. Up to December 1 we have 
been able to make 174 of these examinations, covering an area 
of about 9,628 acres. About 25 owners up to the present time 
have started this work, either under our supervision or with 
our assistance, and by these operations about 1,000 acres will 
have been put into condition. This does not include the 
thinnings done by the local or district moth superintendents, 
which will cover a large aggregate area. 

In many towns all the roadsides and considerable private 
property have been thinned out by the local men, and in the 
town of Dover and on the North Shore considerable work has 
been done under special funds. 

The aid offered to owners of infested woodland, outside of 
free ad^'ice, has been the marking of trees, the marketing of 
the wood, the furnishing of labor, and the actual super^^sion 
and management of the thinnings. In several cases we have 
found contractors who would cut the wood under our specifica- 
tions and inspection and pay the o\sTier for it. ^Ye have now 
three trained crews who xs-ill do the work under our direction 
for any owner who desires them, and will pay the actual cost. 
We have in other places furnished woodchoppers who cut by 
the cord under the supervision of a trained foreman. We 
expect to start out several new crews shortly. 

A list of the areas cut or being cut under our direction and 
supervision follows : — 



34 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Towx. 


Owner. 


Area (Acres). 


Dover, 


Geo. D. Hall, 


27 


MUlb 


A. H. Wheeler 


12 


Dedham, .... 


Stephen M. Weld 


70 


Dedham, .... 


Mrs. J. C. Fairchild 


6 


Westwood, .... 


C. J. Lennon, 


3 


Norwood, .... 


Edw. Cunningham, ...... 


20 


Dedham, .... 


Karlstein estate, ...... 


S3 


West Barnstable, . 


Howard Marston, 


60 


Norwell, .... 


Nathan Gushing heirs, 


15 


North Andover, . 


Miss C. A. French, 


45 


Cohasset, .... 


Mrs. Sarah WTieelwright 


20 


Dedham, .... 


Mrs. Harriet Rodman, 


80 



Cost. — In the above list seven of the operations will have 
been carried on at no loss or a small profit, and all but two at 
a net cost not greatly exceeding So an acre. The other two 
contained so much brush that the cost was larger, but the 
owners felt well repaid. 

Some cost data from the operation on Karlstein estate in 
Dedham follow. This operation is not quite finished at this 
writing, so the data are not absolutely complete. The work 
T\-as done by a crew paid from S2 to S2.25 per day, under an 
experienced foreman. The men live in a camp pro^'ided on 
the estate. The conditions on the estate were as follows: the 
growth was mostly a medium hardwood stand, with about 75 
per cent, oak and about 35 per cent, white oak, and with con- 
siderable pine reproduction in places. The moth infestation 
was severe, although as yet not more than 10 per cent, of the 
trees had been killed. The brush was not very heavy, but a fair 
amount had to be cut. The estate was being held for develop- 
ment, and the purpose of the thinning was to put it into shape 
so that a wooded condition could be maintained at the least 
possible expense. The general rule of the cutting was to cut 
practically all white oaks, all dead and inferior trees, and as 
many of all species of the other oaks as possible; to cut all 
brush necessary, to split and pile the wood in 4-foot lengths; 
to burn the brush and slashing, and to encourage the growth 
of the pine as much as possible. 



A mixed growth of hard and soft wood that is sure to be destroyed by the 
gypsy moth unless tlie owner spends htrge sums of money in spraying and treat- 
ing. The only practical forestry solution is to immediately cut out the hard 
woods and give the whole area over to the white pine. In an infested stand like 
this the pines are killed outright in a year or two; therefore, owners having 
similar woodlands should give them early attention. The pine in clear stands 
by itself is perfectly res'stant to the moths. 




A severe thinning, to be followed Ijy iiuderplanting with white pine. The prod- 
uct, which was largely white oak, sold for enough to meet the expense, Gypsy 
moth suppression work on the Karlstein property at Dedham. This property 
was stripped the past season. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT~Xo. 73. 35 



Cost Data of Operation on Karlstein Estate. 
Cutting and piling, based on 82.5 acres; burning, based on 47.5 acres. 
Total cut: 559 cords of wood, 90 ties, 6,000 feet of pine. In working 

data this is called the equivalent of 565 cords. 





Per Cord. 


Per Acre. 


Total. 


Wood and brush cutting,! .... 


$1 97 


$13 48 


$1,112 05 




15 


1 00 


83 00 


Brush burning, 


25 


1 80 


148 102 


Other exi)ense, 


(M 


25 


21 00 




15 


1 01 


84 00 


Total, 


$2 56 


$17 55 


$1,448 15 2 



1 Includes stacking wood. Brush cutting is estimated at about S per cent. 

2 Estimated. 

3 Includes saw filing, scaling wood, etc. 

* Includes time spent by foreman in directing men and marking trees, when he was not actu- 
ally engaged in productive work. 



Other items of expense which are not included are the cost 
of a camp for the men and of tools wliich will not greatly 
exceed S25 in this case. 

In conclusion we would say that this department is anxious 
to get in touch with all the owners of infested woodland in 
the State, to give them advice and all the help possible in 
solving the woodland problem. This work cannot be carried 
on without the help of the owners, who are the parties most 
\'itally affected. 

Forest Mapping. 

This summer a beginning was made in work we have long 
desired to attempt, namely, the making of an estimate of the 
acreage of forest of different types and sizes; and, in conjunc- 
tion with this, work out a forest map on which is shown, so far 
as practicable, what the land is producing. 

It is possible to hire, in the summer, forest school students 
who are cheap and efficient men for this purpose. The work 
was carried out under the direction of Mr. Harold Fay, one of 
the assistant foresters in the office, who had the assistance of 
four forestry students, picked men from as many forestry 
schools. 

As it was not possible, with the means at hand, to cover the 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



entire State in one season, it was decided to attempt the work 
county by county, and this year Worcester County was chosen. 
This county has been covered, with the exception of a few 
towns. 

The method of field work was an adaptation of a large-scale 
timber cruising system, which we felt gave a maximum amount 
of information for a minimum cost. Each man worked one 
town at a time alone, running lines one-half mile apart, by com- 
pass and pace, from one boundary to the other. Record was 
kept of the length of each type, and type boundaries were 
sketched, so far as practicable, in an especially arranged note 
book checked off in scale with the large maps, to which the data 
were easily transferred. These maps, the scale of which is 976 
feet to 1 inch, are enlargements from the United States top- 
ographical sheets, and we hope will be the basis for permanent 
forest maps of each town in the State. 

By means of symbols the rough proportion of different species 
of trees growing on the ground traversed is shown, and by 
numbers, their approximate size. A rough estimate of the per- 
centage of stocking was made. The number of white pine per 
acre was estimated, to enable a more accurate estimate of this, 
the most valuable timber, and especially to give an idea of the 
acreage where the occurrence of scattered white pine gives a 
chance for converting inferior hardwood forests into pine, by 
so handling as to secure more pine reproduction. Areas of 
exceptional hazard for forest fires were located by symbols on 
the maps, as were wood lots infected in different degrees by 
the chestnut bark disease. 

From this work we feel we shall have a very reliable estimate 
of the acreage of different types of forests of different age 
classes for the county as a whole, and a fairly reliable estimate 
so far as the unit towns are concerned. The completeness and 
accuracy of the maps depend largely upon whether the towns 
have much or little open land, and uniform or frequently chang- 
ing forest types. 

So far as we know no other State has begun to collect data 
which will allow so accurate an estimate of its present stand of 
timber, and of what is likely to be produced during future 
periods. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



37 



In addition to the maps, which also furnish the basis for 
acreage and timber estimates, a forest report was made for each 
town, giving a general account of the forest conditions, lumber- 
ing and woodworking industries, prevailing prices of timber and 
of unproductive land, the names of some of the principal land- 
owners, forest-fire conditions, and the extent of the chestnut 
bark disease. 

The plan is to keep these maps and reports on file at the 
ofiice, so that forest data will be available for reference when- 
ever a private individual or the department contemplates for- 
estry work in any town. 

As a sample we reproduce herewith the map of Bolton, which 
town was worked by Mr. J. R. Simmons, together with his 
forest report on the town, and a summary of the acreage esti- 
mates compiled from the map. 

In forest description of tracts shown on the map, the letters 
and symbols at the left represent "type;" these are followed 
by "size-class" figures, then the number of white pine trees 
per acre (a line drawn above the figures indicates when they 
are suppressed white pine reproduction). Following the white 
pine figures comes the estimated percentage of stocking, and 
last, symbols representing fire hazard, chestnut bark disease, 
etc., if there chance to be any. 

Symbols showing occupation of the soil are arranged in the 
order of prominence of the type or species. Softwoods when 
equalling 10 per cent, or more of the stand, and hardwoods 
when equalling 20 per cent, or more, are shown if not more than 
three symbols representing occupation of the soil are used in all. 

For key to symbols on the map, see the first two columns 
of acreage estimate table. 



38 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Forest Survey Acreage Estimates, Town of Bolton, Mass., 
November, 1913. 





Size Class, .... 


4, 4-3 


3-4, 3 


3-2, 2-3 


2,2-1 


1-2. 1 




Ttpe 
Symbol. 


Approximate Age, based on 
White Pine and Chestnut 
(Years), .... 


1-12 


13-25 


26-40 


41-60 


61 plus 


Totals 
(Acres). 




Spec IPS. 














a, 


White pine, .... 


20 


424 


166 


347 


14 


971 


T, 


White pine and gray birch, . 


100 


188 


- 


- 


- 


288 


B, 

A. . . 


Mixed hardwood and white 
Mixed softwood, . 


- 
- 


161 
11 


50 
2 


28 
9 


44 
- 


283 
22 


c, 


Chestnut 


- 


128 


527 


383 


55 


1,093 


D and E C, 


Chestnut with oaks, 


424 


887 


255 


2b0 


- 


1,796 


g 


Gray birch, .... 




119 
LIZ 








1 i^R 
100 


E, 


Oaks, 


150 


419 


155 


153 




877 


F, 


Mixed hardwood, 1 




185 




2 




187 


M, . 


Red maple, .... 


8S 


244 








332 


G, . 


Maple swamp, 




424 


164 






588 


I, 






101 


33 






134 




Total Woodland Area, 


826 


3,284 


1,352 


1,152 


113 


6,7272 



Acres. 

Total woodland area, 6.727 

X — Agricultural 4,373 

O — Open pasture, 902 

K— Brushy pasture 211 

V — Useless swamp, 94 

Water 30 

5,6103 

Total area of town 12,337 « 

— Chestnut blight. 

V— Fire hazard 572* 

P — Drainable swamp, 94 

Scattered pine untyped, .1,143 

Suppressed pine, reproduction, 1,154 

Total acreage with white pine present, 3,861* 



1 In this table species growing in mixture have been proportioned and recorded in their own 
column as though of pure growth. 

2 55 per cent, of town area. 
^ 45 per cent, of town area. 
* 5 per cent, of town area. 

5 31 per cent, of town area; 57 per cent, of woodland area. 

6 Total acreage of town was figured from map on page 39. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 39 




40 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



Forest Report of Town of Bolton. 

Bolton, Mass., November, 1913. 

Bolton lies along the eastern border of Worcester County just north- 
east from the city of CHnton. The Boston & Maine Railroad cuts it at 
the southeastern and southwestern corners, and its best markets, outside 
of Clinton and Hudson, are Worcester, 15 miles, and Boston, 30 miles, 
distant. The cliief industries are dairy and fruit farming. The town is 
essentially a farming community, there being but three small villages. 
The lack of trolley lines is compensated by good roads leading from the 
town to its markets. 

Topography. 

The topography is irregular with hills and valleys. The general trend 
is north and south, with the ridges frequently broken by brooks and gul- 
lies. Highest hills are 600 feet. 

Soils. 

Light sandy soil, generally fertile and fairly deep, having gravel, and 
some clay subsoil. Black soil in the swamps and on some farms where 
draining has been done. South of Bolton village, on the west side of the 
BerUn road, are about 75 acres of moist land, difficult of drainage but 
bearing good hay. Some parts of the maple swamp on the opposite side 
of the road could be cleared and drained for agriculture. On the hills the 
soil is good, quite free from rocks, and raises apples and peaches. 

Woodland. 

Proportion of wooded to cleared land one-third to two-thirds,^ accord- 
ing to the report of the assessors to the commission on taxation of waste 
and forest lands. The general appearance of the country would make 
this estimate seem too low for forest land. A considerable amount of 
good high land has been recently cleared of birch and sprouts for fruit 
growing. 

General condition of forest, good, especially in the pine, oak and hard- 
wood tj'pes. There is a good layer of humus. Principal species are pine, 
chestnut and oak, in clear and mixed stands; ash and hickory are common 
in the mixture, and as roadside trees. Suppressed pine is common in the 
chestnut and oak types. 

Lumber and Woodworking Int)ustries. 
Savj Mills. 

1. Century Mill, W. J. Webber, proprietor, Bolton, Mass., cuts chest- 
nut and pine; 150 M during the last two years, mostly for box boards 
which are sent to Hudson, Mass. Stumpage, $10 to $14 per M. Box 



1 See figures in table compiled from map. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



41 



boards, F. 0. B., Hudson, $22. This is the only lumber mill in Bolton, 
and it is idle most of the time. 

2. E. M. Walcott, Bolton Village, Mass., cuts about 200 cords of wood 
per j^ear. 

Land Owners. 

The largest holdings are considerably under 200 acres, and very little 
land is for sale. Owners of over 60 acres are checked in the accompany- 
ing assessors' list. 

Waste Land. 

Xot extensive in area. Confined to (a) a few acres along the Lancaster 
boundary, in swamp, burned oak and hard pine land; (b) a strip of old 
pasture in the northeast about three-quarters of a mile wide, some of 
which is brushy; and (c) a very small burned area along the Hudson 
boundary. Average price of waste land S5 per acre. 

The only person reported as having waste land for sale is Mr. Blanchard, 
of Blanchard & Gould; he is said to ovm two lots of 50 acres each, ad- 
joining. 

Fires and Fire Damage. 

Xo recent fires reported, though some slash areas exist, offering con- 
siderable risk, located (a) along Bolton and Lancaster boundary, north 
of Bolton station on cut-over lands and sprout growth; and (6) some 
portions of the ridge southwest from Vaughn Hill in the northwest. 

A small burn occurred three to five years ago near the Hudson road in 
the eastern corner of the town, and southeast from Long Hill, and entered 
some distance into a large chestnut and maple wood lot. The whole burn 
covered about 50 acres of sprout. 

Cliestnvi Bark Disease. 
The chestnut blight occurs in all parts of the town, the w^orst being in 
the western and northern portions. A very large area of chestnut north 
of the village appears, as yet, to be in fair condition, with probably not 
more than one infected tree to the acre. Some of the wood lot owners 
interviewed have made a practice of cutting for cordwood bhghted trees 
only, and expressed the opinion that this scheme would probably become 
popular among owners of timber in Bolton. 

Reforestation V^ork. 
The reforestation act passed in 1908 makes provision for any 
one owning waste land suitable for replanting to deed it over 
to the State, with the provision that the owner, his heirs or 
assignees may redeem it at any time within ten years by pay- 
ing the actual cost of planting. This cost varies from $7 to $10 
per acre, according to the size of the tract, accessibility and 



42 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



age of stock used. There is also a section of the act which 
enables us to buy land at not over So an acre, and not over 
SO acres in one tract in any one year. 

Under this act some 4,489 acres have been acquired, as the 
following list shows. Of these, about 1,000 acres are owned by 
the State outright with no redemption clause, the land having 
been bought at a price of from S2.50 to So per acre. Where 
land has been bought, it is the policy of the office to purchase 
adjoining land the following year in order that individual lots 
may be more readily handled. We have advocated the removal 
of the 80-acre limit, as the average cost of planting is much less 
on large lots, and it is also often cheaper to acquire a large lot 
than a number of small ones. 

These tracts will increase much in demonstration value in 
the next few years, as it takes a plantation from five to ten 
years to reach a height where it v>'ill attract attention. Even 
now some of the older plantations set in 1909 have created an 
interest in forest planting. 

This law seems to be meeting with the aims of those who 
first advocated it, as throughout the State there are many land- 
owners who would not sell their land outright or would not set 
it out themselves, but who are willing to have the work done 
by the State Forester. It is safe to say that not over 200 
acres of the 5,000 and over would be restocked to-day had it 
not been for this act enabling the owners to turn their land 
over to the State to be planted. 

This year we have planted 782 acres of land, while the work 
of filling in and replanting lots where loss was due to the last 
few years' drought has been pushed with vigor. During the 
winter months a number of old lots were cleared of brush which 
had grown up and was interfering with the trees set. 

Forest Xursery. 
This fall, on land of the State Farm at Bridgewater, which 
was prepared for a nursery, we transplanted over 500,000 two- 
year old seedlings, consisting of white pine, Scotch pine and 
white ash. 

The work was done by inmates of the farm under direction 
of a foreman employed by this office. By using the farm labor 



A splendid stand of large white pine with a relatively small mixture of hard- 
woods on the fine Rodman estate in Dedham, The pine tops show the ravages 
of the gypsy moth. A number of the large pines are past redemption. This 
whole estate is beiog thinned out at the present time. The hardwoods are being 
taken out, together with the dead pines. Had the hardwood been removed early 
all of the pines could have been saved. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



43 



in the nursery we shall be able to do much more transplanting 
than formerly. The State Farm oflScials, Superintendent Black- 
stone and Mr. Hunt, have aided us in every way possible, and 
another spring will have additional land cleared, so that we 
shall have about 10 acres in the nursery, and be able to do a 
large amount of spring transplanting, and also raise not only 
enough transplanted stock to do our entire planting work, but 
enough to supply other State institutions with these transplants 
instead of seedlings. 

In our nursery at Amherst we have about 7,000,000 trees, 
about 1,500,000 of which are three and four year transplants 
suitable for our spring planting. 

This year we supplied the Metropolitan Park Commission 
with 300,000 two-year white pine seedlings, the Metropolitan 
Water Board with 250,000 two-year white pine seedlings and 
150,000 three-year Norway spruce seedlings, and a number of 
the commissions with smaller amounts, — a total of 734,000 
supplied for use on State land, outside of land planted under 
the reforestation act, by this department. 



State Plantations, 1913. 



Town, 


Acres. 


Type of Land. 


Variety planted. 


Gardner, 


87 


Cut and burned over. 


White pine, Norway spruce. 


Rutland, 


55 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Leverett, 


24 


Cut and burned over. 


White pine. 


Leverett, 


66 


Cut and burned oVer, 


White pine, Norway spruce. 


Shelburne, 




Cut and burned over. 


White pine, Norway spruce. 


Nantucket, . 


83 


Sandy plain, 


White and Scotch pine. 


Westminster, 


80 


Cut-over pasture, 


White pine, Norway spruce. 


Spencer, 


80 


Cut-over pasture, 


White pine, etc. 


Spencer, 


80 


Cut-over pasture, 


White pine, etc. 


Lancaster, 


32^ 


Cut-over light land, . 


White pine. 


Taunton, 


64 


Cut-over sprout land, 


White pine. 


Boxford, 


lOH 


Run-out mowing. 


White pine and red pine. 


Freetown, 


9 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Boxford, 




Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


North Andover, . 


44 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Total, . 


782 







44 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Amherst Nursery, 1913. 



— 

Variety. 


Age (Years). 


Number of 
Trees. 




1 


3,000,000 




2 


2,000,000 




2 


200,000 




2 


216,000 




2 


66,000 




2 


70,000 




3 


1,091,000 


\Yhite pine transplants, 


4 


344,000 




3 


21,000 


Norway spruce transplants, 


3 


18.000 




. . . 


7,026,000 



HoPKiNTON Nursery, 1913. 





5 


25,000 




3 


40,000 


Norway spruce transplants, 




30,000 


Total, 




95,000 


Bridgewater Nursery, 1913. 


White pine transplants 


3 


400,000 




3 


53,300 




2 


50,250 


Total, 




503,550 



I 



Planting done under the Advice of this Office.^ 



Name. 


Location. 


Variety. 


Number 
of Trees. 


Metropolitan Park Commission, 


Blue Hill Reservation, 


White pine. 


300,000 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Wachusett System, . 


^Tiite pine. 


250,000 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Sudbury System, 


Norway spruce, 


150,000 


Wachusett Reservation Commis- 
sion. 

Bristol County School of Agricul- 
ture. 

Norfolk State Hospital, . 


Princeton, . 
Segreganset, 
Norfolk, . 


White pine, 

White pine, 

White pine, hemlock, 
arbor vitae. 


20,000 
2,000 
12,000 








734,000 



1 Trees furnished by State Forester (Amherst Nursery). 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



45 



Each year a resume of the season's work has been published, 
but some may be interested in having a complete summary of 
the work done under the reforestation act; therefore we have 
included in this report the following tables classifying the lots 
by counties and towns. The number of the lot is a part of our 
record system, and roughly indicates the order in which they 
were taken over. Where this number appears in heavy type 
it indicates that the lot was purchased outright by the State, 
the clause in the deed giving the owner the right to redeem the 
lot at the end of ten years being omitted. All other lots are 
subject to the privilege of redemption. 



Summary of Lots taken under Reforestation Act. 





Lots. 


Acres. 


Purchased outright without privilege of redemption, . 


20 


849 




20 


914 


Deeded without cost and with redemption privilege, . 


66 


2,690 


Deeded without cost and without redemption privilege, . 


2 


36 



Complete List of Lots taken under the Reforestation Act 
(by Counties). 



Lot 
No. 


Town. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


Lot 
No. 


Town. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


55 


Barnstable County. 
Dennis, . 


20 


1912 


36 


Middlesex County 
— Con. 
Shirley, . 


18 


1910 


61 


Harwich, 


15 


. 1911 


59 


Shirley, . 


19^ 


1911 


18 


Sandwich, 


14 


1909 


104 


Groton, . 


13 




19 


Sandwich, 


10 


1911 


105 


Groton, . 






31 

34 


Sandwich, 
Sandwich, 


20 
52 


1910 




Hampshire County. 






54 


Wellfleet, 




1912 


30 


Belchertown, . 


10 


1910 


62 


Yarmouth, 


21 


1911 


23 


Pelham, . 


16 


1909 


106 


Barnstable, 


17 




24 


Pelham, . 


6 


1909 


109 

49 


Barnstable, . 

Middlesex County. 
Carlisle, . 


32 
40 


1910 


84 


Nantucket County. 
Nantucket, 


83 


1913 


50 


Hopkinton, . 


28 


1912 




Norfolk County. 






51 


Hopkinton, . 


80 


1912 


74 


Dover, . 


13>i 


1912 



46 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Lot 
No. 


Towx. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


Lot 
No. 


Town. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


in 

lU 


PlytTtouth County , 


5 


1909 


12 


Worcester County 
— Con. 


23 


1909 


78 


Duxbury, 


38M 


1912 


13 


Spencer, . 




1909 


48 


Kingston, 


14 


1910 


43 


Spencer, . 


14 


1910 


60 


Kingston, 


140 


1911 


90 


Spencer, . 


80 


1913 


70 


Norwell, . 


10 


1912 


91 


Spencer, . 


40 




8 
9 
38 
39 
40 
56 
71 
72 
73 
45 
47 
57 
79 


Worcester County. 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham , 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham, 
Ashbiu-nham, 

Grook^Bld, 
jsrooKueici, 
Fitchburg, 
Grardncr, 


10 

66 

53^ 
94 
14 
63 

19 
38 
37 
70 
27 
87 


1909 
1909 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1911 
1912 
1912 
1912 
1910 
1910 
1911 
1913 


92 

6 
26 
37 
1 
2 
14 
15 
16 
87 
88 
89 
100 
107 


Spencer, . 
Templeton, . 
Templeton, 
Templeton, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westniiinster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Westminster, . 
Gardner, 


80 
107 
60 
50 
40 
40 
92M 
36 
39 
80 
80 
7 

80 
16 


1913 
1909 
1909 
1912 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1909 
1913 
- 
- 
- 
- 


27 


Oaxdnor, , 


93 


1909 




7?(?<!PT Mill f It 






44 


TTrtlrlon 
XIUiLl^U, . 


50 


1910 


7 




40 


1909 


3 


Hubbardston, 


40 


1909 


99 


Andover, 


44 


1913 


4 


Hubbardston, 


14 


1909 


96 


Boxford, . 


lOH 


1913 


17 


Hubbardston, 


54 


1909 


98 


Boxford, . 


24M 


1913 


21 


Hubbardston, 


40 


1909 


25 


Rowley, . 




1909 


22 
42 
52 
oo 
63 
66 


Hubbardston, 

Hubbardston, 

Hubbardston, • 

Hubbardston, 

I^ancastcr, 

L<ancaster, 


10 
108 
40 

■54 

74 


1909 
1910 
1911 

101 1 

1911 

1011 


69 
97 
94 


Bristol County. 
Attleborough, 
Freetown, 
Taunton, 

Franklin County. 


24 

9 
64 


1911 
1913 
1913 


93 


XjancastGr, 




1913 


67 


Buckland, 


100 


1911 


75 


Oakham, 


80 


1912 


69 


Buckland, 


11 


1911 


20 


Paxton, . 


55 


1909 


101 


Buckland, 


75 




58 


Faxton, . 


45 


1911 


32 


Colrain, . 


52 


1910 


80 


Rutland, 


55 


1913 


33 


Colrain, . 


169 


1910 


11 


Spencer, . 


35 


1909 


41 


Colrain, . 


80 


1912 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



Lot 
No. 


Town. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


Lot 
No. 


Tow.v. 


Acres. 


Year 
planted. 


28 


Franklin County 
— Con. 
Colrain, . 


80 


1910 


95 


Franklin County 
— Con. 
Warwick, 


27 


1913 


29 


Colrain, . 


80 


1910 


102 


Warwick, 


30 




64 


Greenfield, 


4 


1911 


103 


Warwick, 


29 


- 


65 


Heath, . 


41 




108 


Buckland, 


10 


- 


81 
82 


Leverett, 
Leverett, 


24 

66 


1913 
1913 


76 


Berkshire County. 
Becket, . 


10 


1912 


5 


Montague, 


26 


1909 


35 


Peru, 


68 


1910 


83 


Shelburn, 


42H 


1913 ! 


77 


Peru, 


12 


1912 



Forest Management Work. 
The established poHcy of making examinations of woodland 
property, either public or private, and of giving advice in con- 
nection with the proper management of the same has been 
continued. A list of these examinations follows: — 



EX-\MIXATI0XS. 



Owner. 


Location of Property. 


Area (Acres). 


Irving Smith, 




2,500 


Worcester Park Board, .... 


Worcester, 


200 


Concord Golf Club, 


Concord 


85 


John Gifford 


Sutton, 


150 


F. F. Baldwin, . . . 


Hopkinton 


300 




North Leominster, .... 


34 


Fred'k Bailey 


Chelmsford, 


24 


W. E. Barton 


Foxborough, 


60 


L. T. Reed, 


Cummington, 


60 


Miss F. Rogers, 


Cummington, 


40 






60 


Miss F. Rogers, 


Cummington, 


20 


Miss Julia Steere, 


Cummington, 


20 


Miss Julia Steere, 


Cummington, 


15 


Mr. Alfred Mellor 




175 




Marion, 


50 






75 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





Location of Property. 


Area (Acres). 






20 


Mrs. B. V. How 


Dracut, 


205 


Park Board, 




20 


Canaan Line Company, .... 


North Marlborough, 


400 


A. Harlow, 


Cummington, ..... 


60 






5 






2.6CO 


W. T. Porter, 


Dover 


50 


Mr. E. Pettingill 




200 


Farm and trade school, .... 


Thompson Island, .... 


15 


Fish and Game Commission, . 




50 


M. Famsworth, 


Shirley, 


1 


Taunton State Hospital 




50 


E. P. Ripley 


Weston 


8 


D. Hough, 


Vineyard Haven, .... 


40 


Lake^^lle Sanatorium 


Middleborough 


To 






30 


Edith S. Price 


Topsfield 


25 


State Sanatorium, 


North Reading 


123 


R. C. Robbins, 


Hamilton, ..... 


3 


Robbins Estate 




500 


W. G. Vinal 


Marshfield, 


20 


L. C. Wason 




25 


Watcha Club 


Marthas Vineyard, .... 


500 


G. E. Watson, 


North Leverett, .... 


200 


Mr. Way 




20 


Mrs. F. E. White, 


North Brookfield, .... 


13 


Water Board, 


Winchendon, 


150 


Mosea Williams 


North Falmouth 


75 


E. H. Alderman 




50 


Geo. Baker, 


Concord 


30 


W. C. Brown 


Concord Junction, .... 


50 


A. B. Cutler, 




90 


C. B. Cooley 


GranWIie, 


25 






12 


C. H. Dana, 


Buzzards Bay, .... 


30 


P^amage Paper Company, 




612 






10.250 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



49 



The above list contains 54 examinations covering an area of 
10,250 acres, expense, paid by landowners, S30.33. 

The number of examinations made this year is six less than 
given in the last report. The area examined is, however, in- 
creased by 4,502 acres. Many examinations in the eastern part 
of the State that formerly came under this department have 
been turned over to the moth end of the work, so that both in 
number and area the work has shown a large increase during 
the past year. Examinations in chestnut woodlands affected 
with the bark disease have also been classified separately, and 
this too would tend to lower the number handled by this de- 
partment. 

Surveys. 

The following is a list of the lots taken over for reforestation 
and for which surveys have been made. Maps in triplicate 
for these lots are on file at this office. 



Surveys for Plantations. 



Owner. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


E.P.Churchill 


Freetown, 


9 


F. D. Lewis 


Groton 


4 


Mary F. Pierce, 


Freetown, 


70 


F. B. Lewis 


Groton 


13 


Geo. Da^•i3 


Shelburne, 


42 


State lot 


Manchester 


7 


H. FUke 


Buckland, 


75 


H. Fiake 


Buckland, 


10 


E. Smith 


Barnstable, 


7 


E. Smith 


Barnstable, 


17 


F. H. Webster 


Warwick 


31 


A. P. Webster 


Warwick, 


28 


H. S. Hodgman, 


Montague, 


26 


H. C. Harrington, 


Westminster, 


SO 


H. C. Harrington, 


Gardner, 


16 


Calvin Benson, 


West Barnstable 


32 


F H. Rhea 


Boxford 


10 


Total 





477 



The total surveyed area for which maps have been made and 
are on file is 2,380 acres. 



50 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Working Plans. 



Besides the above surveys there have been made four others, 
and the necessary data collected with which to produce work- 
ing plans. These working plans will be completed during the 
present winter. It is not necessary to work these plans out in 
colors, as has been done at times in the past, for it is thought 
that a plan of one color, inked in, will answer the purpose as 
well and also save both time and expense. 

The properties for which brief working plans have been made 
are owned and located as follows: — 



There will also be brought together, as soon as time will per- 
mit, sufficient data with which to make up a working plan for 
the Lynn Woods. It is encouraging to state that this well- 
known tract of woods, which in the past has been more or less 
neglected, may and probably will in the near future receive 
some of the attention so much needed to place the woods in a 
proper condition. That the Lynn Woods at the present time 
are in poor shape is evident to the most casual observer. Insect 
enemies and fires have raised such havoc in them that much 
of their former value and beauty have been lost. With the 
exception of a small percentage that has been thinned and 
sprayed, nearly the entire area is badly in need of immediate 
attention. Thousands of cords of wood should be removed as 
soon as possible, especially a large number of such trees as are 
particularly susceptible to future stripping hy moths. Dead 
and dying wood and much scrub growth should be removed, 
thereby materially decreasing the fire danger. 

It is confidently hoped that the city will place at the disposal 
of its Lynn Woods commission and water board a sufficient 
yearly appropriation to permit of the carrying on the needed 
work along forestry lines which will insure the proper perpetua- 
tion of the tree gro^i:h. 

The needed line of procedure for carrying out such a piece 
of woods-work has been set forth in two reports from this office 
and submitted to the chairman of the Lynn Woods commission. 



Acres. 



Mr. S. Mellor, Cummington, 
Mr. W. A. Barton, Foxborough, 
Mr. L. T. Reed, Cummington, 
Mr. W. T. Porter, Dover, 



175 
60 
60 

50 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



51 



Thinnings. ' 

Six thinning operations along strict forestry lines have been 
undertaken the past few months, two of which are about com- 
pleted. One of these, the W. T. Porter lot in Dover, Mass., 
containing 50 acres, was stocked with a stand of such nature as 
to make very careful work necessary in order not to injure 
much of the young growth. A large part of the area was 
heavily stocked with white and pitch pine of all ages up to 
eighty to ninety years, also pasture birch, large red and white 
oak, maple, ash, chestnut, etc., all growing in a very mixed 
manner. Since much of the area was badly moth-infested, 
nearly all of the white oaks were removed. Also all pitch 
pine and pasture birch were removed from the tract. All told, 
several thousand feet of white pine, pitch pine and oak were 
felled, besides about 200 cords of wood. 

The logs brought the following prices on the lot: white 
pine, SIO, pitch pine, S8 and oak, S15 per thousand. The cord- 
wood when sold should bring about S3. 50 per cord on the lot. 
Regardless of the fact that operations were necessarily expen- 
sive on account of the badly mixed nature of the gro'VN'th, it is 
thought that on the larger part of the tract expenditure and 
returns will be about even. 

Mellor Lot. 

Operations of a thinning nature have been started recently 
on the 175-acre tract of Mr. Alfred Mellor, in Cummington, 
but will not be completed for some time. The area is stocked 
with a heavy growth of mixed hardwoods and conifers of good 
size. There is much to do on this piece of woodland property 
to place it in the condition desired by the owner. In certain 
places where trees have been cut and logged by the old methods 
there are, as is usually the case, quantities of slash left as a 
breeder for forest fires. Much of this will be cleaned up and 
burned this winter. The trees on the property are of such size 
that much of the work to be done in the future should be 
carried on at a profit to the owner, whose intention it is to do 
about one-tenth of the work each year. This is probably the 
first piece of woodland thinning ever carried on in Cummington. 
It is hoped others will follow Mr. Mellor 's lead. 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Barton Lot. 

A thinning operation is now being carried on in Foxborough 
on the 60-acre tract of Mr. W. A. Barton, the tract constituting 
the woodland surrounding Sunset Lake. This is an operation 
consisting of the thinning out of about 150 cords of wood in a 
heavily stocked medium grovslh of mixed hardwoods and pine. 
It is thought the cost to the owner will be slight. All of the 
cordwood has already been sold on the lot. 

Taunton Hospital Lot. 

The tree growth covering about 50 acres at the Taunton 
State Hospital has been partly marked for thinnings, and a 
crew of men are at present engaged in removing the marked 
trees. This piece of woods is moth-infested and contains a 
large number of slowly dying trees of good size. It is the in- 
tention of Mr. Goss, the superintendent, to gradually under- 
plant the entire thinned area. The small trees needed are to 
be furnished from the State nursery. 

Markings will be completed in the near future over the entire 
tract, and it is hoped the choppers will have the marked trees 
cut, slash burned and the area ready for underplanting by the 
spring of 1914. The choppers are men employed by the in- 
stitution, and all wood cut is used there. 

Reed Lot. 

The W. A. Reed property of 60 acres in Cummington, con- 
taining a good growth of mixed hardwoods and conifers of 
various ages, has been marked for heavy thinnings, and the 
marked trees are to be removed if possible this winter. The 
cutting and hauling of the logs, of which there will be several 
thousand feet, will be done by a local contractor. The major 
part of the lumber vrill be used by the owner. 

A certain portion of the area is open land, and suitable for 
planting. It is the owner's intention to have this area stocked 
gradually from year to year, and to carry on all work done 
under advice from this office. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



53 



Greenfield Lot. 

The Greenfield Women's Club purchased a tract of land 
known as Temple Woods on a steep, rocky ledge east of the 
town for the purpose of preserving the timber thereon, as it is 
in a region used by the people of Greenfield as a park. The 
growth is of considerable size and age, and is made up of pine, 
oak, chestnut, hemlock and hickory. O^dng to the thin and 
rock>^ soil, and also, in part, to a fire that had been through a 
portion of the tract some years ago, many of the trees were 
dead or in poor condition. It was thought best to cut this 
over-mature growth and thus thin the woods. The chopping 
was done by our own men, the hauhng was let out to a 
farmer, and the lumber was sold in the log to a mill man in 
Greenfield. About four acres of open land were planted with 
young pines, and all slash and brush left after logging were 
piled and burned. About 50,000 feet of lumber and 35 cords 
of wood were cut. O^^-ing to the rough and precipitous nature 
of the land, and the lack of snow during the logging season, the 
expense of the work was heavy, but the returns about bal- 
anced the outlay. 

Thinnings on Mountain Tracts. 

It is hoped that this year permission can be obtained from 
the owners of the woodland property, upon which some of the 
State observation stations are located, to allow a forester from 
this office to make certain markings of the trees thereon, 
with the object in view of ha\'ing the observation men make 
cuttings during such time as they may have when weather is 
not suitable for observation work. Such operations would of 
course be carried on slowly, but much good could be accom- 
plished in time at practically no expense. 

There should be many owners desiring to have their wood- 
lands thinned this coming year. The good accomplished by 
proper thinnings is very apparent. Fire danger is very ma- 
terially reduced, while the woods are much more accessible. 
If infested with moths this danger is lessened, the trees left are 
in better growing condition, a better stand is assured, and, 
generally, thinned woods lose little of their value from an 
aesthetic point of view. 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Maps. 

There were completed during the past year 24 maps for the 
use of the State Fire Warden and his observers. Nearly every 
outlook station in the State was fitted out with a new table 
map and alidade for use in locating forest fires. These maps 
consist of the United States government topographical sheets 
placed together, upon which the town boundary lines were 
laid out. We are indebted to the Harbor and Land Commis- 
sion for the use of the town boundary lines obtained by the 
commission from comparatively recent surveys. 

A large line map was also made for use in fire work, and 
also several maps for the moth department. There is still a 
good amount of map work to be done as soon as time will 
permit. 

A recent feature in connection with the survey work carried 
on by this department is the marking of all corners on State 
lots with a 3-foot section of steel pipe. These pipes and stones 
make corners that cannot be eliminated or injured by fire, and 
should last at least fifteen to twenty years. It is very essential 
that lot corners be so marked that any future trouble may be 
eliminated. It has been impossible to place these steel corners on 
any except recently surveyed lots on account of lack of time, but 
as fast as possible this year the re-marking will be attended to. 

A summary of some of the w^ork accomplished by the forest 
management branch of the department in the past few years is 
as follows : — 



Examinations. 


Number. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Examinations. 


Number. 


Area 
(Acres). 


1904, .... 


14 


2,000 


1909, . . . 


60 


15,862 


1905 


36 


6,545 


1910 


49 


6,495 


1906 


47 


9,357 


1911, .... 


66 


9,694 


1907 


37 


8,713 


1912, .... 


58 


5,748 


1908, .... 


65 


15,842 


1913 


54 


10,250 





Chestnut Bark Disease. 
We have been very solicitous in this State as to the effect 
of this malady upon our chestnut trees during the past few 
years. The bulletins published by the State Forester have 



mixed mature stand at Norwell, showing white oaks on the right over one 
hundred years old and white pine trees on the left about fifty years of age. This 
lot is being operated on account of the gypsy moth infestation. The white pine 
is worth ten times the oak; further, the pine is resistant in clear stands. This 
explains why M hite pine is popular in reforestation. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



55 



served to give the information necessary to identify the disease, 
and as far as we know, what to do for it. 

Early last spring I took a trip to Pennsylvania and Wash- 
ington, D. C, to ascertain the latest information regarding the 
chestnut bark disease. The State of Pennsylvania has had a 
special State commission and a large appropriation for this 
work. The Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture has also had an appropriation of 
880,000 a year from Congress, and has had experts in the field. 
This latter appropriation was made possi^ble through the special 
interest taken by our Massachusetts senators, Messrs. Crane 
and Lodge. This trip resulted in my learning the latest meth- 
ods in Pennsylvania, and in securing an appropriation of S3, 000 
from the Bureau of Plant Industry as the government's con- 
tribution to the State in attempting some co-operative work. 

This season's work was immediately inaugurated, and free 
assistance and advice were offered to any one in the State 
having chestnut growth. Mr. Murdoch, one of my assistants 
who had had previous experience in the work, was put into the 
field and later we secured the services of Mr. Roy G. Pierce, 
who has been in our employ since early in July. Mr. Pierce 
is a graduate of the University of ^lichigan School of Forestry, 
and later was connected with the L'^nited States Forest Service. 
Previous to coming to Massachusetts he was employed for a 
year by the Pennsylvania Blight Commission, coming to us, 
therefore, well recommended. 

Discovery in Massachusetts. 
The chestnut blight was not found in Massachusetts until 
1909, at which time 4 cases were authentically reported. The 
evidence found later indicates its presence as early as 1905 or 
1906. In the summer of 1911, as reported in our bulletin, it 
was found in 72 towns. Since that time the blight has been 
found in at least 200 towns and cities in the State, and it is 
^•e^y probable that it is now in every town and city where 
chestnut grows to any extent. 

Examinations for Blight. 
Up to July, 1911, the work consisted mainly of examination 
of woodlands for individual owners, and of general scouting to 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ascertain the prevalence of the disease throughout the State. 
In 1911, 6 of these special examinations were made for the 
blight. This was increased to 28 in 1912, on 2,291 acres. 
During the past year the examinations have been increased by 
174 on approximately 8,000 acres of land. 

Educational Work. 

Since Mr. Pierce's connection with the work we have been 
able to broaden out along several lines. The educational fea- 
ture has been emphasized as being a very necessary part in the 
problem of bringing before our people the methods of handling 
chestnut woodlands affected by the bark disease. 

The State Grange field meetings were attended at Waban, 
Billerica, Springfield, Greenwich Village, Berkshire Park, Col- 
rain, Athol and Leominster. At each of these summer meet- 
ings specimens of the chestnut blight fungus were exhibited, 
and the manner of spread, the symptoms of the disease and its 
importance were shown to all those who were interested. The 
State Forester's bulletin on the "Chestnut Bark Disease" was 
generally distributed at these meetings. 

Three of the largest fairs of the State representing the eastern, 
middle and western sections were attended, namely, at Brock- 
ton, Worcester and Great Barrington. At Brockton and 
Worcester, through the courtesy of the extension department 
of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, ample table and 
wall space was secured for an excellent exhibit of logs from 
blight-killed chestnut trees, also specimens of bark from thin 
and thick barked trees, showing the characteristic appearance 
of the blight canker or blister on the former and the reddish 
brown pustules of the fungus in the cracks of the latter. Photo- 
graphs, bulletins and charts were also displayed. Hundreds of 
wood-lot owners stopped for advice and to ask questions regard- 
ing the blight. Mr. Pierce gave a paper before the Massachu- 
setts Tree Wardens' and Foresters' Association in Boston on 
August 22. Addresses were also given before the granges or 
local organizations at Montgomery, Blandford, Granville, 
Palmer and Brimfield, and before two classes at the Framing- , 
ham Normal School. 

Numerous press notices have appeared in the papers regard- 



19U.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



57 



ing the chestnut blight work in the State. Without this help 
from the press the people could not have been reached in the 
way they have been. The results of this educational work 
have been encouraging. 

During the season this department has begun some effective 
forest-mapping work, as noted elsewhere in this report, and 
this offered an exceptional opportunity to systematically deter- 
mine the chestnut-blight conditions. A brief description of the 
infestations as found in the follomng towns may prove of 
interest : — 

Auburn. — The chestnut blight has not made much headway 
in Auburn as yet. A number of isolated cases were found, but 
nothing threatening great damage at present. 

Blackstone. — The per cent, of timber land covered with 
chestnut comprises at least one-half of the total, and probably 
two-thirds has some chestnut on it. The bark disease, although 
present in nearly all extensive stands of chestnut, seldom ex- 
ceeds one affected tree per acre. West of the Mendon Road, 
near the Mendon-Blackstone line and in the extreme north- 
western corner of the town, are large tracts with 5 or more 
infections per acre, these being the worst cases of the disease 
in the town. 

Douglas. — Chestnut bark disease scattered. Only individ- 
ual trees attacked throughout the town. More prevalent in 
northern half, and usually among smaller growth. Chiefly 
noticeable around East Douglas. 

Dudley. — In the timber along the western part of the town 
the chestnut bark disease occurs, but not very widely dis- 
tributed. In young sprout stands, of which there are large 
areas, it is practically everywhere. There is very little evidence 
of its presence in the larger chestnut area in the eastern part of 
the town. 

Grafton. — Chestnut constitutes practically 70 per cent, of 
the woods. Blight infections in stands 10 inches and over in 
diameter will not average more than 2 or 3 to the acre. Some 
of the stands are entirely free from it. In young sprout areas 
the disease is spread much more, in most cases about 10 to 15 
young trees to the acre being infected. Some 200 acres of 
young sprout land, north of Goddard Pond, between the rail- 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



road and the road to the north, is pretty generally infected. 
The disease is found throughout the entire town, but is far 
more prevalent on the younger trees. 

Northhridge. — The chestnut blight has badly infected young 
chestnut sprout lands, much of which occurs in this town. 
Almost every plot of young chestnut contains infected trees. 
In the western part of the tow^n, in the woods of larger trees, 
the blight is not very prevalent. It occurs scatteringly in 
practically all chestnut woods in the eastern part of the town. 

Sutton. — The chestnut blight occurs practically everywhere 
in the young sprout lands. The older trees as yet do not show 
the effects. In one place, situated about midway up the eastern 
boundary of the town it has killed every tree, and at present 
is spreading fast in all directions. 

This chestnut bark disease work the State Forester has 
organized for purposes of economic effectiveness, as follows: 
The assistant in immediate charge, who is an expert, is given a 
definite policy to carry out. The expert, Mr. Pierce in this 
case, is then authorized to enlist the assistance of the regular 
staff of this organization as a large auxiliary body of men to 
report their observations as they travel about the State. This 
necessitates the acquaintance of the men with the disease. 
Co-operation in this way increases the amount of good the 
department may do; also broadens and develops our employees 
for greater usefulness. 

Besides the assistants and division men, forest wardens, moth 
superintendents and patrolmen are all included. 

Recommendations, 

Studies made throughout the State show that the younger 
thin-barked chestnut sprouts have become affected by the chest- 
nut bark disease to a much higher per cent, than older stands 
of thick-barked trees; that is, while the younger trees are often 
infected from 25 to 100 per cent., the older trees near by would 
show infection from only 1 to 10 per cent. 

While it is possible by removal of blight cankers and diseased 
limbs on valuable lawn and park trees, or on grafted nut trees, 
to prolong the life of chestnut trees affected by the bark dis- 
ease, yet this sort of treatment is not applicable to forest trees. 
Wherever the chestnut blight has affected the trees in the forest, 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — Xo. 73. 



59 



the only treatment possible to check the disease is the prompt 
removal of the infected trees. This is specially advised where 
the diseased trees are large enough to produce valuable prod- 
ucts, as poles, ties, posts and cordwood. 

The removal of all near-by sources of infection will render the 
timber less liable to be infected in the future, since the blight 
seems to spread faster from local centers to near-by trees than 
to trees at a distance. 

Better forest practice is needed in combating this disease. 
The general practice has been to clean-cut the chestnut and 
oak stands in southern New England without intermediate 
thinnings. This has often been wasteful. The trees which 
make up the dominant growth in forty or fifty year old stands 
have had to fight for light, food and moisture at the expense 
of the weaker trees. Proper thinnings would tend to reduce 
the fierce competition, give an intermediate yield, as well as 
cut down the time at which the trees would reach a merchant- 
able size. The experiments of European foresters have shown 
that the rotation of the timber crop can be shortened by judi- 
cious thinnings from 10 to 20 per cent. 

Since it seems that the smaller chestnut trees in Massachu- 
setts are liable to be infected by the chestnut bark fungus to 
a greater extent than larger trees, it may be concluded that 
the faster the small trees can be made to grow, the quicker 
will they become more resistant to the disease. The rate of 
diameter growth may be very materially increased by proper 
thinnings. 

As heretofore, this department stands ready to advise any 
owners of chestnut growth, as to its present and future manage- 
ment, at no expense. It is more satisfactory to both parties 
where the OT\Tier goes over the woodlands personally with the 
expert. For examinations, make application to this office. 

Report of the State Fire Wardex. 
Mr. F. \Y. Rane, State Forester, 

Sir: — In compliance with your request, and in accord with the pro- 
visions of chapter 722, section 2, Acts of 1911, I beg to submit the follow- 
ing report of the work accomphshed b}^ this branch of the department 
t his year: — 

The same division of the State has been continued again this year as 
follows: District No. 1,. Essex, ^Middlesex and Norfolk counties; District 



60 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Xo. 2, Barnstable, Bristol and Plymouth counties; District No. 3, Worces- 
ter County and west to the Connecticut River; District No. 4, Berkshire 
County and east to the Connecticut River. Each district is under the 
superA-ision of a district forest warden. Two changes have been made 
in the personnel of the district forest wardens. Mr. James E. Moloy, 
who has had supervision of District No. 1, was made inspector of loco- 
motives, being succeeded by Mr. Oscar L. Noyes. Mr. Albert R. Ordway 
has been appointed district warden of the 4th district to succeed Mr. 
Frank L. Haynes, who has been promoted to the position of assistant 
forester, assisting in the forest management work. 

The district forest wardens have full supervision of the work in their 
districts, being in charge of the several observation stations, as well as 
constructing telephone lines, erecting steel towers, map-making, visiting 
each town and consulting with the selectmen and town forest wardens 
and deputies relative to the need of additional equipment for handling 
fii*es, and perfecting better forest fire-fighting organizations. This may 
seem a veiy easj^ matter, but when we take into consideration that we 
have 354 towns and cities, and that the matter of purchasing equipment 
must be brought before the citizens at their annual or special town meet- 
ings, it means an immense amount of work. 

In the work of perfecting town forest fire-fighting organizations we 
have been handicapped owing to the appointment of 354 town and city 
forest wardens being made by the selectmen of as many towns, this de- 
partment simply having the approval of them. The result is that we 
still have inefficient men in some towns, — men who are not interested in 
the preservation of the forests and who know little, if anything, about 
handling forest fires. This should be remedied by these appointments 
being made by this department, thus making the department responsible 
for the results. We should then have efficient men in every town. 

We have had in operation this year 21 observation stations reporting 
to the town forest wardens 3,238 fires. 

District No. 1. — In addition to the four observation towers already 
established in this district we have erected and equipped two 40-foot 
steel towers. One of these is located in the town of Essex on Morse Hill, 
which covers all of Cape Ann, as weU as aU the valuable timber land 
along the North Shore. We are deeply indebted to Col. Wm. D. Sohier, 
chairman of the North Shore summer residents committee, for his liberal 
contribution of $900 toward the tower and 7 acres of land which were 
acquired and donated to the Commonwealth. This tower was completed 
April 24 and used throughout the season. The second tower was built 
on Hart HiU in the town of Wakefield, this hiU being a part of the city 
reservation and making an ideal location for a tower. The town of Wake- 
field contributed $350 toward this tower. 

It is very important that a tower be placed on Nobscot Hill in the town 
of Framingham during the coming year, in order to assist several towns 
that are now receiving no protection. These unprotected towns will 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



61 



contribute liberally toward such a tower, which will complete the obser- 
vation system in District No. 1. 

District No. 2. — Two new 40-foot towers have been estabUshed in this 
district, one at North Hanson and one at Boumedale. The North Han- 
son tower is located on Bonney Hill and commands an excellent view. 
The towns of Duxbury, Hanson, Hanover, Halifax, Pembroke, Plymp- 
ton, Marshfield and Whitman contributed $725 toward the purchase of 
this tower. The Bournedale tower, located near the Bourne and Plymouth 
line, covers a large tract of valuable forest land, as well as many acres of 
burned-over areas in the towns of Bourne and Sandwich. The towns of 
Bourne and Wareham contributed $450 toward the erection of this tower. 
This burned area should be reforested, and with the protection derived 
from this tower and the hearty co-operation of the citizens of these towns, 
there should be YQvy little danger of any such fire as experienced there 
this year. 

Three other stations should be estabUshed in this district in order to 
completely cover it, located at Falmouth, Harwich and Fall River. The 
officials of these towns have expressed a desire to contribute very liber- 
ally if towers are located there. It is expected that the citizens of Barn- 
stable and Yarmouth will purchase a new steel tower to replace the old 
wooden one now in use at Shoot Flying Hill. Owing to the unsafe con- 
dition of the old tower during heavy winds that prevail in that locafitj^, 
and to the many visitors who frequent this tower, it is extremely neces- 
sary that a new tower be erected. The citizens of Middleborough, Lake- 
ville and Carver are contemplating the establishment of a tower on Bar- 
dons Hill in Middleborough, which will cover these towns as well as other 
surrounding towns. We have used the town hall at Middleborough this 
year, but have not been able to obtain nearly as good results as would 
have been obtained from Bardons Hill. With these extra towers we 
shall be able to protect all the forest area in this district. 

District No. 3. — Two temporary stations have been added in this dis- 
trict this year, — one on Uttle Muggett Hill in Charlton, which was used 
two months during the spring, and one on Lincoln Mountain, in Pelham. 
An old wooden tower was repaired and used at this latter station through- 
out the season. Several influential citizens of Amherst and surrounding 
towns have signified their desire to contribute liberally toward instaUing 
a steel tower at this point. It is necessary that the northern and southern 
portions of this district be better protected by the addition of at least 
two more stations, but as no co-operative agreement is in operation 
between this State and the States of New Hampshire and Connecticut, 
it is not advisable to erect such towers until some satisfactory agreement 
can be reached relative to the proportionate charge for maintenance to 
be paid by the above States. 

District No. 4- — Owing to the discontinuance of the use of Greylock 
Mountain as an observation station, it has been necessary to build a 
temporary tower in the trees on Tower Mountain in Savoy, which was 



62 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



used a portion of the season. It is necessary that three new stations be 
estabUshed in tliis district along the boundary Unes of Vermont, New 
York and Connecticut, but the same consideration arises as to the future 
maintenance as in District No. 3. It is hoped that some definite agree- 
ment may be reached at once with the federal department and with 
adjoining States which wiW permit the estabhshing of these stations, 
thereby completing our observation system. 

Owing to the large number of people visiting our observation stations 
it has been found advisable, from an educational standpoint, to provide 
better means for reaching the observation rooms, so that they may be 
made accessible to women and elderly people. With this point in vieW; 
and with the generous contributions made by the different towns, we 
have equipped all our towers purchased this year with spiral or fire-escape 
stairs, with two landings before reaching the top. From the reports re- 
ceived from our observers it is surprising to note that we have had nearly 
3,000 people ^dsit our towers this season, representing nearly every State 
in the Union and many of the foreign countries. 

Forest Fire Equipment. 

Under an act of the Legislature passed in the spring of 1910, appropri- 
ating $5,000 annually for forest fire protection, towns with a valuation 
of SI, 500,000 or less are entitled to 50 per cent, reimbursement on all 
forest fire-fighting equipment they desire to purchase not exceeding $500, 
no town being allowed an amount exceeding $250. All forest fii-e equip- 
ment purchased under this act is approved by this department and placed 
under the supendsion of the town forest warden, subject to inspection at 
all times by the State Fire Warden or the district forest wardens. 

We have at the present time 156 towns coming within the provisions 
of this act, and during the four years it has been in operation 108 towns 
have taken advantage of it. This year 53 towns have exhausted the 
appropriation. Until this year it has been extremely difficult to impress 
upon the citizens of the central and western parts of the State the import- 
ance of pro\'iding their towns with proper equipment, but of this j^ear's 
appropriation, over $3,000 was expended in Districts Nos. 3 and 4. The 
stjde of equipment desired varies in the different parts of the State. 
Throughout the eastern part fire extinguishers work to exceptionally good 
advantage in checking any ordinary fire, but in the western hiUy countrj'' 
it is extremely difficult to convince the pubHc that they can be used to 
good advantage at such fires, many preferring the old method of using 
shovels and dirt. These towns expend very little money for equipment of 
any nature; consequently, out of 56 towns west of the Cormecticut River 
that are entitled to reimbursement but 18 have taken advantage of- the 
act. 

There are at the present time 198 towns whose valuation exceeds 
$1,500,000, and that are, therefore, not entitled to reimbursement. Sev- 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



63 



eral of these towns have purchased equipment this year, thereby better 
protecting themselves from the ravages of the fire evil. In 1910, when 
the reimbursement law was enacted, there were 178 towns coming under 
the act. During the past four years the valuation of 22 of them has in- 
creased so that it now exceeds SI, 500,000, and they are no longer entitled 
to reimbursement. Owing to no special effort being made by this depart- 
ment along this line until the past two years, it seems but fair that the 
law be amended, making the valuation limit $1,750,000, thereby allowing 
these 22 towns to take advantage of the act. The following tables on 
pages 69 to 72, show, first, an itemized statement of the equipment pur- 
chased since the enactment of the law and the amount received by each 
town from the Commonwealth during that period; second, a list of the 
towns having purchased equipment this year and the amount of reim- 
bursement received by them. This department holds receipts from the 
town forest wardens for all equipment purchased under the act. 

Railroad Fires. 

The raikoad fire situation is gradually improving, but owing to the 
fact that there are over 2,000 locomotives, and over 2,500 miles of right 
of way within this State, it is very evident that a vast amount of work 
must be done to eliminate railroad fires. In addition to the above we 
have the many miles of slash accumulation adjoining the right of way 
where owners seem indifferent, preferring in many instances to allow the 
burning of it by sparks from locomotives, whereby they may get a fair 
revenue in the form of damage claims, rather than to dispose of it them- 
selves and thereby eliminate the danger of fires during severe drought. 

Through the courtesy of the Board of Railroad Commissioners and the 
consent of the railroad officials this department has been able to maintain 
a system of locomotive inspections, one inspector being detailed on this 
fine of work and vested with authority to inspect the spark arresters and 
ash pans of locomotives in operation throughout the State. In addition 
to this, the New York Conservation Commission has inspected all loco- 
motives running into New York State, thus improving the condition of 
locomotives used in the western part of Massachusetts. Our records 
show that 1,105 locomotives were inspected, of which 26 per cent, of the 
Boston & Albany locomotives, 23 per cent, of the Boston & Maine loco- 
motives, and 49 per cent, of the New York, New Haven & Hartford loco- 
motives were defective. A large percentage of the defective locomotives 
were found in the early part of the season. As the season advanced, and 
extra men were assigned to repairing the defects and installing new screens 
where necessary, inspections showed a very decided improvement, very 
few defective locomotives being found. As this inspection work is most 
important, it is necessary that at least one more inspector be employed 
this coming season. 

Mr. E. A. Ryder, who has charge of the fire prevention department of 



64 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the Boston & Maine Railroad, is certainly deserving of a great deal of 
credit for his excellent record in reducing the fire claims of that road in 
the past two years. From a loss of $200,000 in 1911 to one of less than 
850,000 this year is certainly very commendable, especially so when we 
take into consideration the continuous drought that was experienced in 
this State tliis year, producing a condition for fires almost unprecedented. 
In order that still better results may be obtained, this road is equipping 
all locomotives running over the Central Massachusetts division with the 
Mudge-Slater spark arrester, a de\dce which has been used with great 
success on the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad in the west and on the 
IMaine Central Railroad in the east. They are also to maintain a patrol 
service along dangerous sections, patrolmen being provided with gasoline 
speeder cars which will accommodate two men and the necessary equip- 
ment for their use. 

The results accomplished by the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad have not been as satisfactory as was desired. Little attention 
was paid to defective spark arresters until the matter was called to the 
attention of the vice-president of the road, showing the vast amount of 
money expended by the road for settling fire claims and extinguishing 
fires, and that little or nothing was being done to remedy the cause of 
these fires. Orders were at once issued requiring that special attention 
be paid to all spark arresters and ash pans, and inspections made late in 
the season showed a very decided improvement. 

Our railroad fire reports show that we have had 913 railroad fires, as 
follows: Central Vermont, 65; Boston & Albany, 151; Boston & Maine, 
232; New York, New Haven & Hartford, 465; burning over an area of 
16,620 acres, with a cost to extinguish of $8,930 and a damage of $64,222. 

Owing to the large number of fires throughout the Cape country, the 
greater per cent, of which were caused by locomotives, the Public Service 
Commission was petitioned, under date of August 19, as foUows: — 

To the Public Service Commission: 

Respectfully represents F. William Rane, as he is State Forester, that in that 
part of the Commonwealth comprising Barnstable County there have been for 
many years past a very large number of fires set in the grass lands and woodlands 
by sparks from locomotives operated by the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad Company; that many of these fires have burned over large areas of wood- 
lands and destroyed large quantities of wood, both cut wood and standing wood, 
and fires spreading from these fires in the woodlands have burned and destroyed 
dwellings and other buildings ; that many complaints from private citizens residing 
in the difi'erent villages and towns in said county have been made to him, as State 
Forester, all calling attention to the large number of fires that have been set by 
sparks from locomotives; that your petitioner has repeatedly called the attention 
of the officials of said railroad to the above conditions, and said officials have, by 
the installation of spark arresters on the locomotives, and by clearing up and burn- 
ing the grass wdthin the locations, sought to prevent the escape of sparks from the 
locomotives and the starting of fires, but the number of fires has increased rather 
than decreased; that a careful investigation has been made and the following appear 
to be the conditions throughout the entire county, from Buzzards Bay to Prov- 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



65 



incetown, from Buzzards Bay to Woods Hole, from Yarmouth to Hyannis, and 
from Harwich to Chatham, to wit: there is only a single track on the main line 
and the above branches, with sidings at the different stations; that the roadbed 
over its entire length is of very uneven and varying grades; that there are operated 
daily a large number of trains, both freight and passenger; that because of said 
diflferent grades, and because of there being but a single track, there is necessity 
of making the schedules so that the trains maj' meet and pass at the meeting points; 
that the locomotives of necessity in many instances have to be run at forced draft, 
and therefore many sparks are emitted from them and many fires are thereby set; 
that dxiring the past sunamer months a very large nvmiber of fires have occurred, 
and reports and complaints are being daily received by the State Forester of the 
numerous fires that are being set, both within and adjoining the railroad location, 
by sparks from the locomotives, which fires spread over the adjoining lands of 
private owners; that in consequence of these many fires many of the communities 
are in comparative fear of fires and of the damage resulting from them ; that while 
the nimaber of fires has been very great during the immediate past two months, 
owing probably to the unusual dryness of vegetation, yet during all the year, when 
conditions are normal, an unusually large number of fires are set in this county by 
sparks from locomotives; that the railroad company has made an effort to reduce 
the number of fires by clearing up its right of way and by equipping engines "with 
spark arresters, but the dryness of the vegetation and the unevenness of the road- 
bed, requiring heavy firing of the locomotives at many parts of the system in this 
county, has resulted in causing a large number of fires to be set (for example, it is 
reported from the village of Barnstable that in a distance of less than 2 miles 11 
fires were started on Saturday, August 16, an actual count of burned places within 
and just outside the railroad location, between the railroad stations at West Barn- 
stable and Barnstable, a distance of 4 miles, shows that a total number of 70 fires 
have already been set during the present summer, and a casual observation while 
riding on the train shows that a very large number of fires have been set wdthin 
and adjoining the railroad location thioughout the whole length of the line in said 
county) ; that your petitioner, in his capacity as State Forester, acting under the 
authority of acts of the different Legislatures, has been for several years estab- 
lishing nurseries and plantations in different parts of the Commonwealth for the 
growing of trees, and has set out in various parts of Barnstable County plantations 
of trees, all of which is being done both to create a new growth of trees and also 
to encourage among private individuals the further growth of timber growing 
within the Commonwealth and in that county; that in consequence of the many 
fires which have been set by sparks from locomotives and from other causes, the 
nurseries and plantations of trees have been seriously menaced ; that further intro- 
duction has been retarded and private individuals have hesitated to engage in 
forestry work; that a careful investigation of the conditions has convinced your 
petitioner that the only remedy for preventing the setting of the large nimaber of 
fires is by a change of means of operating the engines of the New York, New 
Haven & Hartford Railroad Company from the present coal-burning fuel engines 
to either the electrification of that part of the New York, New Haven & Hartford 
Railroad system which It operates in Barnstable County, or by equipping the 
present engines, now equipped to burn coal only, with such devices as will allow 
the burning of oil; that the electrification of that part of the line of said railroad, 
while it would permanently prevent a recurrence of the present conditions, yet 
seems to be impracticable at the present time because of the cost of installing such 
a system; that the use of oU-burning engines in other parts of the United States, 
where railroad locations run through forest and woodlands, has shown that the 
use of such oil-burning engines has resulted in practically an entire stopping of 
fires. 

WheTefoTBt yoiu: petitioner respectfully prays that your honorable board may 
determine that only engines equipped with oil-burning devices shall be operated 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



by said railroad company in Barnstable County, and will make an order requiring 
said railroad company to forthwith so equip its engines for use in said countj' with 
oil-burning devices, and operate only such engines in said county. 

In response to the above petition the following order was issued: — 
It is 

Ordered, That a copy of this petition be sent to the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford Railroad Company with tne request that it make report as to the feasi- 
bility of substituting oil for coal, particularly in the Cape district; also as to the 
comparative cost of the two methods of supplying fuel for the engines, including 
also consideration of economics by reason of saving in damage claims for forest 
fires set. 

It is further 

Ordered, That the petition stand for public hearing on Sept. 22, 1913, at 10..30 
o'clock in the forenoon, to be duly advertised. 
Attest : 

(Signed) Allan Brooks, 

Assistant Secretary. 

The State Forester's department was represented at this hearing by 
Deputy Attorney-General Henry M. Hutchings, acting attorney for this 
department. Nearly 100 residents and property owners residing in Barn- 
stable County were in attendance, including the Hon. Thos. C. Thatcher, 
who made the trip from Washington especially to be heard on this matter, 
Wm. C. Adams, representing the Fish and Game Commission, Chas. C. 
Craig, representing boards of trade of Falmouth and Cape Cod, delegates 
from many granges, and members of the boards of selectmen of every 
town in Barnstable County. A whole day was devoted to the discussion, 
at the conclusion of which the chairman of the Pubhc Service Commission 
stated pubHcly that it had been proven to the satisfaction of the commis- 
sion that the forest-fire situation along the railroad was critical. At the 
conclusion of the hearing a statement was filed with the railroad requiring 
certain information relative to the present operating expenses of the road 
within Barnstable County. Upon receipt of this information a second 
hearing is to be called at which expert testimony wiU be introduced show- 
ing the approximate cost of burning oil as compared with the present 
expense of operation. 

Rural 'Mail Carriers. 
The results obtained from the co-operation ^\-ith the 300 rural mail 
carriers within the State were not as satisfactory as we had expected, 
this being undoubtedly due to the fact that this department is not in 
direct touch with the carriers, all instructions from this office being sub- 
mitted to the postmasters. During the last of the season we de\'iated 
somewhat from this plan and requested our district wardens to personally 
call on the carriers, whenever an opportunity presented itseK, and interest 
them in this line of work. These interviews have already shown results, 
and I feel that when we are able to get in touch with all the carriers greath' 
improved results will be shown. Our reports from the postmasters show 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 67 



that 144 fires were reported by the carriers during the year. This number 
would undoubtedly have been very materially increased if reports had 
been received direct from the carriers. 

Federal Co-operation. 
The Weeks bill passed in 1910, pro\ading for the purchase of portions 
of the White IMountain and Appalachian Mountain regions, also provides 
for the protection against fires of watersheds of na\ngable streams in the 
United States. The co-operative work in this State is confined to the 
watersheds of the Nashua, Chicopee, Miller, Thames, Blackstone, Hud- 
son, Connecticut and Deerfield rivers, and an allotment of S3,000 was 
made by the federal department for carrying on the work within these 
watersheds. This fund was used for the pajnnent of observers in the 
various observation towers throughout the central and western parts of 
the State. This appropriation has made it possible to better protect the 
above watersheds than would have been possible under our limited State 
appropriation. 

Danger from Slash. 

The greatest fire e\'il this department has to contend with is the slash 
problem. It is impossible even to give an estimate of the number of the 
thousands of acres of slash there are left upon the ground throughout 
the State at the present time, but some idea may be reached when we 
take into consideration that there are 297 portable savyTnills in operation, 
and in only 12 instances has there been any disposition made of the slash. 
We also have over 300 miles of power line, a large percentage of which 
runs through forest lands. These lines are cut, in most instances, 150 feet 
wide, and in nearly exery case the slash is piled against the adjoining 
forest area. These power lines would make excellent fire lines, pro^dded 
they were cleaned and the brush disposed of. 

Then we have the many miles of highway where not only do we have 
the accumulation of slash on property adjoining the highway, but the 
land within the road hmits is not cleaned in many instances. If this w^ere 
cleaned the many fires starting from automobile parties and others care- 
lessly throwing lighted matches, cigars and cigarettes along the roadside 
would be lessened very materially. The time is certainly at hand when 
legislation should be enacted that will improve the slash conditions 
throughout the State and put a stop to the enormous damage from fires 
from tliis cause. 

Boy Scouts. 

The following communication from Scout Commissioner Ormond E. 
Loomis of the Greater Boston District gives a Yery good idea of the inter- 
est shown by the Boy Scout organization in the prevention of forest fires. 

Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNs, State Fire Warden, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Complying with your request that we submit a report showing 
to what extent the Boy Scouts in Massachusetts have benefited the State by 



68 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



checking or stopping forest or brush fires, I am glad to send you herewith the very 
meager information given me. This is accurate for Greater Boston alone, as our 
oflfice has supervision only over scouts in the towns of Greater Boston, that is, 
those in towns within a 10-mile radius of the State House. 

Scouts in this territory have discovered and reported many small brush fires in 
sections of our State reserve and in large wooded estates in the vicinity of Boston, 
especially in Milton, Quincy and Braintree districts and the Waltham, Medford, 
Lexington and Wakefield districts. Through your State officials and fire wardens 
in the various outlying districts you have doubtless already heard of the work 
done near Falmouth, Gardner and Fitchburg, and that done out in the Berkshire 
Hills. Of these I have only the general newspaper reports. 

Special groups of scouts in smaller towns have patrolled dangerous sections 
near railroad tracks during the extra dry season of the summer. They were prob- 
ably instrumental in locating several small fires that might have been seriously 
damaging, but it is difficult to say accurately just how much value their services 
were. Numerous instances have come to my attention in which boys have stopped 
grass fires, but in most cases these were considered by them so unimportant that 
no special reports were made. 

It is my belief that much more has been done during the year in the way of 
prevention than by actual work in stopping fires already started. The bulletins 
fxirnished by you to our scout officials have done more than any other one thing to 
instruct them as to what the law in Massachusetts, regarding the lighting of fires, 
is, and to indicate to them what they should do whenever they observe a fire. The 
information contained in the pamphlet has been freely disseminated so that scouts 
also are now fairly well informed as to what they should and should not do when 
traveling afield. Perhaps it is safe to assume that their knowledge and caution 
has had a good influence on others who might have committed offences and upon 
those who, because of lassitude or indifference, were slow to inform the State 
authorities that offences were being committed. 

In the interests of further safety and instruction I should like very much to 
have a new supply of pamphlets to distribute to those who have become scout 
masters since your first distribution of the information bulletins. 

Appreciating your kindly interest in the work of the scouts and your desire to 
educate them in their duties as future citizens of the Commonwealth, I am 

Sincerely yours, 

Ormond E. Loomis, 
Scout Commissioner. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 69 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement Act. 









i 
-g 






(0 










ra 

B 
S 




Reim- 


Town. 




00 


tingu; 


i 


nteru! 


ttock 




i 
g 


1 


ovels. 


Wire Br( 


a 
o 

bti 


ment. 




< 


03 
O 




o 






Ph 












Acushnet, 


1 


10 


16 




- 




4 


1 




- 


- 


11 


$143 22 


Ashburnham , 






8 




- 


- 








- 






25 00 


Ashby, . 


























34 50 


Ashfield, 






33 




- 


- 








- 


- 




99 00 


Ashland , 




6 


10 




- 




12 


6 




6 


12 




77 31 


Auburn, 






83 




- 










- 


- 




249 00 


Avon, . 




10 


- 




- 




12 






- 


- 




9 90 


Becket, . 




4 


6 
















12 




28 25 


Bedford, 


1 


14 


24 


















12 


249 67 


Belchertown, 






39 




- 


- 








- 


- 




171 62 


Bellingham, . 




16 


20 




- 




6 






8 




Jl 


113 17 


Berkley, 






24 




- 










- 


- 




144 00 


Berlin, . 


2 


10 


38 




- 


1 


12 




3 


12 


- 


Jl 


241 45 


Blandford, . 




1 


16 




















59 80 


Bolton. . 




14 


12 




- 


- 


6 






6 


- 




58 40 


Boxbo rough , 


1 




30 




- 


2 






3 


4 


- 


11 


180 46 


Borford, 






16 




- 


- 








- 






45 60 


Boylston, 






24 




- 


- 








- 


- 




76 20 


Brimfield, 




10 


30 




















99 75 


Burlington, 






20 




- 


- 








- 






100 00 


Carlisle, 


2 


15 


18 




2 


- 


6 




1 


6 


- 


1« 


247 72 


Charlton, 






68 




- 


- 


40 






60 


- 




221 37 


Chatham, 


2 


15 


10 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


- 


11 


152 98 


Chesterfield. . 






25 




















75 00 


Dana, 






6 




















18 75 


Dighton, 


2 


g 


18 












2 


2 




11 


108 67 


Douglas, 




25 


50 




















175 00 


Dunstable, 


2 


25 


10 




1 




4 




3 


6 


6 




106 14 


East Longmeadow, 


2 




18 


- 


2 




12 


- 




4 




11 


149 71 


Erving, . 






25 


30 












18 






86 52 


Freetown, 




24 


20 










2 




72 






166*58 


Georgetown, . 




20 


36 












6 


12 






134 83 


Gill, . 




5 


20 




















65 00 


Goehen, 






25 




















121 73 



1 One-horse. 



* Two-horse. 



70 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Town. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


Hoes. 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 




Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reim- 
burse- 
ment. 








1 




















$39 GO 


























2^ 


130 00 


Gr6Gixwicli| 






lo 




















60 45 


l»Trt V<>1 Tl H 




6 


12 












3 


12 






51 05 


Hadley, 


























75 00 


Halifax, 




12 


64 








12 






18 






241 91 


Hanson 




6 


24 




6 




6 






5 






250 00 




2 


7 


14 




2 


3 






3 


12 




12 


201 52 


xxuiuruuA., 




12 


10 




















69 00 








52 








18 






4 






175 75 


X^CVi^lCUU, . 


2 


20 


16 


8 


2 


4 




2 


4 


8 




21 


160 17 


Lunenburg, 


2 


12 


10 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 




1 ' 


149 28 






10 


20 










10 








1 


246 25 


IVXaslipee, 






22 














12 






74 80 


Men don, 


























90 00 


2W[ enrimac , 


























75 00 


Middletion 






16 




















49 50 


Millis 






8 


















12 


242 00 


New Braintree, 


























18 15 






55 


20 




















100 50 


Newbury, 


























18 15 


xN orioiK, • • 






18 




















99 00 


North Reading, 






24 


















11 


248 43 


Northborougli , 






25 




















102 37 


X^UlWClI, . 






32 








12 










11 


243 87 


Oakham, 




12 


24 




1 


1 


2 




3 


3 




11 


190 85 


Otis, 






10 




















60 GO 


Paxton, 


3 




28 


12 












6 






105 87 


Pelham, 






19 










1 










76 62 


Pembroke, . 






31 








60 










12 


250 00 


Petersham, . 


2 


10 


22 






3 


4 




3 


5 




11 


202 55 


PhilUpston, . 




6 


14 




















48 65 


Plainville, 


2 


10 


10 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


12 


1^ 


183 50 



1 One-horse. 2 Two-horse. ^ Motor truck. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 71 



IXVEXTOEY OF EqUIP^EEXT PURCHASED UNDER THE REIMBURSEMENT 

Act — Continued. 





Axes. 


Cans. 


X 

1 

a 

"3 

c 


. 

- 


i 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


CD 

s 


1 
- 


> 
2 

X 


x 

i 

pq 


n 


Reim- 
burse- 
ment. 


Plympton, . 
























tao93 


Prescott. 






10 




















48 16 


Princeton, 




32 


80 


















- 


249 20 


Raynhsm, 


3 


46 


30 


- 


6 




12 


- 


9 


15 


- 


31 


222 23 


Rehoboth, . 




10 


48 


















11 


250 00 


Richmond, . 




15 


25 


- 


- 




4 


- 


- 


~ 


- 


- 


86 20 


Rochester, 




24 


60 


- 


- 






- 


- 


30 


- . 


- 


205 37 


Roj-alston, 


3 


10 


22 


30 


2 


2 


12 


- 


- 


42 


— 


IJ 


145 10 


Russeil. 




7 


39 


















11 


220 25 


Rutland. 




12 


18 


- 


- 




6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1' 


250 00 


Salisbury-, 


3 




9 


- 


6 




24 


- 


- 


6* 


- 


- 


36 87 


Sandwich, 


22 


19 


36 


- 


- 


2 




- 


- 


24 




11 


245 60 


Shelburne, . 






50 


- 


- 






- 


12 


6 


- 


11 


1S6 87 


Shirley, 




48 


36 




















139 50 


Shutesbury, , 




16 


25 




















87 50 


^outhwick, . 


~ 


12 


20 


















11 


82 00 


Sterling, 






25 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


18 


1» 


241 12 


Stow, 






42 


- 


- 






- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


131 31 


Sturbridg", . 




J 1 


35 




















116 45 


Sudburj-, 






40 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 00 


Sutton, . 




cn 
ou 


50 


24 


- 






- 


32 


24 




- 


188 46 


Tewksbury, . 






24 


- 


2 






- 


- 


30 




11 


17i 00 


Townsend, 




_ 


46 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 






- 


250 00 


Tyngsborougb, 




120 


20 


- 


- 






30 


12 


24 




_ 


189 80 


Tyringham, . 


2 


10 


10 


- 


2 


1 


10 


- 


2 


3 




1« 


112 30 


Upton, . 






30 


- 


- 






- 


- 




12 


11 


235 28 


Wales, . 


2 


10 


40 


- 


2 


2 












11 


236 77 


Warwick, 




6 


10 




















154 35 


Washington, . 


- 




4 




















20 00 


Wendell, 


_ 




8 














12 






35 07 


West Boylston, . 


- 




107 




















250 00 


We?t Bridgewater, 






20 




















fiOO 12 


West Brookfield, . 


























121 75 



1 One-horse. 



- Two-horse. 



3 Motor truck. 



72 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 
Act — Concluded. 



Town. 


S3 


Cans. 


2 
.s 

a 

a 

'■iS 
M 


1 


05 

a 
ii 

S 
a 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


Rakes. 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


in 
fl 
O 

bO 
c3 


Reim- 
burse- 
ment. 


Westhampton, 






16 




















$48 00 


Westminster, 




52 


48 


24 


- 




24 






24 




- 


242 22 


West Newbury, 




10 


6 




















33 75 


Wilbraham, . 




27 


32 








23 




12 


6 






118 38 


Wilmington, . 




12 


40 




1 






18 




34 






187 38 


Windsor, 






30 




















150 00 


Worthington, 


2 


15 


10 






3 








5 






,86 01 


Wrentham, . 




12 


12 




4 














11 


210 10 


Totals, . 


69 1,001 


2,711 128 


50 


33 


355 


82 


122 ; 619 


72 


45 


S14,884 61 



1 One-horse. 



Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement during Year 1913. 



Ashbumham, 


$25 00 


Paxton, .... 


$105 87 


Ashfield 


99 00 


Pembroke, 


46 25 


Ashland, . . . . 


34 04 


Plain ville, 


5 00 


Auburn, . . . . 


39 00 


Plympton, 


20 93 


Becket, . . . . 


28 25 


Richmond, 


30 00 


Belchertown, 


100 00 


Rochester, 


205 37 


Bellingham, 


45 95 


Royalston, 


24 50 


Boxborough, 


90 46 


Russell, .... 


220 25 


Biu-Iington, 


100 00 


Salisbury, 


38 87 


Carlisle, . . . . 


54 00 


Shelburne, 


182 50 


Chesterfield, 


75 00 


Southwick, 


82 00 


Dana, . . . 


18 75 


Sterling, .... 


9 37 


Douglas, . . . . 


175 00 


Townsend, 


250 00 


Diinstable, 


106 14 


Tyringham, 


112 30 


East Longmeadow, 


149 71 


Upton, .... 


106 75 


Freetown, 


94 86 


Warwick, .... 


154 35 


Georgetown, 


36 00 


Washington, 


20 00 


Goshen, . . . . 


121 73 


West Boy 1st on, . 


2.50 00 


Granby, . . . . 


39 00 


West Brookfield, 


121 75 


GranviUe, 


130 00 


Westhampton, . 


48 00 


Halifax, . . . . 


36 00 


Worthington, 


86 OX 


Hubbardston, 


175 75 






Leverett, . . . . 


160 17 


Total, 


. $5,012 48 


Lsmnfield, 


160 00 


Unexpended balance, 


5 45 


Mashpee, . . . . 


40 25 






Mendon, . . . . 


90 00 




$5,017 93 


MUlis 


242 00 






New Salem, 


100 50 


Appropriation, 


. $5,000 00 


Norfolk 


99 00 


Credit by town of Wilbraham, 


17 93 


North Reading, 


114 00 






Oakham, . . . . 


52 85 




$5,017 93 


Otia, . . . . 


60 00 







1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 73 



Comparative Damages by Forest Fires for the Past Five Years. 



Year. 


Number 
of Fires. 


Acreage 
burned. 


Cost 
to extin- 
guish. 


Damage. 


Average 
Acreage 
per Fire. 


Average 
Damage 
per Fire. 


1909, 




1,496 


35,083 




$189,482 


23.45 


$126 66 


1910, . 




1.385 


42,221 


$23,475 


205,383 


30.46 


148 29 


1911, 




2,536 


99,693 


47,093 


537,749 


39.31 


226 24 


1912, , 




1,851 


22,072 


20,219 


80,834 


11.92 


43 67 


1913, 




2,688 


53,826 


35,456 


178,357 


20.02 


66 35 



Forest Fires of 1913. 



Months. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Cost to 
extinguish. 


Number. 


December, . 


1912. 


731 


$281 


$354 


93 


January, 


1913. 


43 


15 


44 


21 


February, . 




62 


57 


118 


38 


March, 




1,351 


2,896 


1,133 


317 


April, . 




8,385 


14,525 


5,686 


580 


May, . 




21,325 


93,345 


9,878 


684 


June, . 




5,092 


25,894 


2.835 


255 


July, . 




14,113 


35,050 


9.915 


345 


August, 




2,025 


5,586 


4,684 


250 


September, 




388 


390 


501 


38 


October, 




83 


34 


84 


9 


November, . 




228 


284 


224 


58 






53,826 


$178,357 


35,456 


2,688 



Comparative Causes of Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Causes. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Unknown, 


1,128 


44.5 


649 


35.1 


1 

650 


24.2 


Railroad 


685 


27.0 


640 


34.6 


913 


34.0 


Burning brush. 


135 


5.3 


93 


5.0 


148 


5.5 


Smokers, hunters, berry pickers, 


158 


6.2 


223 


12.0 


386 


14.3 


Steam sawmills, 


3 


.1 


i s 


.4 


6 


.2 


Children, 


118 


4.7 


79 


4.3 


109 


4.1 


Miscellaneous, 


309 


12.2 


159 


8.6 


476 


17.7 


Totals 


2,536 


100.0 


1,851 


100.0 


2,688 


100.0 



74 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Precipitation in Inches for the Years 1911, 1912 and 1913, with 
December of Previous Year. 



Months. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Normal. 


December, . 




3.24 


2.59 


5.73 


3.74 


January, 




3.07 


3.87 


3.21 


4.12 


Februarj-, . 




3.20 


2.24 


3.77 


3.97 


March, 




3.27 


5.26 


5.32 


4.34 






2.86 


4.05 


4.73 


3.46 


May, . 




.89 


4.03 


2.85 


3.37 


June, . 




A IR. 
4. /O 


.53 


3.20 


3.07 


July, . 




4.55 


4.16 


2.00 


3.65 


August, 




6.70 


3.85 


3.30 


3.70 


September, 




3.36 


1.71 


2.77 


4.36 


October, 




3.01 


1.52 


7.62 


4.13 


November, . 




5.71 


3.45 


2.70 


3.96 


Totals, . 




44.62 


37.26 


47.20 


45.87 





In addition to our town forest wardens we have 1,740 deputy wardens, 
1,205 of whom have telephone connection with our observation towers. 
We desire to have at least 6 deputies in each town located in different 
places throughout the forest area. 

The permit law, which has been in operation for the past three years, 
has given general satisfaction. There are stiU a few towns that have 
not accepted the act which we hope mU take advantage of it at their next 
towm meeting. Nearly 17,000 permits have been issued, with no serious 
fires resulting from them. The comparative table on page 73 shows 
acreage burned, cost to extinguish and damage caused. While this table 
shows an increase in damage, it also shows that we have had 837 more 
fires than last year and 156 more than in 1911, when our loss was $537,749. 

Earlj^ in the season 12,000 cloth and cardboard notices, calling at- 
tention to the fire losses in pre\dous years and quoting extracts from the 
forest-fire law, were posted conspicuously in everj^ town in the State. 
In spite of this we have had 19 prosecutions, 14 of which resulted in 
convictions for violations of the forest law. 

Exceptionally good results have been accomplished by our observa- 
tion stations this year. With a drouth lasting nearly eight weeks through- 
out eastern Massachusetts, including the dry and sandy Cape country, 
and with a record of over 3,000 fires reported by the observers, our records 
show only 6 serious fires which were allowed to burn some days with- 
out extinguishment. A careful investigation of these 6 fires has revealed 
in each case the presence of one or more of three common causes, namely, 
inefficiency in the town forest fire organization, lack of proper forest fire 



1914.] 



PUBLIC D0CLME>;T — No. 73. 



75 



fighting equipment, and indifference on the part of the general pubhc 
until such time as the fire assumed sufficient proportions to threaten 
their villages and homes. I do not wish to give the impression that this 
is the state of affairs in everj^ town, but I must admit that it has been 
found to be the condition in several instances where serious fires have 
occurred, and until these conditions can be remedied, or this department 
vested with authority, equipment and funds so that we may be in a po- 
sition to assume full responsibiUt}^, just so long shall we have serious 
fires and unncessary damages. It is of the greatest importance that 
some system be adopted whereby this department can be of assistance to 
the various to"«Tis in handhng their more dangerous fires. We should 
be supphed vdih at least two motor trucks equipped with modern forest 
fire apparatus and capable of carrj'ing from 10 to 15 men trained in forest- 
fire work. These trucks should be placed under the super\dsion of the 
district forest wardens and located, one in the Cape country and one 
in the central part of the State. Nearly every serious fire has been practi- 
cally extinguished the first day, but for various reasons was allowed to 
start anew the second day and was beyond control before iiight. It is 
on such occasions as these that we need men trained in this fine of work 
with sufficient equipment to handle large fires, together with some method 
of quick transportation to enable them to get to the fire promptly. With 
automobile trucks located as above we would be able to reach any fire 
throughout the eastern part of the State within two or three hours. 
RespectfuUj' submitted, 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

State Fire Warden. 

Gypsy axd Brown-tail Moth Work. 
The conditions of this work were discussed quite fully in 
last year's report by the writer. One year's time has not very 
materially changed them, generally speaking; nevertheless, I 
am frank to say that this work has never been more thoroughly 
comprehensive and better prosecuted than at the present time. 
Our organization is smaller, the men are giving greater study 
to the problems and more real work of a permanent nature is 
being done. The State Forester has constantly endeavored to 
impress the importance of making the moth work practical and 
self-supporting wherever and whenever possible. The local 
moth superintendents in our cities and towais are yearly ac- 
quitting themselves as men in whom confidence and public 
trust may be placed. When this work was first placed under 
my charge the constant yearly changes in the personnel of the 
local superintendents, due to various causes, resulted in much 



70 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

of the adverse criticism so common at that time. It has not 
been a pleasant duty to be compelled to differ with town 
authorities now and then, but it is fair to say that these differ- 
ences are in these later days amicably adjusted, as there is a 
better and more wholesome understanding of the aims and pur- 
poses of the work. ' 

It was due to the confidence in and ability of the local moth 
superintendents in our various cities and towns that it was 
possible to dispense with the office of inspector in this depart- 
ment during the present year. A few years ago it was necessary 
to have a force of 54 men in the general supervision of the 
moth work; this same work is now carried on by 15 men. 
Better equipment and modern transportation facilities, together 
with experienced superintendents already alluded to, have made 
this possible. 

Fifty more high-power sprayers were purchased by cities, 
towns and private parties last spring. These, together with 
the equipment already on hand, have increased our eflficiency 
very much. As has been emphasized heretofore it is necessary 
to have tools to work with to get work done. Occasionally a 
town finds it easier to contract its work out rather than go to 
the expense of equipment of its own, but invariably it pays out 
more and gets less done. A local superintendent who has a 
power sprayer feels it incumbent upon him to properly care 
for the public trees, while invariably citizens apply to him to 
have their private estates sprayed. This private work pays for 
itself and indirectly is of equal benefit to the town or city, 
besides giving employment to labor for a longer period, which 
guarantees a better quality. 

It is estimated that fully 500 tons of arsenate of lead were 
used during the season. 

At stripping time each of the division men made a careful 
survey of the forest lands thus infested, and submitted a list 
to the office, — the number of acres stripped, their location, 
together with the owner's address. Later printed notices 
were sent to each of the property holders offering advice. This 
information has resulted in splendid co-operation, and much 
practical work is now under way. 

The division men are endeavoring to get some real object- 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 77 



lessons established in their respective territories which, once 
accomplished, will serve an excellent purpose by way of in- 
struction. 

The parasites and the two diseases used in suppression work 
are certainly pleasing factors and give great encouragement. 
(See Dr. L. O. Howard's report on parasites and their work 
which is printed elsewhere.) The diseases are thoroughly 
established and are extremely effective. 

The United States government is concentrating its energies 
on holding the spread, and therefore this perplexing problem is 
in good hands. A belt across the State, three towns' wide, has 
been taken over by them, and every precaution is being exer- 
cised to hold the ground from further advance. This depart- 
ment is increasing its work in the towns next to those the 
government is caring for. Most of these towns have relatively 
low valuations and are largely wooded, and hence are unable 
to cope with the situation alone. Our strategic points now are 
to maintain our present ground and, through better methods 
and the assistance of diseases, parasites and forestry practices, 
eventually to hold them under subjection. It is no time, how- 
ever, for us to lessen our earnestness. The government, State 
and town forces are all worldng harmoniously together, and it 
is believed each year will show improved conditions. 

Private Property Work and the Moth Superintendent. 

The effective work accomplished by local moth superintend- 
ents last year on private property which is self-supporting has 
continued in increasing interest and public approval. The ideal 
town is one with a hustling, broad-minded moth superintendent, 
who is given full charge of the care of the trees and in whom 
everybody has confidence. Such an official should be employed 
by the year and his whole time given to the work. If the 
office of tree warden were an appointive one, the combination 
of the two positions would be ideal; here is one of our present 
difficulties, but in time this problem will settle itself. The 
position of city forester solves the question for the cities. 

The moth superintendent, through the opportunities offered 
on private property, can plan his work accordingly and enlarge 
his usefulness to the town. The more private work there is 



78 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the greater the opportunity to employ labor and hence to 
secure an active force of permanent men. 

It does not follow that just because the moth work is fixed 
by law, a man selected to take charge of it cannot engage in 
other equally beneficial undertakings to improve and care for 
the trees and shrubs of his town. There is no reason why a 
superintendent should not do other work on private property, 
such as pruning and spraying for other insects, provided the 
work is self-supporting. The amount of private work is yearly 
increasing in our towns and cities, and this is indicative of 
better results generally and an activity that savors of better 
conditions in the future. 

The Tent Caterpillar. 

One of our native insect pests which is the cause of great 
annoyance and damage to the farmers of Massachusetts is the 
common apple tree tent caterpillar. 

Nearly every year it is found in more or less abundance in 
various sections of the State, and the past two seasons have 
witnessed serious outbreaks of the insect. Its favorite food is 
the wild cherry, which is found growing along roadsides and 
stone walls which serve as breeding places for it. The tent 
caterpillar is easily recognized, owing to its habit of building a 
conspicuous nest in the fork of a limb which provides a shelter 
for it during stormy weather. 

From these tent-like homes the caterpillars immerge during 
pleasant days and feed on the foliage of the tree. The adult 
of this insect is a reddish-brown moth with light-gray mark- 
ings. It is flying about from the middle to the latter part of 
the summer, and the female moth deposits her eggs in a com- 
pact, dark-colored mass, usually entirely encircling a twig of 
the tree. In this stage of its life-history it remains during the 
winter, the eggs hatching the following spring. As soon as 
hatched the little hairy caterpillars begin feeding on the buds. 
At this time they begin the construction of the tent or nest in 
a near-by fork. As the foliage develops, the caterpillars feed 
on it, growing all the time. The caterpillar attains maturity 
about the 1st of July. Fully grown, the caterpillar is nearly 
2 inches long. The general color of its body is black with a 



A neglected orchard in the country. Orchards of this type are a menace to the 
surrounding country. They are non-productive and act only as breeding places 
for depredations of all kinds. They should be properly cared for or destroyed. 
This orchard not only was infested with tent caterpillar, as shown, but abounded 
with a mixture of insects and diseases. Mandatory legislation is the only eflfec- 
tive remedy. 




A neglected city orchard. Real estate has gone up in value and this property is 
being held as a waiting investment. These trees are neglected, and constitute 
a menace to the surrounding country. The land for house lots would be just 
as valuable without them, and why not give them away for the wood. Enough 
obnoxious insects are bred here to destroy shade, fruit and forest trees all about 
it. This should not be allowed. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



79 



white stripe running the entire length of its back, and on each 
side may be seen a row of blue spots. Soon after reaching 
maturity the caterpillars leave the tree, and finding suitable 
shelter, transform to the pupa stage. There is but one genera- 
tion of this insect a year. 

The tent caterpillar is not diflScult to control, and may be 
easily suppressed by spraying the trees w4th arsenate of lead, 
using 4 or 5 pounds to 50 gallons of water. Other methods are 
employed to destroy the caterpillars, such as burning them 
with a torch when they have collected on the nest during cool 
or cloudy weather. Care should be exercised in the use of a 
burning torch, however, as the tree may be seriously injured 
by burning the branches. 

Another insect found in Massachusetts closely related to the 
apple tree tent caterpillar is the forest tent caterpillar. This 
caterpillar may be distinguished from the ordinary tent cater- 
pillar described above by the fact that it has a pale blue head, 
and instead of the white stripe which marks the other species 
its back shows a row of white diamond-shaped spots. Its life- 
history is very similar to that of the common tent caterpillar, 
although it does not build a nest of any kind. As its name 
indicates, this insect is essentially a forest pest, although it 
attacks Iboth shade and orchard trees. 

Fortunately, it is held in check by natural enemies in the 
form of parasites and diseases, but if serious outbreaks occur 
the insect may be controlled by spraying with arsenate of lead, 
as in the case of other leaf-eating insects. 

Benefits to come from Birds. 
The conservation of bird life is a worthy problem, and our 
ornithologists and naturalists generally are rightfully solicitous 
for their propagation and protection. Occasionally a person 
gets it into his mind that this department disregards bird 
life in our operations. Nothing could be a greater mistake. 
When the effect of arsenical spraying and bird life was aired 
in the press a few years since, the State Forester took the mat- 
ter up with Mr. Forbush, the State Ornithologist, and some 
definite co-operative experiments were carried on in which 
Mr. Forbush exonerated the spraying. 



so 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



During the past two years splendid interests have been man- 
ifested in preserving bird life here in Massachusetts. Already 
town bird wardens have been appointed in a few towns. Bird 
sanctuaries, feeding grounds, covers for protection, houses, etc., 
are all receiving attention. This department is in perfect ac- 
cord with all of this work, and further observation and recogni- 
tion of assisting bird life will be given more consideration the 
coming season than ever. An interesting paper was presented 
by Mr. Wm. P. Wharton, before the Massachusetts Forestry 
Association at the annual meeting, which pointed out some 
observations he made abroad during the past summer. Some 
experiments along the suggestions made by Mr. Wharton may 
be put into operation here the coming year. There is every 
reason to believe that much good can be accomplished through 
enlisting the forest wardens and the local moth superintendents 
more actively in this work. These men are already town 
officials, and wnill gladly assist in every way. 

Another season I shall hope to go into this whole matter more 
in detail. It is not a question simply of the effect of bird life 
upon the moth problem alone that the department of the State 
Forester is interested in, but one which affects all forest and 
shade-tree pests. 

Work on State Highw^ays. 

This department assisted the State Highway Commission 
to the extent of looking after the spraying of the highways 
throughout the moth-infested section of the State. The spray- 
ing for the elm-leaf beetle was included in this work. Where 
we are able to use a traveling sprayer the work accomplished 
is satisfactory, but it is necessary to arrange with towns to do 
the work in many cases with varying results, since the town 
equipments for doing the work are widely different. With such 
a mileage of State roads it would seem an economical expendi- 
ture were the State prepared to do this w^ork through the use 
of modern auto truck sprayers. Besides being very effective 
during the spraying season they could be used for planting 
work, removing brush, etc., at other seasons of the year. 

Work was done in the following cities and towns on the State 
highways, and paid for by the Highway Commission: — 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 81 



State Highway Bills, 1913. 


Acton, 


. S41 25 


Grafton, 


. $15 75 




109 76 




28 10 


Amesbury, . 


13 59 


Groton, 


. 24 08 




15 75 




15 70 


Andover, 


31 50 


Grov eland, . 


. 25 74 




48 51 




22 87 


Ashburnham, 


39 50 


Hamilton, 


. 38 70 


Ashby, 


49 13 




7 75 


Ashland, 


19 50 


Haverhill, 


. 82 71 




45 82 




70 82 


Attleborough, 


16 50 


Harvard, 


. 22 92 




43 12 




21 90 


Barnstable, . 


10 00 


Hingham, 


27 60 




395 00 




46 50 


Barre, . 


19 00 


Holbrook, 


. 10 50 


Bedford, 


35 19 


Holliston, 


. 10 00 




32 10 


Hudson, 


. 34 87 


Bellingham, . 


13 10 




7 76 


Beverly, 


115 03 


Ips-wich, 


19 50 




39 45 




28 50 


Billerica, 


29 00 


Lakeville, 


3 50 




36 00 




42 77 


Boxborough, 


59 00 


Lancaster, 


. 37 20 




63 75 




14 98 


Brewster, 


30 00 


Leominster, . 


7 81 


Bridgewater, 


31 40 


Lexington, . 


94 50 


Burlington, . 


. 126 50 




16 32 




34 00 




3 69 




67 70 




22 95 


Chelmsford, . 


43 13 


Lincoln, 


14 63 




55 30 




47 00 


Cohasset, 


. 20 40 


Littleton, 


17 00 




13 28 




57 78 


Concord, 


51 11 


Lowell, 


. 17 85 




46 78 




23 19 




99 13 


Lunenburg, . 


30 24 


Dennis, 


6 00 




11 85 


Dighton, 


93 77 


Marlborough, 


. 144 20 


Dover, 


. 30 94 




96 91 


Dracut, 


42 00 


Marshfield, . 


. • . 28 50 




21 32 


Melrose, 


9 60 


Duxbury, 


16 00 




22 20 


Falmouth, 


. 70 55 


Merrimac, 


18 96 


Fitchburg, . 


. 51 95 




10 69 




25 44 


Methuen, 


38 25 


Foxborough, 


8 00 




48 43 




87 00 


Middleborough, 


29 03 


Framingham, 


. 78 25 


Millbury, 


6 15 




29 92 




4 47 


Franklin, 


. 18 50 


Milton, 


1 98 




26 50 


Natick, 


13 22 




6 50 




34 85 



82 



THE STATE FORESTER. 

State Highway Bills, 1913 — Concluded. 



[Jan. 



Needham, 


. $30 65 


Swansea, 


. S127 75 




27 53 


Taunton, 


5 40 




9 96 




30 39 


Newbury, 


. 51 64 


Templeton, . 


7 50 




23 71 


Tewksbury, . 


. 43 60 


Newburyport, 


22 95 




61 58 




13 64 


Townsend, . 


. 162 37 


North Andover, 


92 40 




47 00 




56 25 




64 80 


North Attleborough, 


. 64 05 


Tj^ngsborough, 


. 41 50 


North Reading, 


14 00 




93 25 




23 75 


Wayland, 


. 50 75 


Northborough, 


. 101 50 




47 98 




26 60 


Wellfleet, 


. 30 00 


Norton, 


11 00 


Wenham, 


. 56 25 




32 75 




38 50 


Norwood, 


5 50 


West Boylston, 


. 39 38 




62 10 


West Bridgewater, 


9 00 


Pepperell, 


37 50 




4 68 




27 25 


West Newbury, 


. 54 22 


Quincy, 


10 00 




43 66 


Reading, 


63 00 


Westborough, 


. 21 00 




92 00 




8 70 


Rockland, 


. 20 00 


Westford, 


. 56 00 




68 75 




64 00 


Rowley, 


49 80 


Westminster, 


7 50 




53 32 


Weston, 


. 58 50 


Salisbury, 


. 43 19 




44 50 




41 65 


Westwood, . 


. 16 50 


Sandwich, 


21 00 


Weymouth, . 


. 30 00 


Scituate, 


55 20 




95 81 




79 70 


Wilmington, 


. 24 95 


Shrewsbury, 


26 10 




50 17 


Somerset, 


. 110 37 


Winchester, . 


. 50 80 


Southborough, 


29 75 




48 15 




29 40 


Woburn, 


27 00 


Sterling, 


. 65 08 




61 50 




22 00 




13 19 


Stoneham, . 


. 33 70 




91 98 




82 74 


Worcester, . 


15 68 


Sudbury, 


. 162 40 




$7,930 06 


Sutton, 


92 80 
8 00 


Credit by balance, 


. 369 94 


Swampscott, 


5 00 


Total appropriation, . 


$8,300 00 



19U.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



83 



Parasite Work. 

Report of Dr. L. 0. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 
Washington, D. C. 

United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C, Dec. 20, 1913. 

Prof. F. W. Rane, State Forester, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Professor Rane: — In accordance with j^our request, I take 
pleasure in submitting a brief report upon what has happened to the 
imported parasites of the gyp^y moth and the brown-tail moth during 
the 3^ear. 

Yours very truly, 

L. 0. Howard, 
Chief of Bureau. 

The work on parasites and predatory enemies of the gypsy moth and 
brown-tail moth has continued along the same lines as during the previous 
year, except that no attempt has been made to import additional parasites 
this season. The material imported from Europe last year has been 
colonized, and an effort has been made to determine the extent to which 
the species secured have estabhshed themselves in the field. 

Owing to the fact that one of the imported egg-parasites of the gypsy 
moth, Anastatus bifasciatus, breeds very slowly, extensive collections 
were made during the last winter of parasitized gypsy moth egg-clusters 
from colonies that were planted in previous years. From this material 
it has been possible to Uberate 1,500,000 parasites of this species, and these 
have been placed in 1,500 colonies in sections where the insect had not 
become estabhshed. Eight hundred colonies were planted in to^vns 
along the western border of infestation, and the balance was liberated 
in a number of towns in the northern part of Massachusetts. During 
November of this year collections were made in New Hampshire, in 
the colonies of Anastatus that were planted a year ago, and examination 
showed that these plantings were practically all successful, although 
the spread has been slow. From these collections about 100,000 parasitized 
eggs were secured and will be used for colonization in New Hampshire 
next spring. 

Investigations have shown that another egg-parasite of the gypsy moth, 
namely Schedius kuvanae, has become perfectly established in several 
colonies where it had pre\dously been planted. During the past year 
there has been a decided increase in the abundance of this parasite, and 
in some cases it has spread^nearly a mile and a half from the limits of its 
last year's spread. 

The parasites attacking the caterpillars of the gypsy moth have been 
found more abundantly than during the previous yea,r. Compsilura 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



concinnata, a species of Tachinid fly, was very abundant during the 
summer of 1912, especially 'in the territory which was longest infested 
by the gypsy moth, and continued to spread during the past summer. 
It has not been so abundant in the oldest infested territories as in some 
of the outlying colonies. Collections of more than 1,100 gypsy moth 
caterpillars made in 4 towns in central Massachusetts show a parasitism 
by this species of over 40 per cent., while similar collections in the central 
infested area have indicated an average parasitism of about 5 per cent. 
It is probable that the decrease in parasitism in the old infested area, 
as far as this species is concerned, is due to the fact that g^i^sy moth 
caterpillars are not nearly as abundant as they were during the previous 
year, and also because of the enormous numbers of the American tent 
and forest tent caterpillars which were present in this region and which 
are also attacked by this parasite. 

Limnerium disparidis and Apanteles species were received from Europe 
for the first time in 1911, and were planted in several badly infested 
gypsy moth colonies. Both species were recovered during the summer 
of 1912, which indicated that it is possible for the insects to withstand 
our cold winters. In the case of the latter species, as high as 7 per cent, 
of parasitism of gypsy moth larvae was found. The present summer the 
Limnerium was recovered from a single locaUty where the species was 
liberated in 1911. Although it has evidently become estabhshed, it 
has not thus far shown marked abihty to increase in the gypsy moth 
infested area in New England. 

Another species of Apanteles, namely, A. lacteicolor, an important para- 
site of the brown-tail moth caterpillars, has been recovered in large num- 
bers, and has been found to attack gypsy moth caterpillars in widely 
separated regions. This species seems to be multiplying more rapidly 
than any of the other Hymenopterous parasites of the gypsy moth. In 
order to colonize this species over as wide an area as possible, an arrange- 
ment was made with the State Entomologist in New Hampshire, and 
the superintendent of moth work in Maine, to hberate as many colonies 
as possible along the outskirts of the area infested by the brown-tail 
moth in those States. Small collections of gypsy moth larvae were made 
at Melrose, and in some cases 10 per cent, of the larvae were killed by 
this species. In several locaHties in New Hampshire the past summer 
the cocoons of this parasite were very abundant, and several hundred 
were easily collected for experimental work. They were taken, for the 
most part, on the foliage of trees, and attached to dead caterpillars. 

The Calosoma beetle (Calosoma sycophanta) has been observed in large 
numbers in towns where bad colonies of the gypsy moth were present. It 
has not been possible to obtain definite records of the amount of benefit 
derived from this species, or of its abundance, except in cases where trees 
were burlapped, as these bands furnish favorable hiding places for the 
caterpillars and are favorite locations for the beetles and larvae to obtain 
food. In such cases, where caterpillars were abundant, 20 or more of 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



85 



the Calosoma larvae have frequently been found under a single burlap 
band on an average-sized tree. As they feed upon the pupae as well as 
upon the caterpillars, the amount of benefit derived is very great, although 
it is difficult to figure the percentage of larvae killed. 

From collections made during the winter of 1912-13 it was determined 
that Monodontomerus aereus has spread over practically the entire terri- 
tory now known to be infested by the brown-tail moth. It was not found 
in as large numbers as during the previous year. Pteromalus egregius 
has been found widely scattered over the area infested by the brown-tail 
moth, and its numbers are slowly increasing, judging from the records 
that have been secured from sample collections. 

There is thus no doubt that a number of the imported species are thor- 
oughly established, and that they are increasing each year, and, further, 
that many hundreds of thousands of caterpillars were killed by them 
during the past summer. 

The Wilt Disease or "Flacherie." 
The experimental work with this disease has been carried on 
almost wholly during the past season under the direction of 
Dr. W. M. Wheeler of the Bussey Institution of Harvard 
University and Dr. L. O. Howard, division of entomology, 
United States Department of Agriculture. The results of this 
work will be reported on later. The disease itself is found 
spread generally throughout the moth-infested territory, and 
is proving a great factor in the control of the gypsy moth. It 
is to be hoped that through the studies by experts discoveries 
may be made whereby this disease can be even further made 
use of in the work of suppression. 

The Fungous Disease of the Brown-tail Moth. 
The work of propagating and disseminating this disease was 
undertaken and carried out under the usual co-operation with 
Harvard University. The work of the previous season having 
been so successful it was thought we could not help getting 
results from our ripened experience. We had plenty of cater- 
pillars to work with, but, unfortunately, try as we might, the 
spores could not be secured to produce the results wanted. 
The cool season, we believe, had most to do with it. Later 
on in the year, however, a number of places were found where 
the wilt disease occurred in nature and was extremely effective. 
We are not discouraged, however, and hope to regain our 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ground in producing the disease on a large scale for general 
distribution the coming spring. One thing is perfectly sure 
and that is, this disease is extremely effective in destroying 
the brown-tail moth larvae. 

North Shore Work. 

The usual co-operative work on the North Shore between the 
summer residents committees, the towns and the State Fores- 
ter's department, has been carried on again the past season. 

If those who are in touch with this work should be consulted, 
it is believed that the universal verdict would be that the season 
has been a most successful one. Through his continued splen- 
did co-operation, this department feels especially indebted to 
Col. Wm. D. Sohier for making it possible to demonstrate what 
can be accomplished under favorable environment. The North 
Shore work is beginning to radiate its effect elsewhere. 

The following is a reproduction of the financial statement of 
the summer residents committees' report that relates to the 
moth and forestry work : — 

Details of the Cost of the Woek from July to July. 



Spraying 3,610 acres, $19,973 43 

Cutting and burning 407 acres, 6,919 33 

Creosoting 2,871 acres, 4,040 57 

Tanglefooting, 35 57 

Leopard moth work, 192 11 

Spraying for aphids, 20 21 

Road repairing, 7,925 square feet, 92 80 

Tool repairing, 851 69 

Repairs on shop, 343 00 

Repairs on engines, . . 1,019 07 

Experimental work, 12 00 



$33,499 78 

Average Cost of Work. 

Spraying per acre, $5 53 

Cutting and burning per acre, 17 00 

Creosoting per acre, 1 41 




view of some of the old trunks 
of elms which have died from 
neglect in spraying. From a 
business standpoint these trees 
could have been sprayed yearly 
for the interest upon the cost of 
removing them Estates losing 
large trees hke these also in- 
variably greatly depreciate in 
value. It is, therefore, good 
business for municipalities and 
individuals to spray and care 
for their trees. 




A deciduous forest at Concord entirely defoliated by the forest tent caterpillar. 
This photograpli was taken by the SUite Forester on July 8. This insect, it 
is predicted, will be very destructive the coming spring. Spraying with arsenate 
of lead, as for moths, will control it. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



Lectukes and Addresses. 

The State Forester has been called upon for a large number 
of engagements throughout the year. As much of this work 
has been done as time would permit. Mr. C. O. Bailey and 
Mr. H. 0. Cook have assisted in this work. Mr. R. G. Pierce, 
the expert on the chestnut bark disease, has in addition to 
those listed made quite a campaign throughout the State where 
the chestnut is indigenous. 

Now that the Massachusetts Agricultural College has a de- 
partment of forestry, the lectures heretofore given by the State 
Forester have not been necessary, and the past season the 
lectures were confined to the subject of State forest policy. 

The following organizations were addressed during the year: — 



Brewster Village Improvement Society. 
Essex County Pomona Grange. 
Russell State Grange Field Meeting. 
Middlefield Highland Agricultural So- 
ciety. 

Acton State Grange Field Meeting. 
Concord Men's Club. 
Cohasset Men's Club. 
Stoughton Board of Trade. 
Wareham Men's Club. 
Hale Club, Boston. 
Fitchburg Forestry Association. 
Paxton Grange. 

West Brookfield Field Meeting, State 
Grange. 

Fall River Chamber of Commerce. 
Watertown Men's Club. 
Bristol County Fair. 
Holden Farmers' and Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation. 

University of Syracuse, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Men's Club, Newton Center. 
Paper Makers' Association, Boston. 
Town of Dover, Town Hall. 
Quinquebog Historical Society, South- 
bridge. 

Hyde Park Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation. 

Borough Pomona Grange, Berlin. 
New Bedford Forestry Association. 
New Bedford High School. 
Pomona Grange at Medfield. 
Massachusetts Agricultural College. 
Association of Tree Wardens and For- 
esters, Amherst. 
Rural Club. 



Amesbury Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation. 

Wellesley Village Improvement Asso- 
ciation. 

East Freetown Grange. 

Men's Club of Congregational Church, 
Arlington. 

Milton "Woman's Club. 

Bridgeport Club, Conn. 

Smith College. 

East Bridgewater Men's Club. 

Public Meeting, town of Hubbardston. 

Springfield Forestry Association. 

Leominster Forestry Association 

Twentieth Century Club. 

Jamaica Plain Men's Club. 

Business Men's Association and Natural 
History Club, Plymouth. 

State Grange Field Day, Colrain. 

Royalston Improvement Association. 

State Grange Field Day, Springfield. 

State Grange Field Day, Orange. 

Massachusetts Tree Wardens' and For- 
esters' Association, Boston. 

Massachusetts State Firemen's Associa- 
tion. 

Nantucket Civic League. 
Fire Prevention Association, Philadel- 
phia. 

Pubhc meeting. City Hall, Dedham. 
Society for the Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science. 
Massachusetts State Grange. 
Hyannis W^oman's Club. 
State Normal School, Hyannis. 
Avon Club, Winchendon. 



88 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Field Meetings of the State Grange. 

The field meetings of the State Grange that have been held 
during the summer months for the past two years in various 
parts of the State have been exceptionally interesting, and 
without doubt have served to stimidate the interest of our 
farmers in all the movements that have been inaugurated in 
the interest of rural progress. 

While the discussions at these meetings covered many fields 
of public endeavor, it was gratifying to note the deep interest 
that was manifested in the talks given on forestry by State 
Forester F. W. Rane and Sec. C. O. Bailey, who were speakers 
at several of these meetings. 

The Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science con- 
vened at Washington, D. C, November 11, and the Massa- 
chusetts State Forester delivered the follo^^ing paper before 
said society : — 

What Massachusetts has accomplished for Science in her Fight 
AG-UNST the Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 

The pages of universal historj^ may be scanned in vain for a record of 
a war between nations which has not resulted in new inventions or dis- 
coveries that have serv^ed to advance ci\alization, — discoveries that were 
made possible by the exigencies of the times. This progressive knowledge 
has become the bulwark of the development and stabiht}^ of the nations 
of the earth. In her war against the gyipsy and brown-tail moths, the 
experience of Massachusetts has not been at variance vdth past histoiy. 

Throughout the long and costty struggle to save our forest and shade 
trees from beiQg completely destroj^ed by these voracious insects, inven- 
tive minds, as in other wars, have been studiously engaged in developing 
better and more destructive methods of warfare, from which a permanent 
addition to science has resulted. 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts has placed aU science in its debt 
by the interesting and successful experiments which it has carried on in 
the importiag and breeding of parasites and other natural enemies v\'hich 
prey on the gyj)sy moth and the brown-tail moth. This work was inaugu- 
rated on a large scale in co-operation vdih the United States Department 
of Entomolog}^ in 1905, shortly after the Commonwealth had for the 
second time undertaken to suppress these two insects. The work has 
been attended with a large measure of success, and during its prosecu- 
tion various interesting scientific discoveries have been made in regard 
to these insects and their life-historj^, and also ia regard to the life-history 
of their various parasites and related iosects. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



89 



The importation of the Calosoma beetle {Calosoma sycophanta) from 
Europe to destroy the gypsy moth has resulted in much practical and 
interesting data in regard to the beetle and its habits. It is a pronounced 
success. 

The construction and equipment of the laboratory where the work has 
been carried on has attracted the attention of the scientists all over the 
world, and in the year 1907 several eminent scientists from this country, 
Europe, Africa and AustraUa visited the parasitic laboratory, which was 
then at Saugus, Mass. None of these men could suggest improvements 
in the methods used, but they all found many to admire and some to 
copy in their own countries where similar lines of investigation were 
being inaugurated. 

Much experimenting has been carried on, also, with the fungous disease 
of the brown-tail moth and with the so-called wilt disease, or "flacherie," 
which attacks and destroys the gypsy moth to a large extent. 

The development of spraying machines and insecticides makes one of 
the most striking and important chapters in the history of the moth- 
suppression campaign. The necessity for an insecticide possessing supe- 
rior adhesive quaUties, at the same time containing sufficient poisonous 
properties to destroy the caterpillars, was early recognized. Spraying 
with common arsenical poisons, such as Paris green, London purple, etc., 
had been in use for many years, but with indifferent success. When it 
became evident that these insecticides were not accompHshing the work 
desired, an effort was made to discover a more effective poison, and much 
time and labor were spent in this undertaking. Some of the best chemists 
obtainable were employed by the State and put on this experimental 
work, which resulted in the production of arsenate of lead. 

This work was carried on in the year 1893. Since then the use of this 
material has increased by leaps and bounds, until at the present time the 
manufacturers of this article are shipping it to all parts of the world. 
Thus to Massachusetts moth work the agricultural world owes an ever- 
lasting debt of gratitude for her persistent and successful endeavors along 
this line. The results of the untiring efforts of the Massachusetts Forestry 
Department in developing improved spraying machines, hose couplings, 
nozzles and other apparatus of this nature have completely revolution- 
ized this industry, and present a record of accomplishment in this line 
never before equalled. 

By improved machinery in spraying we are now able to spray wood- 
lands at about $6 an acre, while formerly the expense was S40 or more. 
The work, as well, is far more thoroughly done. While this improved 
spraying machinery is highly appreciated in the moth-infested country of 
New England at present, it will take time for others to recognize its 
merits, until the use of similar machines is demanded elsew^here. When 
the elm-leaf beetle and similar insects and diseases begin affecting tall 
trees elsewhere, which is inevitable in the future, then I am confident 
the results of our Massachusetts inventions will be appreciated. Already 



90 



THE STATE FOEESTER. 



[Jan. 



the cities of Washington, Baltimore and Albany are using these high- 
power tree sprayers and others are bound to follow. 

By being able to throw a stream over the tallest of our shade trees 
from the ground, and hence eliminating the cost of climbing, not only is 
the great expense of labor overcome, but a whole street can be sprayed 
during the same length of time formerly required for the treatment of 
but a few trees. Our latest device is to substitute auto trucks for horses 
in our highway, shade-tree, park and city work which is proving very 
satisfactory. The same power that drives the auto also does the spraying. 

With our present spraying equipment of all kinds in Massachusetts 
alone, I believe we use in a single season nearly 1,000 tons of arsenate of 
lead. The State Forester's contract for lead the past year was 500 tons. 

One would hardly expect that such a pest as the gypsy moth would 
be an aid to the introduction of forestry methods in the treatment of our 
woodlands. Rather, one would expect it to be the reverse, but such is 
not the case. 

When the office for the suppression of the gypsy moth and that of the 
State Forester were united in 1908, the writer strongly advocated that 
forest thinnings and improvement cuttings would be of great assistance 
in combating the depredations of this pest. He argued that not only 
would the woodlands be in a better physiological condition for having 
the weakened and suppressed trees removed, and hence better able to 
stand the stripping of the caterpillars, but in addition the operations of 
hand suppression and spraying could be more cheaply performed because 
the superfluous trees would be taken out. Such cuttings thereafter as 
were made directly by the department were supervised by trained for- 
esters, and at the same time he urged municipalities and private owners 
to do as much of this work as possible and to make use of his assistants. 

Within the past year or two scientific facts have come to fight which 
vastly add to the importance of modern forestry practice as a control to 
the gypsy moth. Mr. Burgess, an entomologist of the United States 
Bureau of Entomology, who was doing co-operative work v/ith the Massa- 
chusetts State Forester, in studying the feeding habits of the gypsy moth 
in the laboratory and the field, found that this insect is by no means the 
omnivorous feeder that it is commonly supposed to be; that although it 
does eat the leaves of a large variety of trees, it actually thrives best on 
only a few, and that if deprived of this favorite food entirely, soon suc- 
cumbs to parasitic enemies. 

These experiments of Mr. Burgess were supplemented by some observa- 
tions of Mr. Fiske, another co-operating government entomologist, made 
in Europe. Mr. Fiske returned to this country last year convinced that 
the chief reason for the comparative harmlessness of this insect in that 
continent is due to the better silvicultural condition of the European 
forests. This silvicultural condition has been brought about by centuries 
of forestry practice. In addition, as already observed in Massachusetts 
with white pine, its freedom from the pest in clear stands proved also 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



91 



true of all coniferous growth abroad, especially in Germany, because the 
conifers are all highly resistant trees. The writer, after a study of these 
conditions in Europe in the summer of 1912, returned with even greater 
conviction that forestry management can be made a great factor in moth 
control. Under proper conditions we too should have a much larger per- 
centage of coniferous growth, but unscientific lumbering and forest fires 
have conspired to reduce it to a minimum. 

■ These discoveries have molded beautifully into the Massachusetts 
State Forester's methods of management, and offer a wide field for for- 
estry development. Our woodlands should be thinned and the favorable 
trees, notably the oaks and birches, removed. Where there is little chance 
of resistant species taking the place of those cut out, artificial reforesta- 
tion must be resorted to. Such operations must in time result in the re- 
moval of a large share of our scrubby oak woodlands and their replace- 
ment by fine plantations of conifers; clear stands of resistant deciduous 
species are also practical undertakings. So important has this subject ap- 
peared to the United States Bureau of Entomology that they have in- 
duced the United States Forest Service, during the past year, to co-oper- 
ate in experiments to test the value of forestry work in moth suppression. 
The Massachusetts State Forester has increased his staff by the addition 
of two professional foresters to the moth division of his department, and 
they are carrying on a regular campaign urging woodland owners in moth- 
infested sections to put their lands under proper forestry'' management. 
Several gangs are now at work under direction, making improvement 
cuttings. 

If forestry work is an aid in the control of the moth, conversely the 
gypsy moth is of assistance in the development of forestry practice, al- 
though at first sight it would seem to be a death-blow to this development. 
I can safely say that as a result of our moth depredations thousands of 
acres of our woodlands are being put under scientific management which 
otherwise would never have had such care for some time to come. 

In conclusion, therefore, while the expenditure of vast sums of mone}' 
has been necessary to combat the moth ravages in one of the most noted 
insect warfares ever undertaken by a single State, nevertheless, such an 
expenditure has been fully warranted by the results; and to Massachusetts 
must be attributed the courage of attempting and prosecuting a work 
recognized the world over as a most plausible and worthj^ undertaking. 
The many beneficial accomphshments which have been the outgrowi:h of 
this work have contributed largely to the enrichment of both science and 
industry, thus making Massachusetts again a world benefactor. 

The following is an abstract of an address delivered by State 
Forester F. W. Rane before the Convention of the Massachu- 
setts State Firemen's Association at Xevr Bedford, Sept. 24, 
1913: — 



92 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Importance of controlling Forest Fires in Massachusetts. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the State Firemen's Association: 
— I first desire to give you the assurance of my grateful appreciation of 
the invitation which enables me to be present at this time, privileged to 
participate in the deliberations of your association. 

I believe that it is fast becoming an acknowledged fact that no question 
is of greater importance in its relation to the future prosperity of our 
Commonwealth than the development of forestry. The development of 
forestry in Massachusetts is an effort to apply a poHcy of foresight in 
handhng what may be termed one of our greatest natural resources. In 
other words, it is a part of the great conservation movement, the impor- 
tance of which is acknowledged by all thinking people. 

But, gentlemen, forestry, like all other great undertakings, has to 
encounter obstacles and overcome them before the fullest measure of 
success can be attained. 

In speaking to your organization at this time I shall endeavor to con- 
fine my remarks to that branch of the forestry service which, in my 
opinion, most directly appeals to you, namely, forest fires. 

Fires injure forestry and forests in this State in several ways, which 
may be classified under two general divisions, — direct and indirect 
damage. 

We aU recognize the injury when commercial woodlands are burned 
over and the trees are kiUed outright, or are so injured that they will die 
in time. In the more thickly settled portions of our Commonwealth our 
woodland has a worth in excess of its value as timber or cord wood, — 
an aesthetic value, so to speak, — and in such cases fires cause a damage 
which cannot be reduced to terms of money. In any case, it is difficult to 
express the damage caused by fires in terms of money, but in those com- 
paratively few cases in which it can be done, the average yearly loss is 
more than $200,000, and I feel safe in saying that this simi represents 
only a fraction of the real danger. 

A direct injury, which is caused by fire and which is not considered by 
the ordinary layman, is the destruction of young growth. From this 
young growth our future forests must come, and if these immature stands 
are destroyed, future values are wiped out at the same time. If a plan- 
tation of young trees which has been artificially set out is destroyed, 
we are quick to recognize the loss, but a reproduction which has 
come up naturally is just as valuable, provided it gives indications of 
making a stand of trees as large and as salable as the artificial planta- 
tion. Young stands are not to be judged by their present condition, but 
by their future possibilities. 

Constant fires exhaust the soil, consuming as they do the humus or 
dead-leaf matter which is the material from which nature manufactures 
our loamy soils. By the destruction of this same humus the waste-stor- 
age possibihties of the soil are taken away and drought and floods become 
more frequent. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



These direct injuries, as great as they are, I beheve are exceeded by the 
indirect. 

Fires, or rather the fear of them, are our greatest obstacle to the practice 
of forestry in this State, and on the practice of forestry depends the con- 
tinued existence of our lumber industry. Approach an owner of wood- 
land and urge on him a certain forestry operation, and what will be his 
reply? ''Oh, yes, what you say is true enough, but how am I to know 
that my woodlands will not burn up next year?" 

Our lumber industry is more important than people reaUze. Our annual 
cut amounts to nearly 500,000,000 feet. For this lumber there is paid 
to the landowner $2,500,000, and there is paid out in labor to harvest 
this crop at least $1,000,000 more. These figures deal only with conver- 
sion of the trees into rough lumber, and have nothing to do with the further 
conversion of this lumber into boxes, furniture and the thousand and one 
articles into which our raw lumber is made. Unless we can induce our 
land owners to take up the proper management of our forests, this im- 
portant industry is sure to be wdped out, and there is nothing which will 
give more encouragement to the proper management of our woodlands 
than the reasonable protection of them from fire. To this end we have 
labored hard to build up an effective forest fire protective system, and I 
desire to take this opportunity to express to you my appreciation of the 
splendid support that has been given by this association to Mr. Hutchins, 
the State Fire Warden, and his four district men who have been in direct 
charge of this work. 

It may be of interest to some of you to know just what our forest-fire 
organization consists of. The State Fire Warden, who has supervision of 
the work, is assisted by four district fire wardens who are supphed with 
runabout automobiles. These men are charged with the supervision of 
the observation stations within their district, and are also continually 
patroUing the towns comprising their district, instructing the forest war- 
dens and their deputies relative to their duties, assisting in extinguishing 
fires, visiting the selectmen and impressing upon them the importance of 
better equipping their towns with equipment for handling forest fires, and 
towns with a valuation of $1,500,000 or under, the advisabihty of taking 
advantage of the reimbursement act, whereby the State will reimburse 
such towns one-half for forest-fire equipment that they may purchase, 
the State's share not to exceed $250, and to be approved by the forestry 
department. 

We also have an inspector who devotes his entire time to inspecting 
locomotives and portable saw mills. Several hundred locomotives have 
been inspected, and the reports show that while they were all equipped 
with spark arresters, as required by law, in many cases these devices 
were so thoroughly out of repair as to make them absolutely useless. We 
have also at the present time 23 observation stations established in the 
Commonwealth, 4 new steel towers having been built this year as follows: 
Manchester, Wakefield, North Hanson and Bournedale, temporary towers 



94 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



being built at Savoy and Pelham. These towers are all equipped with 
maps, field glasses and telephone which connects with over 1,800 forest 
wardens and deputies, the observers in charge being local men in nearly 
every instance, who are thoroughly famihar with the surrounding terri- 
tory. 

While we have had nearly 3,000 fires reported from these stations to 
the different wardens, we have had very few serious fires, notably, the 
Freetown, Bourne, Yarmouth and Shutesbury fires which were allowed 
to burn for days. These fires were practically extinguished the first day, 
but were left at night without sufficient help to control, only to start up 
the second dsij, unnecessary back fires being set that were soon beyond 
control. 

One matter which I deem of vital importance, and to which I desire to 
call your attention, is the necessity of a law which will provide for a rea- 
sonable disposition of the slash or brush which is now left on the ground 
following wood and lumber operations. I might state here that the two 
or three serious fires which I have referred to would have been impossible 
had it not been for the fact that w^here they occurred hundreds of acres of 
this slash had been left, so extinguishment was made almost an impossi- 
bi^tJ^ For several yeavs I have recommended in my annual report to 
the Legislature the imperative need of a law which would obviate this 
condition, but no action has yet been taken. The incoming Legislature 
will again be asked to consider the same subject, and I desire to say here 
that your organization can render no more valuable ser\'ice to the State 
Forestry Department than by sending representatives before the pro- 
per committees of the Legislature to urge the passage of the bill. 

The Fifth National Conservation Congress. 
The conservation of our natural resources and their proper 
use constitutes a problem of gigantic proportions upon the wise 
solving of which depends very largely the abiding prosperity 
of the nation. Of such vital importance was it considered by 
Theodore Roosevelt, that in May, 1908, he called together in 
convention the Governors of all the States of the Union to con- 
sider the question of how best to bring about a reform of the 
present w^asteful methods of production and utilization of our 
natural resources, such as minerals, timber, w^ater power, soils, 
in fact, all the natural wealth with which we as a nation are so 
richly endowed, to the end that their benefits may be shared 
equally among all the people, and that there may be trans- 
mitted a practically undiminished capital to the generations to 
come. As a result of that conference there w^as organized the 
National Conservation Congress, and the conservation senti- 



view of sprayed and unsprayed trees on the North Shore. The modern high- 
power solid stream sprayer has revolutionized the work of spraying woodlands. 
One thorough spraying has held the foliage against very adverse conditions, 
as shown at the left. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



95 



ment was crystalized into a nation-wide movement. Chief 
among the objects for which the National Conservation Con- 
gress was created, as annunciated in its declaration of prin- 
ciples, is to "afford an agency through vshich the people of the 
country may frame poUcies and principles affecting the con- 
servation and utilization of their resources, to be put into effect 
by their representatives in State and federal governments." 
This year's congress convened at Washington, D. C, on No- 
vember 17, and its sessions lasted through four days. The 
official delegates appointed by the Governor to represent Massa- 
chusetts at this congress were State Forester F. W. Rane and 
Sec. C. 0. Bailey. Its discussions were devoted largely to 
forest conservation because of the national importance of the 
subject in its many phases. Practically all the leading foresters 
of the United States were in attendance, and the discussions 
on the various branches of forestry were of great value to those 
who were privileged to hear them. 

New Legislatiox. 
The following bills relating to forestry were enacted at the 
last session of the General Court and were intended to advance 
the forestry interests of the Commonwealth: — 

Forest Taxation. 
Reference was made in the last annual report of the adop- 
tion by the voters of the State of an amendment to the Con- 
stitution relative to the taxation of wild or forest lands. This 
action was taken at the election in 1912, following which the 
Legislature of 1913 passed the following resolve: — 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 131. 
Resol^-e to provide for the Appoixtmext of a Commissiox to in\t:sti- 

GATE AXT> report UPOX THE T-\X,\TI0X OF WiLD OR FOREST LaXDS. 

Resolved, That the governor, vath the ad^'ice and consent of the council, 
shall, wathin thirty days after the passage of this resolve, appoint a commis- 
sion of five persons, citizens of the commonwealth, to be known as the 
commission on the taxation of wild or forest lands. Said commission shall 
investigate the effect of the present laws relating to the taxation of Tsild or 
forest lands in this commonwealth, and the laws and systems of taxation 
of such lands in operation in other states and countries, shall correspond 



96 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



so far as may be advisable with authorities in this commonwealth and in 
other states and countries in regard to said matters, and shall draft an act 
providing such methods of taxation of wild or forest lands as will develop 
and conserve the forest resources of the commonwealth. The said commis- 
sion shall also investigate the present pohcy of the commonwealth with 
regard to the acquisition and management of wild or forest lands and report 
what further legislation, if any, is necessary. The report shall also con- 
tain a compilation of statistics and other information obtained by the com- 
mission and shall be made on or before the first Wednesday in January, 
nineteen hundred and fourteen. Of the said commissioners, one member 
shall be the tax commissioner and one member shall be the state forester. 
The members of the commission shall serve without compensation, but 
may incur such expenses in the performance of their duties, not exceeding 
the amount of five thousand dollars, as may be authorized by the governor 
and council. The commission shall be provided with suitable quarters in 
the state house or elsewhere. [Approved June 16, 1913. 

Acting under the authority given him by this resolve, the 
Governor appointed, as members of this commission, the State 
Tax Commissioner, W. D. T. Trefry, the State Forester, F. W. 
Rane, as required by the resolve, Mr. Harold Parker, ex-chair- 
man of the Massachusetts Highway Commission, Prof. C. J. 
Bullock, professor of economics at Harvard University and 
Mr. Charles H. Preston of Danvers. The commission promptly 
organized with Tax Commissioner Trefry as chairman, and 
immediately entered upon its duties. Public hearings were ad- 
vertised and held in the following places: October 31, at the 
State House; November 5, at Greenfield; November 6, at 
Springfield; November 7, at Pittsfield; November 14, at Worces- 
ter; November 21, at the State House; November 28, at Mid- 
dleborough. 

Nearly all of these hearings were largely attended, and the 
commission acquired very much valuable information and data 
bearing upon the problem given it to solve. 

Moth Superintendent and Forest Warden Appointments changed. 

The importance of beginning moth suppression operations as 
early as possible in each year wdth a thoroughly organized force 
of men in every city and tow^n where such work is necessary, 
also to allows for sufficient time to instruct forest wardens w^ith 
regard to the prevention and extinguishment of forest fires be- 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



97 



fore the dry and dangerous periods occur, were the reasons for 
changing the time of making the appointment of local moth 
superintendent and forest warden from March or April to 
January. 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 6. 
An Act relative to the Time of Appointment of Local Superin- 
tendents FOR THE Suppression of Gypsy and Brown Tail Moths 

AND relative TO THE APPOINTMENT OF FoREST WARDENS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section sixteen of chapter thirty-two of the Revised Laws, 
as amended by section one of chapter four hundred and seventy-five of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, is hereby further amended 
by striking out the words ''March or April", in the third Hne, and insert- 
ing in place thereof the word : — January, — so as to read as follows : • — 
Section 16. The mayor and aldermen in cities and the selectmen in towns 
shall annually, in January, appoint a forest warden, and they shall forth- 
with give notice of such appointment to the state forester. The appoint- 
ment of a forest warden shall not take effect unless approved by the state 
forester, and when so approved notice of the appointment shall be given 
by the mayor and aldermen or by the selectmen to the person so appointed 
and approved. WTioever having been duly appointed fails within seven 
days after the receipt of such notice to file with the city or town clerk his 
acceptance or refusal of the office shall, unless excused by the mayor and 
aldermen or by the selectmen, forfeit ten dollars. Nothing in this act or 
in any other act shall be construed to prevent the offices of tree warden, 
selectman, chief of fire department and forest warden from being held by 
the same person. 

Section 2. Section four of chapter three hundred and eighty-one of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, as amended by section two 
of chapter two hundred and sixty-eight of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and six, and by section one of chapter five hundred and twenty-one 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, and by chapter one 
hundred and fifty of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and ten, is 
hereby further amended by striking out the words "March or April", in 
the third line, and inserting in place thereof the word: — January, — so as 
to read as follows : — Section 4- The mayor and aldermen in cities and 
the selectmen in towns shall annually in the month of January appoint a 
local superintendent for the suppression of gypsy and brown tail moths. 
Said superintendents shall, under the advice and general direction of the 
state forester, destroy the eggs, caterpillars, pupse and nests of the gypsy 
and brown tail moths ■\;\dthin their limits, except in parks and other prop- 
erty under the control of the commonwealth, and except in private prop- 
erty, save as otherwise pro\dded herein. The appointment of a local 
superintendent shall not take effect unless approved by the state forester, 
and when so approved, notice of the appointment shall be given by the 



98 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



mayor and aldermen or the selectmen to the person so appointed. When 
any city or tomi shall have expended within its hmits city or town funds 
to an amount in excess of five thousand dollars in any one fiscal year, in 
suppressing gyps}^ or brown tail moths, the commonwealth shall reimburse 
such city or town to the extent of fiftj'' per cent of such excess above said 
five thousand dollars. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of January, nine- 
teen hundred and fourteen. [Approved May 2, 1913. 

Furnishing Arsenate of Lead at Cost. 

As a further aid to property owners in the suppression of 
gypsy and brown-tail moths, a bill was passed by the General 
Court, giving authority to local superintendents in such towns 
as are receiving aid from the State to furnish arsenate of lead to 
property owners at a price not to exceed the cost to the State. 

The act reads as follows : — 

An Act to authorize Local Moth Superintendents to furnish 
Arsenate of Lead to Real Estate Owt^ers. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. For the purpose of assisting in the extermination of 
gypsy and brown tail moths, the local moth superintendent in any city 
or town now recei\dng aid from the commonwealth, in suppressing the 
said insect pests is hereby authorized to furnish, at the cost thereof, 
arsenate of lead to any owner of real estate situated within the hmits of 
such city or to^vTi. Material purchased under the provisions hereof shall 
be used only for the suppression of gypsy and brown tail moths and only 
upon land of the purchaser. 

Section 2. The amounts due for material furnished under the provi- 
sions of section one shall be charged by the local moth superintendent to 
the owners of private estates and shall be collected in the same manner 
as the amounts assessed for private work, and shall be a lien on said es- 
tates in the same manner as the assessments for private worlc. The 
amount thus charged shall be deducted from the total amount expended 
in each city or tovm in the suppression of the gypsy and brown tail moths 
in the same manner as the amounts charged for private work, as provided 
for in sections six and seven of chapter three hundred and eighty-one of 
the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five and its several amendments. 
[Approved May 7, 1913. 

Public Domain. 

Taking cognizance of the great possibilities which lie in for- 
estry as a means of adding to the wealth and prosperity of the 
State, the Massachusetts Forestry Association has devoted much 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



99 



of its energy during the past year to organizing branch associa- 
tions in various cities and towns of the Commonwealth, with the 
hope that an aroused local interest would result in the establish- 
ment of municipal forests in conformity to the public domain 
act as amended last year through the efforts of that association. 
The act as amended follows : — 

Acts of 1913, Chapter 564. 
An Act relative to Public Domain. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section twenty-three of chapter twenty-eight of the Re- 
vised Laws is hereby amended by striking out the word "a", before the 
word "town", in the second Une, and inserting in place thereof the words: 

— an annual, — by inserting after the word "therefor", in the eighth line, 
the words: — but the indebtedness so incurred shall be limited to an 
amount not exceeding one half of one per cent of the last preceding assessed 
valuation of the city or town, — and by striking out the words "common- 
wealth for the benefit of the", in the eleventh line, so as to read as follows: 

— Section 23. A town, by a vote of two thirds of the legal voters present 
and voting at an annual town meeting, or a city in which the city council 
consists of two branches, by a vote of two thirds of the members of each 
branch, and a city in which there is a single legislative board, by a vote of 
two thirds of the members thereof, present and voting thereon, may take 
or purchase land within their limits, which shall be a public domain, and 
may appropriate money and accept gifts of money and land therefor; but 
the indebtedness so incurred shall be Hmited to an amount not exceeding 
one haK of one per cent of the last preceding assessed valuation of the 
city or town. Such pubhc domain shall be devoted to the culture of forest 
trees, or to the preservation of the water supply of such city or town and 
the title thereto shall vest in the city or town in which it Ues. 

Section 2. Said chapter twenty-eight is hereby further amended by 
striking out section twenty-five and inserting in place thereof the following: 

— Section 25. The city or town forester in each city or town, with one or 
more keepers appointed by him, shall have the management and charge 
of aU such pubhc domain in that city or town, and wdthin such pubhc 
domain shaU have the powers of constables and police officers in towns. 
But a town by a vote of two thirds of the legal voters present and voting 
at an annual town meeting, or a city in which the city council consists of 
two branches, by a vote of two thirds of the members of each branch, and 
a city in which there is a single legislative board, by a vote of two thirds of 
the members thereof present and voting thereon, may place all such public 
domain within its hmits under the general super\dsion and control of the 
state forester, who shall thereupon, upon notification thereof, make regu- 
lations for the care and use of such pubhc domain and for the planting and 
cultivating of trees therein, and the city or town forester in such case and 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



his keepers, under the super\dsion and direction of the state forester, shall 
be charged with the duty of enforcing all such regulations and of perform- 
ing such labor therein as may be necessary for the care and maintenance 
thereof; and within such pubHc domain shall have the powers of con- 
stables and poHce officers in towns. 

Section 3. Said chapter twenty-eight is hereby further amended by 
striking out section twenty-six and inserting in place thereof the follow- 
ing: — Section 26. Any such city or town may lease any building on a 
pubHc domain, and shall apply all sums derived from rents or from the 
sale of the products of any such domain, so far as may be necessary, 
to the management thereof. 

Section 4. Said chapter twenty-eight is hereby further amended by 
striking out section twenty-seven and inserting in place thereof the follow- 
ing: — Section 27. Any city or town in which such public domain is 
situated may erect thereon any building for public instruction or recrea- 
tion : provided, that if such pubhc domain has been placed under the super- 
vision and control of the state forester, under the provisions of this act, no 
such building shall be erected unless his approval shall first be obtained. 

Section 5. Said chapter twenty-eight is hereby further amended by 
striking out section twenty-nine and inserting in place thereof the follow- 
ing: — Section 29. For the purpose of defraying the expenses incurred 
under the pro^dsions of the six preceding sections any city or town may 
issue from time to time, and to an amount not exceeding the sum actually 
expended for the taking or purchase of lands for such pubhc domain, bonds 
or notes. Such bonds or notes shall be denominated on the face thereof, 
City or Town of , Public Domain Loan, Act of 1913; 

shall be payable by such annual payments, beginning not more than one 
year after the date thereof, as will extinguish each loan within thirty years 
from its date; and the amount of such annual payment of any loan in any 
year shall not be less than the amount of the principal of said loan payable 
in any subsequent year. Each authorized issue of bonds or notes shaU 
constitute a separate loan. The bonds or notes shall bear interest at a 
rate not exceeding four and one half per cent per annum, payable semi- 
annually; and shall be signed by the treasurer and countersigned by the 
mayor of the city or, in the case of a town, shall be signed by the treasurer 
and countersigned by the selectmen. The city, by its mayor and treasurer, 
and the town, by its selectmen and treasurer, may sell such bonds or 
notes at pubhc or private sale, upon such terms and conditions as they 
may deem proper, but the bonds or notes shall not be sold for less than 
their par value; and the proceeds shall be used only for the purposes 
herein specified. 

Section 6. The city or town shall at the time of authorizing said loan 
or loans provide for the payment thereof in accordance wdth the foregoing 
provisions of this act; and when a vote to that effect has been passed by 
the city council, or at any annual town meeting, a sum which will be suf- 
ficient to pay the interest as it accrues on the bonds or notes issued as afore- 
said by the city or town, and to make such payments on the principal as 



The main street at Nantucket. We think of the island of Nantucket as lacking in 
tree growth. It is largely a question of soil and wind protection. It is be- 
lieved that with wind breaks of the hardier growing species, and by taking 
advantage of natural shelters, much of the island could be gradually reforested. 




Spraying tall trees in the Taunton public square with the sohd stream high- 
power sprayer, which was brought out originally by this department. Most of 
the principal towns and cities where the gypsy and brown-tail moths prevail 
have these power sprayers. 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



may be required under the provisions of this act, shall, without further 
vote, be assessed by the assessors of the city or town annually thereafter, 
in the same manner in which other taxes are assessed, until the debt in- 
curred by said loan or loans is extinguished. 

Section 7. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 26, 1913. 

Financial Statements. 
General Forestry. 
In accordance with section 6, chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904, 
as amended by section 1, chapter 473, Acts of 1907, the follow- 
ing statement is given of the forestry expenditure for the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1913: — 

State Forester's Expenses. 



Appropriation for 1913, $20,000 00 

Expenditures : — 

Salaries of assistants, $7,631 69 

Traveling expenses, 3,246 84 

Stationery and postage, etc., . . . . 708 13 

Printing, . 723 72 

Maps, 198 15 

Equipment, 246 87 

Sundries, 285 30 

Nursery account: — 

PayroU, 5,231 10 

Travel, 59 61 

Equipment, 700 68 

Teaming, express and freight, . . . 715 39 

Telephone, water, gasoUne, dynamite, etc., . 252 25 

19,999 73 

Balance returned to treasiuy, $0 27 

Purchase and Planting of Forest Lands. 

. Appropriation for 1913, . $10,000 00 

Expenditiu-es: — 

Pay roU, $6,604 35 

Travel, 480 04 

Tools and equipment, 324 54 

Express and teaming, 288 78 

Land, 2,138 75 

Stationery and postage, 141 03 

Sundries, 22 35 

9,999 84 

Balance returned to treasury, $0 16 



102 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Prevention of Forest Fires. 

Appropriation for 1913, 120,000 00 

Receipts : — 

Spofford estate, 200 00 

Protest on Spofford check, 1 35 

Wm. D. Sohier, 400 00 

Town of Wakefield, 350 00 

Town of Halifax, 50 00 

Town of Plympton, 75 00 

Town of Hanson, 100 00 

Town of Duxbury, 100 00 

Town of Whitman, 75 00 

Town of Hanover, 100 00 

Town of Marshfield, ' 50 00 

Town of Bourne, 300 00 

Town of Wareham, 150 00 

Town of SterUng, 18 75 

Town of Dunstable, 11 81 

Town of Ashland, 11 50 

Wm. D. Sohier, agent, 500 00 

Town of Upton, 12 50 

New England Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, 23 

^-^ $22,506 14 

ijxpenditures : — 

Salaries, $11,301 60 

Travel, 4,262 42 

Printing, 538 32 

Stationery and postage, 256 38 

Equipment, 2,568 69 

Construction, 1,877 62 

Telephone, 1,275 90 

Express, 59 51 

Sundries, 365 52 

22,505 96 

Balance returned to treasury, $0 18 

Reimbursement for fire-fighting apparatus to towns, . . $5,012 48 

Suppression of Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 
The balance shown on the general appropriation for the 
suppression of the gypsy and brown-tail moths, as carried at 
the end of the fiscal year, will be all practically expended in 
reimbursements to towns and cities for the work of the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1913. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 



General Appropriation. 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1912, 


. $103,174 


00 


Less reimbursement due for 1912, 


61,016 


06 




$42 157 


94 


J- vc uci jj to . 






Appropriation for 1913 (made in 1912), 


75,000 


00 


T'nxvn of T^ifl<?tnTi 

XvlWXX KJl XliCXo Uv^XX, ...... 


270 


33 


T'nwn of T\rp«?t T^riHp'PWfitpr 


234 


44 


KJl. XJU v> cxx, ...... 


22 


14 


T'nwn of AnHnvpr 

X U >> XX KJl XX.XXIU.W \ cx , ..... 


194 


23 


X U >V XX KJi XXXXX^XX<XX1J., • . • . • 


157 


48 


Citv of Medford 


411 


85 


Town of Lexington, 


154 


53 


nPown of Aflincrf.nn 

X LI >V XI KJl Xxl XLXX^ LV^XX, . . • • • 


1,117 


83 


X \ ? XX KJL uWXXdiCXXIX, ..... 


g 


21 


Town of Westwood, 


600 


00 


Town of Milton 


800 


00 


AriDronrii^f.inTi for lQ1^"i 


. 125,000 


00 


Town of Milton, 


854 


75 


Town nf WpstwnnH 


345 


58 


Town of Wfllnnlp 


600 


00 


TowTi of Wakefield, 


959 


48 


For old truck sold, 


85 


00 


AnDrn'nrifjtinn for 1Q14- 


75,000 


00 


For motor pvp1p«! sold 


425 


00 


Town of Winchester, 


985 


38 


Adflm«! Fvnrpss; Clomnflnv 




15 


ditv of Oiiinpv 

Kjy v/x villi V/ V ,*•.... 


1,225 


11 


Snppial TVoT*t,h Shorp Ti^iinrl 


7,644 


06 


FiiTpViflSP flnrl nl fin tine of forp<st Innrls! 

X LIX \^lX(XOC dXXLi L/XdrXX UXXX^ KJX XUlCoU icXXXLlO, • 


6 


58 


Stfltp "Porpsstpr's pvnpnsps! 


34 


X«J 


T^rpvpnf.ion of forp<?f. firps; 

X ICVClIulLIXX L/l XUlCou XXX Co, .... 


4 


X»J 


Dover gypsy moth fund, .... 


204 


95 


Howe & French (paid in error), 


20 


25 


Town of Holliston, 


15 


00 


Town of MiUis, 


12 


00 


Town of Natick, 


48 


15 


Town of Hopkinton, 


683 


86 



$335,380 58 



Amount carried forward, 



$335,380 58 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Amount brought forward, $335,380 58 



Office expenses: — 
Salaries of clerks, . 
Rent of offices, 
Stationery and postage. 
Printing, 

Expert's services, . 
Office and laboratory supplies. 
Forester's supplies, 
Educational work, 
Sundries, . 

Field expenses: — 
"Wages of employees. 
Traveling expenses. 
Tools and supplies, 
Special work. 
Rent of supply store. 
Supply store equipment 
Simdries, including teaming. 
Reimbursement towns and cities, 



$2,741 59 
2,139 98 
919 72 
840 09 
125 00 
278 18 
66 67 
40 91 
864 81 

28,688 83 
8,300 83 
120,463 68 
14,700 00 
749 60 
87 45 
754 33 
32,060 21 



213,822 48 
$121,558 10 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1913, .... 
Reimbursement paid December, 1913, and January, 1914, 
for the year 1913, 48,471 60 



Special North Shore Fund. 



Balance from 1912, $3,682 05 

South End Improvement Association of Rock- 
port, 500 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 500 00 

Town of Rockport, 500 00 

Whitcpmb Carter Company refund, ... 60 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 1,200 00 

W. D. Sohier, agent, 1,200 00 

Town of Manchester, 5,000 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 10,000 00 

W. D. Sohier, agent, 10,000 00 

City of Beverly, 5,000 00 

J. D. Barnes, for sprayer sold, .... 300 00 

State Forester's expenses, 153 06 

Pmnp and engine sold, 85 00 

Transfer from appropriation for suppression of 

gypsy and brown-tail moths, .... 1,306 30 

Wm. D. Sohier, for property owners, . . 2,427 66 

$41,854 67 



Amount carried forward, 



$41,854 67 



1914.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 105 



Amount brought forward, S41,854 67 

Expenditures : — 

Wages of employees, $18,944 98 

Traveling expenses, 1,016 96 

Rent, 310 GO 

SuppUes, 9,670 63 

Sundries, including teaming, etc., . . . 1,873 09 

Storehouse equipment, 37 65 

Stationery and postage, 1 35 

Office supplies, 25 

31,859 91 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1913, $9,999 76 



The following is a list of towns and cities, with amount of 
supplies for moth work furnished for the year ending Nov. 30, 
1913: — 



Acton, ^ 


. $2,148 73 


Easton, 


S12 50 


Andover, . 


911 31 


Essex, 


85 56 


Arlington, ^ 


. 2,330 99 


Fitchburg, 


1 87 


Ashburnham, 


209 75 


Georgetown, 


454 95 


Ashby, 


174 17 


Gloucester, 


213 83 


Ashland, ^ . 


. 1,564 72 


Greenfield, 


2 01 


Avon, 


47 80 


Groton, 


535 07 


Ayer, i 


. 1,804 80 


Grov eland, 


193 26 


Bedford, i . 


. 3,057 36 


Halifax, 


12 91 


Berkley, . 


43 80 


Hamilton, 


843 01 


Berlin, 


. . . 237 52 


Hanover, . 


374 92 


Billerica, . 


603 61 


Hanson, 


57 32 


Bolton, 


337 96 


Harvard, . 


532 23 


Boxborough, 


584 29 


Haverhill, 


24 


Boxford, . 


429 81 


Hingham, ^ 


. 2,711 66 


Boylston, . 


118 28 


Holden, 


8 40 


Braintree, ^ 


. 2,355 76 


Hopkinton, 


89 23 


Bridgewater, ^ . 


. 1,684 75 


Hudson, . 


301 86 


Burlington, ^ 


. 2,020 54 


Ipswich, . 


779 22 


Canton, 


772 83 


Kingston, . 


361 94 


Carlisle, 


460 29 


Lexington, ^ 


. 2,461 24 


Carver, 


246 92 


Lincoln, ^ , 


. 3,727 66 


Chelmsford, 


638 82 


Littleton, ^ 


. 1,964 62 


Cohasset, . 


. 2,447 58 


Lunenburg, i 


. 1,855 53 


Concord, . 


672 17 


Lynnfield, . 


626 92 


Danvers, . 


614 28 


Marlborough, 


854 12 


Dedham, ^ 


. 3,410 81 


Marshfield, 


798 24 


Dover, 


3 20 


Mashpee, . 


286 74 


Dracut, 


320 54 


Maynard, ^ 


. 1,542 04 


Dunstable, 


140 24 


Medfield, . 


2 00 


Duxbury, . 


269 08 


Medford, . 


. 1,040 94 



1 Received sprayers from the State, agreeing to pay one-half the cost. 



106 THE STATE 



Merrimac, 


$215 10 


Methuen, , 


907 65 


Middleborough, 


681 09 


Middleton, 


301 09 


Milton, 1 . 


. 4,302 76 


Natick, 


87 80 


Newbury, . 


581 79 


Newton, . 


. 9,849 28 


Norfolk, . 


111 58 


North Andover, 


538 20 


North Reading, 


. 1,344 45 


Northborough, ^ 


. 1,492 33 


Norwell, . 


. 1,021 27 


Pembroke, 


63 60 


Pepperell, . 


422 93 


Plj-mpton, 


134 08 


Princeton, 


1 80 


Quincy, 


. 1,146 64 


Raynham, 


61 23 


Reading, . 


. 1,464 88 


Rochester, 


29 35 


Rowley, 


246 50 


Royalston, 


3 90 


Salisbury, . 


304 22 


Sandwich, 


139 99 


Saugus, 


763 79 


Scituate, ' . 


. 4,511 70 


Sherborn, . 


333 55 


Shirley, 


313 83 



Dover gypsy moth fund. 

Forestry department, .... 

Forest fire prevention, .... 

Thinning work equipment, . 

Special North Shore Fund, *. 

Pine Banks, ..... 

Reforestation, ..... 

Traveling pump, .... 

Traveling sprayer, (1), 

Traveling sprayer, (2) , 

Traveling sprayer, (3) , 

Traveling sprayer, (4), 

Traveling sprayer, (5), 

Traveling sprayer, (6) , 

Traveling sprayer, (7), 

Traveling sprayer, (8), 

Travehng sprayer, (9), 

Truck, 

United States Department of Agriculture, 
Repairs on automobiles, 



FORESTER. [Jan. 

Shrewsbury, . . . $38 81 

Southborough, ^ . . 1,459 70 

SterUng, . . . . 336 75 

Stoneham, . . . 688 48 

Stow, . . . . 403 49 

Sudbury, . . . . 455 90 

Templeton, . . . 1 69 

Tewksbury, . . . 598 20 

Topsfield 194 85 

Townsend, . . . 286 69 

Tyngsborough, i . . 2,228 41 

Waltham 1,779 26 

Wayland 766 15 

Wakefield, ... 829 68 

WeUesley, . . . 3 50 

Wenham, 1 . . . 1,589 19 

West Bridgewater, . . 277 02 

West Newbury, . . 318 45 

Westborough, 1 . . . 1,850 17 

Westford 1,046 41 

Westminster, ... 102 56 

Weston, 1 . . . . 3,700 90 

Weymouth, i . . . 2,360 53 

Wilmington,! . . . 2,586 52 

Winchendon, ... 179 17 

Wilbraham, ... 39 

Woburn, .... 1,418 76 



$110,273 76 

111 20 
48 63 
16 99 
78 19 
7,644 06 
173 25 
6 58 
14 63 
18 50 
393 14 
572 41 
196 51 
182 09 
75 00 
476 48 
612 27 
72 50 
4 37 
3 72 
402 67 



$121,376 95 



1 Received sprayers from the State, agreeing to pay one-half the cost. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



107 



Financial Summary of Moth Work by Towns. 

The folloT\T[ng table shows the reimbursement paid to cities and 
towns for the year 1912, the total net expenditure, the required 
expenditure before receiving reimbursement from the State, 
the amount received for work on private property returned to 
this office, and the amount of reimbursement paid for 1913, 
and also the required expenditure for 1914. Towns marked 
with an asterisk received supplies from tliis office. 





1912. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1913. 


1914. 

Required 
' Exp)endi- 
ture. 


Cities axd Towns. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Private 
Work. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Abington, 


- 


$1,361 05 








$1,403 51 


Acton, .... 


$997 85' 


970 13 


$2,120 13 


$320 44 


$550 00* 


975 90 


Acushnet, 


- 


402 86 








439 31 


Amesbur>-, 


- 


2,615 03 


1,809 64 


1,045 60 




2,626 67 


Andover, .... 




2,883 11 


2,855 09 


1,523 99 


_* 


3;234 59 


Arlington, 


-* 


5,000 00 


4,985 65 


1,546 98 


_« 


5,000 00 


Ashburnliam, . 


104 75* 


488 17 


919 20 


445 19 


431 03* 


500 72 


Ashb.v 


233 48* 


239 32 


506 52 


69 50 


271 97* 


248 18 


Ashland, .... 


243 78* 


585 00 


570 61 


270 96 




600 12 


Athol 


- 


2,216 99 








2,342 62 


Attleborough, . 


- 


6,000 00 


- 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


Auburn, .... 




554 00 








634 80 


Avon, .... 


122 02* 


414 70 


589 90 


62 30 


175 20*1 


431 88 


Ayer, .... 




922 45 


1,410 09 


67 35 




927 85 


Barnstable, 




'3,175 20 








3,370 26 


Barre, .... 




1,001 02 








1,053 58 


Bedford 


2,296 80* 


667 80 


2,661 43 


1,781 28 


1,393 63* 


716 31 


Bellingham, 




383 65 








382 26 


Belmont, . . . . 




3,015 78 


2,070 04 






3,297 49 


Berkley, .... 


97 22* 


165 77 


234 05 


57 40 


68 28* 


208 21 


Berlin, .' . 


1,009 27* 


243 10 


1,018 89 


367 27 


775 79*1 


249 31 


Beverly, .... 




5,000 00 


4,661 05 






5,000 00 


Billerica, .... 


854 89* 


1,132 00 


1.207 41 


728 81 


75 41*j 


1,385 80 


Blackstone, 




948 29 






774 95* 


9C8 97 


Bolton, .... 


872 76* 


258 98 


1,033 93 


227 27 


271 59 


Boston, .... 


20,000 00 


5,000 00 


49,332 73 


15,025 52 


9.849 89 

1 


5,000 00 



lOS THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 





1912. 

Re- 
imburse- 


1913. 


1914. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Cities and Towns. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Private 
Work. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Bourne, . . . • 




$2,881 49 








90, UO/ t i 


Boxborough, 


$1,321 99* 


116 41 


$1,464 91 


$239 28 


$1,348 50* 


I I 7 QO 

III oy 


Boxford, . . - • 


2 052 20* 


610 32 


2,015 65 


400 92 


1,405 33* 


614 49 


Boylston, 


_« 


207 40 


734 53 


310 67 


527 13* 


212 02 


Braintree, 




3,163 39 


3,927 33 


995 56 






Brewster, 




354 44 








10K 0"} 


Bridgewater, . 




1,447 26 


2,139 56 


211 69 


92 30* 


1 543 15 


Brockton, 




5,000 00 










Brookiiela, 




541 40 








545 63 


Brookline, 




5,000 00 








nivi c\r\ 
o,uuu uu 


Burlington, 


1 AQa eg* 


310 18 


1,947 98 


205 05 


1,037 80* 


316 41 


Cambridge, 




5,000 00 










Canton, .... 


OoO 00 


2,133 36 


3,600 86 


1,591 25 


800 00* 


2 543 23 


Carlisle, .... 


2 792 25* 


191 37 


2,741 29 


364 03 


2,549 92* 


199 17 


Carver, . . . • 


489 82* 


770 99 


1,394 70 


591 11 


623 71* 


790 28 


Charlton, 




522 40 








518 93 


Chelmsford, 


OUU / 1 


1,753 60 


1,828 15 


1,009 28 


74 55* 


1 785 87 


Chelsea, .... 




5,000 00 








K nnn nn 

0,UUu uu 


Clinton, . . . • 




3,632 43 


2,469 94 






3,661 51 


Cohasset, 


1,U11 o\) 


3,802 02 


4,578 72 


2,600 54 


131 85* 


4 417 09 


Concord, . . • 


1 ins 9fi* 


3,372 27 


3,998 89 


1,825 72 


366 87* 


3,520 46 


Danvers, . . . • 


1 297 13* 


2,792 62 


3,952 56 


1,614 47 


805 10* 


3,016 55 


Dartmouth, 




1,841 43 








2,007 73 


Dedhara, 




5,000 00 


6,090 84 


2,578 71 




T nnn nn 


Dennis, .... 




530 67 








545 11 


Dighton, . . . • 




527 86 








548 88 


Douglas, . . - • 




551 50 








526 50 


Dover, .... 




2,515 57 


2,638 12 


916 67 


97 40* 


3,079 54 


Dracut, .... 




1,013 87 


1,585 99 


1,159 04 


576 66* 


1,008 01 


Dudley, .... 




794 74 








825 65 


Dunstable, 


796 71* 


170 36 


904 14 


335 33 


733 78* 


171 65 


Duxbury, 




1 268 83 


1,578 55 


824 24 


309 72* 


1 764 16 


East Bridgewater, . 


56 54* 


903 05 


578 87 


257 55 




945 66 


Easton, .... 




2,408 14 






_« 


2,792 83 


Essex, .... 


603 31 


496 97 


1,095 75 


402 50 


598 78* 


501 86 


Everett 




5,000 00 


1,014 19 






5,000 00 


Fall River, 




5,000 00 








5,000 00 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



109 





1912. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1913. 


1914. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Cities and Towns. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


P''ivate 
Work. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Fairhaven, 




$1,554 84 


- 




- 


$1,631 10 


Falmouth, 




4,718 70 


- 


- 


- 


4,341 80 


Fitchburg, 




5,000 00 


- 


- 


_* 


5,000 00 


Foxborough, . 




1,033 04 


- 


- 


- 


1,059 05 


Framingham, . 




5,000 00 


$4,067 73 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


Franklin, 




1,773 40 


- 


- 


- 


1,880 97 


Freetown, 




397 86 


- 


- 


- 


407 73 


Gardner, .... 




4,005 63 


- 


- 


- 


4,195 02 


Georgetown, . 


$1,458 48* 


498 01 


1,595 64 


$734 60 


$1,097 63* 


509 37 


Gloucester, 


1,623 07* 


5,000 00 


6,872 77 


1,971 97 


829 48* 


5,000 00 


Grafton 




1,168 22 


727 22 


250 00 


- 


1,219 66 


Great Harrington , . 




2,536 84 


- 


- 


- 


2,749 12 


Greenfield, 




4,324 33 


- 


- 


-* 


4,597 02 


Groton, .... 


76 95* 


1,645 19 


1,692 70 


379 45 


47 51* 


1,735 29 


Groveland, 


920 33* 


486 64 


1,155 93 


292 72 


669 29* 


492 33 


Halifax, .... 


438 40* 


260 10 


781 79 


471 81 


521 69* 


262 17 


Hamilton, 


1,035 53* 


1,874 57 


2,668 86 


881 90 


400 00* 


2,080 78 


Hanover, .... 


857 97* 


638 09 


1,370 22 


1,169 59 


732 13* 


784 20 


Hanson, .... 


916 36* 


551 32 


1,111 05 


189 68 


559 73* 


580 61 


Harvard, .... 


533 78* 


680 53 


1,560 37 


938 29 


879 84* 


702 06 


Harwich, .... 




595 06 


- 


- 


- 


627 67 


Haverhill, 




5,000 00 


4.009 55 


1,998 35 


_* 


5,000 00 


Hingham, 




3,116 37 


3,752 18 


3,260 55 


-* 


3,281 43 


Holbrook, 




639 20 


- 


- 


- 


661 97 


Holden, .... 




712 78 


929 92 


428 16 


217 14* 


725 84 


Holliston, 




787 43 


- 


- 


- 


807 10 


Hopedale, 




2,365 45 


- 


- 


- 


2,388 25 


Hopkinton, 




702 60 


1,289 72 


440 00 


587 12* 


727 08 


Hubbardston, . 




307 48 


457 81 


156 13 


150 33 


315 47 


Hudson 


249 65* 


1,618 63 


1,818 20 


648 83 


199 57* 


1,659 29 


Hull, .... 




3,039 23 


- 


- 


- 


3,258 48 


Ipswich, .... 


24 40* 


2,295 12 


2,703 75 


1,325 40 


408 63* 


2.196 02 


Kingston, 


224 05* 


660 18 


2,001 61 


446 73 


1,341 43* 


671 96 


Lakeville, 




426 08 








464 75 


Lancaster, 




2,140 57 








2,744 58 


Lawrence, 




5,000 00 


1.912 30 






5,000 00 


Leicester, 




972 41 








1,002 99 



110 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1912. 

Re- 
imburse- 


1913. 


1914. 

T? £>ri n iT'orl 

Expendi- 


Cities and Towns. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
txire. 


Private 
Work. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Lenox 




$3,133 87 








$3 585 22 


Xy6o nil nster 1 




5,000 00 








oon on 


T Tl irf /Ml 


$2,548 47* 


3,242 41 


$6,624 66 


$1,669 33 


$1,723 83* 


3,425 04 


T <i n or\\ n 

.... 


448 27* 


1,615 75 


2,136 55 


2,064 92 


_* 


1,751 04 


T.iftlpfnn 


876 73*! 


467 68 


1,380 54 


99 50 


312 86* 


477 62 




-♦ 1 


5,000 00 


3,165 04 


3,752 97 




5,000 00 


LuncnlDurg, . . , 


866 41*1 


534 53 


1,623 79 


936 84 


489 26* 


557 11 


^^"^ 


1 


5,000 00 


2,532 69 


~ 




5,000 00 




1 189 29* 


479 72 


2,461 49 


514 53 


1,981 77* 


507 20 


^^^IdBiif • • • . 




5,000 00 








5,000 00 






5,000 00 








5,000 00 


^Hns field 1 • 




1,672 18 








1,768 66 






4,079 57 


1,633 00 


1,547 63 




3,764 06 


M&rion, 




2,065 46 








2,066 85 




. _* 


4,278 62 


4,834 20 


2,787 64 


141 49* 


4,289 75 




442 17* 


1,064 55 


1,723 55 


1,188 26 


659 00* 


1,129 52 


^XBslipeei • , . . 


750 73* 


97 38 


1,426 96 


110 80 


1,328 06* 


100 03 






798 62 








740 39 






1.632 04 


2,152 75 


313 72 




1,637 82 


iueQiieicii .... 




676 33 




~ 




726 81 


Medfordi .... 




5,000 00 


3,910 42 


2,202 71 




5 000 00 


Ar6dwB3^i • • . • 




686 51 








688 73 


Afelxosei .... 




5,000 00 








5,000 00 


Mendon, .... 




275 44 




~ 


~ 


277 51 


Memmac, .... 


1 037 27* 


535 89 


1,312 69 


333 96 


776 80* 


513 78 


I^e'tliueiii .... 


373 57* 


3,194 64 


3,621 26 


2,552 70 


159 77* 


3,360 68 


Middleborough, 




1,939 92 


2,709 92 


945 03 


770 00* 


1 993 88 


Middleton, 


1 289 32* 


354 60 


1,403 53 


324 40 


1,048 93* 


364 61 


iiniiora, .... 




3,954 62 




~ 


~ 


4,029 46 


MillDury, .... 




1,193 41 


~ 






1 186 66 


Miuis, .... 




539 09 


147 93 






547 23 


AltllOIl, .... 




5,000 00 


4,520 46 


9,875 27 




5,000 00 


Nahant, .... 


- 


3,673 72 








3,627 12 


Natick, .... 




3,479 07 


3,070 81 


1,658 54 




3,536 28 


Needham, 




2,926 47 


_i 






3,110 46 


New Bedford, . 




5,000 00 








5,000 00 


New Braintree, 




161 38 








169 27 



This town has not yet filed complete account. 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Ill 





1912. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1913. 


1914. 


Cities and Towns. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


:^iv^ 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


New Salem, 


- 


$148 72 








$157 03 


Newburj-, 


$1,137 70* 


627 06 


$1,997 17 


$687 61 


$1,370 11* 


604 09 


Newbury port, . 


- 


5,000 00 






_ 


5,000 00 


Newton, .... 


2,644 37* 


5,000 00 


25,032 88 


16,942 86 


2,000 00* 


5.000 00 


Norfolk 


236 44* 


418 44 


549 15 


298 20 


130 71* 


479 03 


North Andover, 


364 58* 


2,211 81 


2,309 91 


1,025 51 


98 10* 


2,229 00 


North Attleborough, 


- 


3,665 74 








3,828 41 


North Brookfield, . 


- 


753 92 








765 03 


North Reading, 


1,928 94* 


354 10 


2,632 48 


780 52 


2,278 38* 


367 70 


Northborough, 


789 91* 


566 66 


1,245 03" 


383 68 


78 37* 


738 19 


Northbridge, . 


- 


2,086 30 








2,210 49 


Norton, .... 


- 


601 74 








675 10 


Norwell, .... 


403 35* 


445 38 


1,035 11 


1,470 39 


588 73* 


462 94 


Norvs-ood, 


- 


5,000 00 








5,000 00 


Oakham, .... 


- 


152 32 








151 92 


Orange, .... 


- 


1,652 94 








1,622 09 


Orleans 


- 


765 33 








1,478 52 


Oxford 


- 


820 58 








825 79 


Palmer, .... 


- 


1,934 07 








2,115 60 


Paxton, .... 


_* 


153 36 








158 87 


Peabody, .... 


1,685 79 


5,000 00 






_ 


5,000 00 


Pembroke, 


1,366 09* 


390 54 


1,846 51 


353 76 


1,455 97* 


434 81 


Pepperell, 


480 70* 


907 45 


1,912 19 


484 90 


1,004 74* 


926 75 


Petersham, 


- 


442 07 








444 69 


Phillipston, 




114 78 








116 14 


Plain ville, 


- 


342 66 








414 68 


Plymouth, 


- 


4,886 83 








5,000 00 


Plympton, 


1,500 53* 


166 36 


1,670 26 


204 83 


1,503 90* 


174 25 


Princeton, 




568 21 








596 48 


Provincetow-n, . 


- 


915 41 








944 17 


Quincy, .... 


-• 


5,000 00 


5,662 91 


1,130 40 


_« 


5,000 00 


Randolph, 


- 


1,092 40 








1,129 50 


Raynham, 


452 11* 


354 45 


317 03 


214 54 


_* 


365 10 


Reading 


423 33* 


2,618 75 


3,151 64 


1,997 70 


133 33* 


2,788 71 


Rehoboth, 




385 80 








411 04 


Revere 




5,000 00 








5,000 00 


Rochester, 




379 92 








383 62 



112 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1912. 

Re- 
imbxu^e- 
ment. 


1913. 


1914. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Cities axd Towns. 


Required 
Exp)endi- 
ture. 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Private 
Work. 


Re- 
imburse- i 
ment. 


Rockland, 


- i 


$1,931 05 








$2,091 52 


Rockport, 


$446 56* 


1,512 99 


$1,826 71 


$1,192 91 


$313 72 


1,563 59 


Rowley, .... 


698 07* 


968 80 


1,188 87 


229 34 


220 07* 


919 07 


Royalston, 




278 44 


95 36 


61 58 




288 25 


Rutland, .... 




312 59 








342 78 


Salem 




5,000 00 


~ 






5,000 00 


Salisbury, 


1,265 29* 


535 99 


1,434 90 


304 00 


898 91* 


571 86 


Sandwich, 


157 79* 


473 83 


769 64 


115 00 


295 81* 


520 32 


Saugus 


2,956 42* 


2,537 20 


4,976 05 


2,466 83 


1,798 32* 


2,670 32 


Scituate, .... 


4,046 37* 


2,052 80 


6,297 85 


1,600 00 


3,045 05* 


O 01 O AO 
49 


Seekonk, .... 




635 77 










Sharon, .... 




1,287 25 




~ 




1,487 41 


Sherborn, 


299 13 


644 53 


792 41 


1,203 44 


147 88* 


892 70 


Shirley, .... 




501 98 


542 81 


79 80 


40 83* 


505 28 


Shrewsbury, 




960 50 








1,001 17 


Somerset, .... 




632 85 








659 68 


Somerville, 




5,000 00 


662 99 


1,709 09 




O.UUU W 


Southborough, 


682 26* 


822 60 


1,323 52 


987 04 




OOD Vi 


Spencer, .... 




1,459 18 








1,408 47 


Springfield, 




5,000 00 








o.UUU uu 


Sterling 




493 86 


490 28 


245 19 


_* 


499 84 


Stockbridge, 




1,813 78 








1,703 57 


Stoneham, 




2,104 35 


2,057 23 


1,478 32 


_« 




Stoughton, 




1,557 35 








1,010 oU 


Stow 


918 38* 


424 82 


1,204 67 


410 25 


779 85* 


A AS ^A 


Sturbridge, 




407 65 










Sudburj', .... 


880 62* 


544 28 


1,722 49 


220 83 


1,178 21* 


558 91 


Sutton, .... 




618 05 










Swampscott, . 




4,955 16 


4,455 68 






E AAA AA 

o,uuu uu 


Swansea, .... 




662 11 








<UD 08 


Taunton, .... 




5,000 00 








e AAA AA 


Templeton, 




729 96 


_ 


_ 


_* 


734 77 


Tewksbury, 


594 76* 


605 54 


1,405 52 


687 29 


799 98* 


645 83 


Topsfield, 


637 05* 


1,243 95 


1,581 50 


730 56 


337 55* 


1,427 43 


Townsend, 


387 20* 


' 538 96 


1,620 65 


447 88 


1,081 69* 


546 91 


Truro 




157 91 








163 22 


Tj-ngsborough, 


823 98* 


I 262 14 


1,599 63 


907 78 


737 49* 


269 96 



1914.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



113 





1 

1912. 

Re- I 
imburse- 
ment. 


1913. 


1914. 


Cities and Towns. 


Required 
ture. 


Total Net 
ture. 


Private 
Work. 


Re- 

ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Upton, .... 


- j 


$474 22 








$504 47 


Uxbridge, 


- 


1,413 00 








1,503 98 


Wakefield, 


-* 


4,372 26 


$1,129 86 


$2,562 65 




4,602 40 


Walpole 


_» 1 


2,573 82 








2,762 19 


Waltham, 


$238 80* 


5,000 00 


7,297 71 


5,875 19 


5 Joy 2,6 


5,000 00 


Wareham, 


- 


2,212 11 








2.218 48 


Warren, .... 


- 


840 79 








979 44 


Warwick 


- 


165 89 








182 51 


Watertown, 


_ 


5,000 00 








5,000 00 


W^ayland, .... 


710 93* 


1,270 83 


1,514 16 


1 one AA 

1,205 00 


^43 do* 


1,214 60 


Webster 




3,482 36 








2,851 88 


Wellesley, 


370 11 


5,000 00 


4,624 98 


1,351 45 




5,000 00 


Wellfleet, .... 


- 


407 46 








352 84 


Wenham, 


987 04* 


1,051 16 


1,3»4 69 


610 81 




1,064 16 


West Boylston, 




378 60 








1 380 42 


West Bridgewater, . 


_» 


613 84 


1,181 69 


378 82 


567 85* 


621 62 


West Newburj-, 


1,019 34* 


423 04 


1,375 24 


385 85 


952 20* 


436 80 


Westborough, . 


-* 


1,293 07 


1,488 64 


107 75 




1,309 46 


Westford, 


1,429 95* 


859 24 


1,842 79 


537 00 


983 55* 


882 21 


Westminster, . 


130 47* 


377 73 


987 82 


197 03 


610 09* 


396 36 


Weston, .... 


615 46* 


3,359 89 


5,963 61 


3,600 00 


982 80* 


' 3,248 27 


Westport, 


_ 


883 26 








1 912 68 


Westwood, 


_* 


1,641 04 








1,640 03 


Weymouth, 


8 99 


3,982 86 


4,290 61 


1,987 02 




; 4,587 23 


Whitman, 


_ 


2,215 37 








2,229 69 


Wilbraham, 


- 


471 26 








489 82 


Wilmington, 


2,052 16* 


683 73 


2,970 17 


894 72 


1,686 44* 


' 726 89 


Winchendon, . 


_ 


1,683 77 


1,831 59 


204 11 


147 82* 


, 1,720 71 


Winchester, 


_• 


5,000 00 


3,746 79 






j 5,000 00 


Winthrop, 


_ 


! 5,000 00 




_ 


_ 


5,000 00 


Woburn, .... 


3,025 92 


4,660 11 


9,550 55 


2,069 28 


4,628 61* 


4,828 12 


Worcester, 




5,000 00 


- 






5,000 00 


Wrentham, 




560 48 








587 68 


Yarmouth, 




989 19 








1,020 00 



114 



THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 1914. 



SoiMARY OF Recommendations of the State Forester. 

1. That a more pretentious plan for acquisition and man- 
agement of lands for use as State forests be given due considera- 
tion. 

2. That legislation be enacted regulating the present slash 
dangers. Our great losses from forest fires are largely traceable 
to our indifference in leaving slash where it can be reached by 
fire. 

3. That the appropriation for gypsy and brown-tail moths 
for the coming year be as follows: S125,000 for the remainder of 
this year and $75,000 for use until the Legislature of 1915 may 
take action. 

4. That the present method of taxing forest land be so 
altered as to encourage rather than discourage the practice of 
forestry in this Commonwealth. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 



19/4 





Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FO BESTEB 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

ELEVENTH ANNUAL *EEPOET, 
1914. 



F. W. RANE, State Forester. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTEE PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1915. 



Appeoved by 

The State Boakd of Publication. 



J2) 



Commoniuealtl) of itloesacljusette. 



To the General Court. 

The work of the State Forester is herewith reported upon for 
the past year in accordance with the provisions of chapter 409, 
section 5, Acts of 1904. 

It is with pleasure that I can say that the year has been an 
extremely busy and successful one, and that the co-operation, 
not only of the General Court but of our people generally, has 
been most cordial and of a constructive nature. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RANE, 
State Forester, 



Dec. 31, 1914. 



C O X T E N T S . 



PAGE 

Introduction, ........... 7 

Organization, . . . . . . . . . . .11 

Application of forestry to moth work, ....... 23 

Forest mapping, ........... 29 

Forest management, . . . . . . . .31 

Nursery work. ........... 37 

Reforestation work, .......... 38 

New work, 1914, 39 

State Fire Warden's report, ......... 40 

Observation stations, .......... 42 

Comparative table of fires, ......... 43 

Proposed stations, ........... 44 

Forest-fire equipment, .......... 44 

Railroad fires, ........... 44 

Federal co-operation, 47 
Co-operative forest fire conference, ........ 48 

Forest warden conferences, ......... 49 

Inventory of equipment purchased under the reimbursement act, . . 50 
Towns receiving fire-equipment reimbursement, 1914, . . .54 

Forest fires, 1914, ........... 54 

Comparative damages by forest fires, ....... 55 

Classified causes of forest fires, ........ 55 

Precipitation in inches for four years, ....... 56 

Chestnut bark disease, .......... 59 

State highway planting, .......... 59 

Municipal forests, ........... 60 

Special co-operative moth work, . . . . . . .61 

Moth and forest survey of Winchendon, ....... 61 

Moth work in Boston, .......... 62 

Moth work in Brookline, ......... 63 

Moth field day in Lincoln, ......... 64 

Protecting and increasing birds, ........ 65 

Army worm outbreak, .......... 69 

Panama-Pacific Exposition, exhibit at, . . . . . . .72 

National Association of Conservation Commissioners, . . . .73 

State forest policy-, .......... 73 

Lectures and addresses, .......... 80 

Field meetings of the State Grange, ........ 81 

Work on State highways, ......... 82 

Parasite work, ........... 84 

New legislation, ........... 86 

Financial statements, .......... 89 

Financial summary of moth work, ........ 96 

Conclusion, . . . . . . . . . . . .111 




The forest fire observation tower at Hanson. This tower was constructed through the 
co-operation of the surrounding towns with the State Forester. 



®l)e Commontxiealtl) of illa00acl)xi0ett0- 



ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 

FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

The granting by the General Court at its last session of an 
appropriation of $90,000 for the purchase of State forests, the 
enactment of both the forest taxation law and regulations for 
the disposal of slash bordering forestry operations, together with 
an increased forest fire appropriation, were in themselves suffi- 
cient to give encouragement to any State forester. 

The season of 1914 to our mind eclipsed all previous ones in 
undertakings and accomplishments. It is therefore with a great 
deal of pride and no little pleasure that your State Forester 
presents this, his annual report, outlining in a general way the 
activities of this department for the past year. He fully realizes 
that for whatever progress has been made the credit belongs to 
no one person, but to the splendid co-operation on the part of 
the people generally. 

"Conservation" has come to be the term that stands for 
accomplishing something in the economic utilization of our 
natural resources throughout the nation, and it is an ungrateful 
citizenship that vdW not respond to aiding this great and im- 
portant cause. Our Massachusetts people have awakened to 
not only talk and advocate conservation, but have gone even 
farther and enlisted in a campaign of restoration and utilization 
as well as "conservation." Our State being one of the oldest, 
and abounding in excellent markets, the forest products have 
been heavily drawn upon, and hence our forest lands have been 
rapidly depleted. Now that other and further sources of supply 
have met with similar experience, the time has come when we 
must determine our future source of forest products. Upon 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



turning to a study of forest culture and management we find 
here in Massachusetts a fertile field for great accomplishments. 

During each successive year, of late, we have been the more 
able to do work that begins to show definite results. Our 
splendid forest fire protective system in Massachusetts is cer- 
tainly something of which we may all be proud. Where forest 
fires a few' years ago were allowed to run at will, to-day we aim 
to detect and extinguish them at once. Our system consists of 
26 observation tow^ers scattered over the State, each containing 
a wide-awake observer, who has telephone connection with 
forest wardens in each city and town, 353 in all. In addition 
we have 1,500 deputies, a State Fire Warden with his four as- 
sistants, who patrol each section of the State in auto runabouts, 
and also 300 rural mail carriers whose duty it is to report fires. 
With this comprehensive system it can be plainly seen that the 
danger of the destruction of forests by fire is rapidly being 
overcome. 

Next from point of importance to forest fires comes, probably, 
forest taxation. The past season realized the placing of a ra- 
tional and workable forest tax law on our statute books. By 
registering forest land in accordance with the new law any one 
may have a comprehensive and definite knowledge of what his 
future forest taxes will be. This law is automatic, and is a 
safety valve for rational forestry investment. It took six years 
to secure this forest taxation law, as it necessitated a change in 
the State Constitution and an acceptance by the people, even 
before a commission could be appointed to draft and submit the 
new law to the Legislature. 

The new slash law, which takes effect Jan. 1, 1915, requires 
that all lumbermen, farmers or others who operate wood lots 
hereafter must remove or destroy all brush or slash for a dis- 
tance of 40 feet from the highway, railroad or abutting wood- 
land. This law will render conditions far more favorable for 
handling incipient forest fires. The strip will act as a natural 
forest fire line. 

With the above regulations added to our numerous previous 
acts, such as the permit act, the forest warden act, the re- 
forestation act, the forest domain act, the town forest fire 
equipment act, etc., we now have a set of fundamental laws 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



9 



which we may proudly acclaim in their entirety, and which 
make up what the State Forester chooses to designate as the 
Massachusetts forest policy. For a fuller discussion in detail 
the reader is referred to a paper entitled "The Massachusetts 
Forest Policy," which the State Forester read before the Society 
for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, at Washington, D. C, 
on Nov. 11, 1914, and which is reprinted elsewhere in this 
report. 

Jt has taken eleven years since the creating of the office of 
State Forester, therefore, to arrive at our present well-rounded- 
out forestry system. It now^ behooves us to build up a splendid 
State forest structure upon this foundation. The energies of the 
State Forester henceforth will be to explain, simplify and put 
into practical operation forestry practices of all sorts, and he 
asks the whole-hearted co-operation of all Massachusetts citi- 
zens to that end. 

While it has been necessary for the State Forester to go to 
the Legislature each year for many new laws and special ap- 
propriations, it is believed that our future forestry bills will 
be more spontaneous and come from our people themselves. 
We have at the present time not only cordial co-operation and 
interest on the part of the lawmakers themselves, but much 
interest is shown in the State, city and local organizations of 
every kind. Examples of these are the Patrons of Husbandry 
or State Grange; State Board of Agriculture; Federation of 
Women's Clubs; boards of trade; sportsmen's organizations, 
etc. 

The one organization in particular which has, from its natural 
affiliations and close association wdth the State Forester, been of 
great assistance is the Massachusetts Forestry Association. 
This organization introduced the bill creating this office, and 
the development of forestry interest throughout Massachusetts 
can be gauged by the great increase in membership of this 
association alone. A few years ago a membership of 800 was 
pointed to with pride, while the past year its membership 
totaled 3,200. This organization is not only interested in 
modern forestry development, as, for example, in offering a 
prize for a competition in municipal forest planting of 50,000 
young trees to the winner this next spring, but the association 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



is also deeply interested in roadside trees and shade trees of 
all kinds. Last spring a great deal of interest was aroused in 
a competition by various cities and towns over roadside tree 
planting, and the winning town was given the trees and the 
expense of planting two miles of roadsides. It is needless to 
point out that this work popularizes forestry and educates our 
citizens, and particularly the coming generation, to appreciate 
trees and forestry. 

Under the head of "Forest Management," which is treated 
more in detail in this report, the department has made 58 
examinations which cover a total area of 13,255 acres. Working 
plans, making forest fire lines and mapping work have also 
come under this head. 

The department has again increased its nursery work by 
establishing a new nursery at Barnstable, Mass., which will be 
used largely for growing seedlings. This nursery, in conjunction 
with our old one at Amherst, will supply us with sufficient stock 
to meet our increased demands. The new seed beds at the 
Barnstable nursery contain as fine a stand of seedlings as the 
writer has ever seen. A transplant nursery has been started on 
the grounds of the State Farm at Bridgewater, and it is our 
purpose to greatly enlarge this acreage in the spring. A large 
amount of nursery stock was given to various State institutions 
for planting upon their holdings the past year. 

The practice of aiding towns and cities from the State ap- 
propriation, in getting better and more permanent equipment 
for use in work against the gypsy and the brown-tail moths, has 
been followed throughout the past season, with the result that 
they are in a position to do far more effective work in the 
future, and at less expense. Where this office is getting proper 
co-operation from cities and towns (and this is quite general) 
the moth work is constantly improving. 

Now that the United States Department of Agriculture has 
for the past two years assumed the work of checking the spread 
of the gypsy moth, and also taken over the parasite work, our 
State w^ork has become more specific and definite. Each year a 
number of towns and cities that have been having State aid are 
added to the list of those self-supporting. Such cities and towns, 
now that they have had assistance and are in a position to 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



handle their work within their Hability, should be compelled 
hereafter to keep it up to this standard of efficiency. The 
State appropriation for the coming year is needed in aiding 
those to'^Tis that in the past have had scattering infestations 
which now have become very general. As long as there are but 
a few^ insects little co-operation is forthcoming, but when the 
stripping stage is reached then people begin to realize the danger. 

During the past year, at a request from the United States 
Department of Agriculture, a number of towns situated just 
within the so-called border towns now being handled by that 
department were scouted and given special consideration. As 
the government is faithfully attempting, at great expense, to 
check the spread into new territory, it was thought a wise 
expenditure of State funds to thus co-operate. During the 
coming year the central and north cape country will need a 
great deal of attention. 

The forest-thinning method of handling the moths, whereby 
the trees preferred by them are removed, and resistant species 
retained, and even planted, has proved, with spraying, a 
great success. Many woodland owners are taking advantage 
of this practice, and we predict that as rapidly as markets 
can be worked up for the products removed this work 
will just as rapidly increase. This work has not only the ad- 
vantage of permanency, but it brings about a more economic 
forestry condition for the future. The subject is discussed more 
fully elsewhere in this report. 

Briefly, therefore, the moth suppression work is being han- 
dled with a definiteness of purpose, and that real gains are being 
made there is no doubt. The work should be continued along 
our present lines, taking advantage of every method or com- 
bination of methods that will get results economically. 

This report itself contains much else in detail about forestry 
in general, and our moth work, and by this introduction it is 
hoped the reader may be interested to look more deeply into 
our various activities. 

Orgaxizatiox. 

During the year there have been a few changes, but gen- 
erally speaking the personnel of the staff has remained the same. 
Mr. R. S. Langdell, who has been an assistant in charge of 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



reforestation work for seven years, resigned last spring to engage 
in commercial forestry work. He has become one of the firm of 
the Franklin Forestry Company, and has charge of their re- 
forestation work. Mr. Langdell was first employed to take 
charge of the nursery work, and to him is due the credit for 
the splendid success that we have had in growing seedlings and 
transplants for our State work. It was with reluctance that we 
accepted his resignation. Mr. Langdell' s work has been for the 
time being placed under the supervision of Mr. H. O. Cook, 
while Mr. J. R. Simmons, a young man who was employed as 
a college forestry student from Syracuse University durmg the 
summer of 1912 on forest mapping, was hired to have charge 
of the nursery work. 

Mr. Roy G. Pierce, M.F., who became a member of the staff 
as assistant in charge of chestnut blight work, in co-operation 
with the United States Department of Agriculture, and had 
been with us for over a year, finished his duties with us at the 
completion of the term of agreement, July 1, and returned to 
Washington, D. C. Mr. Pierce proved an enthusiastic worker, 
and did very much to acquaint our people with the chestnut 
disease and methods of handling it. 

Mr. Ray Weston, M.F., was employed during the year to 
assist Mr. Kneeland in the forest thinning work for controlling 
moth suppression. 

The remainder of the organization is practically the same as 
last year, with slight alterations. 

The organization follows: — 

General Staff. 

F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, . State Forester. 
C. O. Bailey, .... Secretary. 
Elizabeth Hubbard, . . Bookkeeper. 
JosEPHA L. Gallagher, . . Clerk. 
Elizabeth T. Harraghy, Stenographer. 
Jennie D. Kenyon, . . . Stenographer. 
James H. Crowley, . . Office boy. 



F. W. Rane, B. Agr., M.Sc, 
H. O. Cook, M.F., . 
F. L. Haynes, B.F., . 
J. R. Simmons, B Sc., 
Harold Fay, M.F., . 



General Forestry. 
. State Forester. 
Assistant Forester. 
Forest examiner. 
Reforestation work. 
Forest mapping. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Eben Smiih, 
Dean Townsley, 
J. L. Peabody, 
James Morris. 
H. N. Butler, . 
H. G. Tavener, 
H. H. Chase, . 



Superintendent, Barnstable Nursery. 

Superintendent, Amherst Nursery. 

Field foreman. 

Field foreman. 

Field foreman. 

Field foreman. 

Field foreman. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc. 
Geo. a. Smith 
Paul D. Kneeland, M.F., 
John Murdoch, Jr., A.M., 
Ray F. Weston, M.F., 
Francis V. Learoyd, 



Staff, Moth Work. 
State Forester. 

Assistant (equipment, accounts, etc.). 
Assistant (woodlands, products, etc.). 
Assistant. 
Assistant. 
Clerk. 



District 

1. John W. Enwrtght, Medford. 

2. Saul Phillips, Beverly. 

3. John J. Fitzgerald, Haverhill. 

4. Wm. a. Hatch, Marlborough. 



Moth Men. 

5. Harry B. Ramsey, Worcester. 
0. C. W. Parkhurst, Medfield. 

7. W. F. Holmes, East Braintree. 

8. J. A. Farley, Plymouth. 



Staff, Forest Fire Prevention. 
F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, . State Forester. 
M. C. Hutchins, State Fire Warden. 

Miner E. Fenn, . . Assistant. 
James E. Moloy, . . . Locomotive inspector. 



District Forest Wardens. 

1. Oscar L. Noyes, Byfield. 3. John P. Crowe, Westborough. 

2. J. J. Shepherd, Pembroke. 4. Albert R. Ordway, Westfield'. 



District 1. 
Wm. Bray, Georgetown. 
Geo. G. Calvert, Sharon. 
J. Frank Hammond, Chelmsford. 
Elliot C. Harrington, Milton. 
Caplis McCormick, Essex. 
John H. O'Donnell, Wakefield. 



Observers. 

District 3. 
A. M. Bennett, Pelham. 
John Giblin, Westborough. 
J. H. Lombard, Warwick. 
James Maley, Princeton. 
Geo. W. Sherman, Brimfield. 



District 2. 
Calvin Benson, Barnstable. 
Walter H. Blake, Dighton. 
Frank L, Buckingham, Plymouth. 
Alvaro Harnden, Fall River. 
S. Matthews, Middleborough. 
Calvin C. Parker, North Harwich. 
W. F. Raymond, Bournedale. 
Gushing O. Thomas, South Hanson. 
W. I. Moody, Falmouth. 



District 4- 
C. M. Brown, Ashfield. 
H. H. FiTZROY, Savoy. 
Chas. F. Kimball, Becket. 
Geo. C. Miller, Easthampton. 
Nelson C. Woodward, Shelburne. 



14 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by towns and cities.] 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest W&rcien. 

* 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


o7-W, Rockland, . 


Arthur B. Reed, . 


Abington, . 


C. F. Shaw, . 


7 


10-4, . 


W. H. Kingsley, 


Acton, . 


J. O'Neil, . 


4 


2003-M, 


Henry F. Taber, 


Aciishnet, . 


A. P. R. Gilmore, 


8 


2-0, Kippers, 


John Clancy, . 


Adams, 


John Clancy, 


5 


1431-M, 


E. M. Hitchcock, . 


Agawam, 


- 


- 


151;32, Great Bar- 

rington. 
274-M, 


J. H. Wilcox, State Line, 
James E. Feltham, . 


Alford, 
Amesbxiry, . 


- 

A. L. Stover, 


- 
3 


174-Y, 


A. F. Bardwell, 


Amherst, 


W. H. Smith, 


5 


212, . 


John H. Baker, 


Andover, 


J. H. Playdon, . 


3 


35 or 206, . 


Walter H. Pierce, . 


Arlington, . 


Daniel M. Daley, . 


1 


2-12, . 




Ashbiimham, 


Chas, H. Pratt, . 


4 


24-2, . 


Wm. S. Green, 


Ashby, 


Fred C. Allen, 


4 


4-12, . 


Chas. A. Hall, 


Ashfield, . 


_ _ _ 


- 


479-W, 


Horace H. Piper, 


Ashland, 


Theodore P. Hall, 


6 


48-J or 72-4, 


Frank P. Hall, 


Athol, . 


W. S. Penniman, . 


5 


34-4, . 


Hiram R. Packard, 


Attleborough, . 


W. E. S. Smith, . 


6 


5-17, . 




Aubiim, 


J. F. Searle, . 


5 


3259-M, 


J. W. McCarty, 


Avon, . 


W. W. Beals, 


7 


96-4 or 47-4, 


Chas. E. Perrin, 


Ayer, . 


D. C. Smith, 


4 


144-2, . 


Henry C.Bacon, Hyannis, 


Barnstable, 


F. W. Chase, 


8 


83-4, . 


A. E. Traver, . 


Barre, . 


G, R. Simonds, 


5 


18 or 8000, . 


P. B. McCormick, . 


Becket, 






117-1 Lex., . 


Chas. E. Williams, . 


Bedford, 


W. A. Cutler, 


1 


10-2, . 


Jas. A. Peeso, . 


Belchertown, 


E. C. Howard, 


5 


8157-22, MUford, . 


L. Francis Thayer, . 


Bellingham, 


H. A. Whitney, . 


6 


409-W, 


John F. Leonard, 


Belmont, 


C. H. Houlahan, . 


1 


1367-M, 
14-6, . 


G. H. Babbitt, Taunton, 

R. F. D. 
Walter Cole, . 


Berkley, 
Berlin, 


A. A. Briggs, 
E. C. Ross, . 


6 
4 


2-13, . 


Edson W. Hale, 


Bernardston, 


Edwin B. Hale, . 


5 


319-J, . . 


Robert H. Grant, . 


Beverly, 


J. B. Brown, 


2 


22-2, . 


E. N. Bartlett, 


Billerica, 


W. H. O'Brien, . 


1 


875-L-l, Woon- 

socket. 
12-2, . 


Thomas Reilly, 


Blackstone, 
Blandford, . 


A. J. Gibbons, 


5 


9-14, . 


E. Eliot Hurlbut, . 


Bolton, 


C. E. Mace, . 


4 


103-13. 


Emory A. Ellis, Bourne- 
dale. 


Boston, 
Bourne,, 


Park and Recrea- 
tion Department. 

Edward D. Nick- 
erson. 


1 
8 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 15 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Tblephone 

NUMBEB. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


No td6pllOZ16f 


H. J. Livermore, 


Boxborougfh, 


C. E. Sherry, 


4 


42-21, Greorge- 
town. 

4-4 


Harry L. Cole, George- 

town, R. F. D. 
John N. Flagg, 


B oxford, 
Boylston, 


C. Perley, 
R. B. Smith, 


3 
5 


433-R, 

No telephone, 


Jas. M. Cutting, South 

Braintree. 
T. B, Tubman, 


Braintree, 
Brewster, 


Clarence R. Bes- 
tick. 

Russell D. Eaton, 


7 
8 


8-6, 


£jdwin S. Rhoades, 


Bridg^e water , 


F. C. Worthen, 


7 


14-3, . 


Geo. E. Hitchcock, 


Brimfield, . 


G. E. Hitchcock, . 


5 


1041 or 2020, 


Harry L. Marston, . 


Brockton, 


Geo. C. Kane, 


7 


101-13, 


Elbert L. Bemis, 


Brookfield, . 


J. H. Conant, 


5 


376, 


Geo. H. Johnson, 


Brookline, 


Ernest B. Dane, 


1 


52-8, 


Gilbert E. Griswold, 


Buckland, 






No tBlspiioDe, 


W. W. Skelton, 


Burlington, 


W. W. Skelton, 


1 


51-4, 


Robert C. Hughes, 


Canton, 


A. Hemenway, 


7 






Cambridge, 


J. F. Donnelly, 


1 


76-5, Concord, 


Geo. G. Wilkins, 


Carlisle, 


G. G. Wilkins, 


1 


16-2, . 


Herbert F. At wood, 


Carver, 


H. F. Atwood, 


8 


14-12, . 


Albert L. Veber, 


Charlemont, 






32-22, 


Chas. S. McKinstry, 


Charlton, 


J. D. Fellows, 


5 


28-3, 


Geo. W. Ryder, West 

Chatham. 
Arnold C. Perham, . 


Chatham, 


Mervyn R. Martin, 


8 


1597-R, Lowell, . 


Chelmsford, 


M. A. Bean, . 


1 






Chelsea, 


J. A. O'Brien, 


1 


167-3, . 


Chas. D. Cummings, 


Cheshire, 






7-4, .. . 


Wm. E. Major, 


Chester, 






4, . . . 


Chas. A. Bisbee, Bisbees, 


Chesterfield , 






149-M or 149-W, . 


John E. Pomphret, . 


Chicopee, . ' 


Z. Pilland, 


5 


216-14, 


Ernest C. Mayhew, 


Chilmark 


A. S. Tilton, 


8 


No telephone, 
551-M, 


Danforth Blanchard 
North Adams, R. F. D. 
Patrick H. Kelley, 


Clarksburg, 
Clinton, 


Geo. Tisdale, 
John B. Connery, 


5 
4 


177-3 or 260, 


Wm, J. Brennock, 


Cohasset, 


Wm. H. McArthur, 


7 


13-9, . 
75-3, . 


ville. 
Frank W. Holden, 


Colrain, 
Concord, 


Edgar F. Copeland, 
H. P. Richardson, 


5 
4 


5-3, .. . 


Edgar Jones, . 


Conway, 






8001, . 


Thos. A. Gabb, 


Cummington, 






42-12, . 


S. L. Caesar, . 


Dalton, 






No telephone, 
295-W, 


Thos. L. Thayer, North 

Dana. 
Michael H. Barry, . 


Dana, . 
Danvers, 


T. L. Thayer, 
T. E. Tinsley, 


5 

2 


14-3, Westport, . 


Ezekiel W. Reed, North 
Dartmouth. 


Dartmouth, 


E. M. Munson, 


8 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


35-R, . 


H. J. Harrigan, 


Dedham, 


J. T. Kennedy, . 


7 


273-14, Greenfield, 


Wm. L. Harris, 


Deerfield. . 


Wm. L. Harris, 


5 


No telephone, 
29-3, . 


Chas. E. Pierce, South 

Dennis. 
Ralph Earle, . 


Dennis, 
Dighton, 


H. H. Sears, 
D. F. Lane, . 


8 
6 


11-4, . 


Wm. L. Church, . 


Douglas, 


F. J. Libby, . 


5 


372-3, . 


John Breagy, . 


Dover, . 


H. L. MacKenzie, 


6 


3353-2, 


Frank H. Gunther, 


Dracut, 


T. F, Carrick, 


1 


152-2, Webster, . 
5-11, Tyngsbor- 
4-2, Duxbury, 


F. A. Putnam, 
Archie W. Swallow, 


Dudley, 
Dunstable, 


Frank W. Bate- 
W^H^Savill, 


5 
4 


Henry A. Fish, South 

Duxbury. 
Richard H. Copeland, 

Box 115 Elmwood. 
Asher Markham, 


Duxbury, 


H. A. Fish, . 


7 


146-5, . 
8-5, . 


E. Bridge water, . 
£. Longmeadow, 


Frank H. Taylor, 


7 


24-3, . 


Adin L. Gill, . 


Eastham, 


N. p. Clark, 


8 


2-11, . 


J. M. Dineen, 


Easthampton, . 






76, . . . 
241-2, . 


Frederick Hanlon, North 

Easton. 
Manuel S. Swartz, . 


Easton, 
Edgartown, 


R. W. Melendy, . 
John P. Fuller, . 


6 

8 


165-25, 
17-11, . 


Frank W. Bradford, Great 
Herbert A. Coolbeth, 


Egremont, . 
Enfield, 


H. C. Moore, 


- 




No telephone, 
23-5, . 


Chas. H. Holmes, Far- 
ley. 

Otis 0. Story, . 


Erving, 
Essex, . 


Chas. H. Holmes, 
0. 0. Story, . 


5 
2 






Everett, 


P. 0. Sefton, 


1 


1686-Y, 


Chas. F, Benson, 


Fairhaven, . 


G. W. King, . 


8 


822-W, 


Wm. Stevenson, 


Fall River, . 


Wm. Stevenson, . 


8 


136-2, . 
745, . 


H. H. Lawrence, Tea- 
P. S. Bunker, . 


Falmouth, . 
Fitchburg, . 


W. B. Bosworth, . 
Page S. Bunker, . 


8 
4 


Hoosac Tunnel 

pay station. 
15-5 or 76-3, 


H. B. Brown, Drury, 
Ernest A. White, . 


Florida, 
Foxborough, 


F. S. Richardson, 


6 


352-4, South Fram- 

ingliSiiD.. 
66-12, . 


B. P. Winch, . 
Edward S. Cook, . 


Framingham, 
Franklin, 


N. I. Bowditch, . 
J. W. Stobbart, . 


6 
6 


3-12, . 
191-M, 


Andrew Hathaway, As- 
Geo. S. Hodgman, . 


Freetown, . 
Gardner, 


G. M. Nichols, . 
T. W. Danforth, . 


8 
5 


31-4, 


Leander B. Smalley, Me- 

nemsha. 
Clinton J. Eaton, 


Gay Head, . 
Georgetown, 


J. W. Belain, 

O T T?o-fi-\i-» 
Vy. J • jCjElOII, . 


8 


4-15, Bernardston, 
547-5, . 


Lewis C. Munn, Turners 

Falls. 
Sydney F. Haskell, 


GUI, . . 
Gloucester, 


R. E. White, 
H. J. Worth, 


5 
2 


18-4. . 

No telephone, 


John S. Mollison, Wil- 
liamsburg. 
Rodney E. Bennett, 


Goshen, 
Gosnold, 




- 



1915.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



17 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con . 



Telephone 
Number. 



Forest Warden. 



Town or City. 



Local Moth 
Superintendent. 



3-13, . 

3- 3, . 
327-W. 
439-M, 

33- 24, Enfield, . 
71-5, . 
2939-X, 

651-33, 

5-2, Bryantviile, 
128-W, 

5- 14, . 
17-F-2, 

51-5, Rockland, . 
12-23,Bryantville, 
2-5, . 
46-3, . 
8000, . 

34- 2 . 

4- 2 or 4-1, . 

6- 7, Charlemont, 

5- 18, . 
21305, . 

20, . . . 
134-W, Randolph, 
42-4, . 

5- 21, Brimfield, . 
1-2, . 
2295-W, 

112-4, . 
Central, 

6- 13, . 
132-M, 
248-W, 
4-11, . 
148-W, 
15-3, . 



W. A. Getchell, North 

Grafton. 
C. N. Rust, . 

Harry A. Root, 

Daniel W. Flynn, . 

J. W. Bragg, . 



Wm. H. Walker, Green- 
wich Village. 
Chas. M. Raddin, . 

Sidney E. Johnson, 

Edward P. West, . 

W. L. Robertson, 

Fred Berry, Essex, R 

F. D. 
Edward P. Lyons, . 

Chas. F. Tucker, . 

Chas. E. Damon, North 

Hanover. 
Geo. T. Moore, South 

Hamson. 
Henry J. Breen, 

Benj. J. Priest, 

John Condon, . 

Fred T. Bardwell, North 

Hatfield. 
John B. Gordon, 

Herbert A. Hoi den, 

S. G. Benson, . 

Geo. Gushing, . 

Louis B. Brague, 

Melvin L. Coulter, 

Winfred H. Stearns, Jef- 
ferson. 

Oliver L. Howlett, South 
bridge, R. F. D. 

W. A. Collins, . 



C. J. Healey, . 
Walter F. Durgin, 
R. I. Frail, 
E. A. Young, . 
Wm. T. Greene, 



Smith F. Sturges, 

ton. 
John J. Kirby, 

Pindar F. Bussell, 

Arthur B. Holmes, 



Aller 



Grafton, 
Granby, 
Granville, 
Gt. Barrington, 
Greenfield, 
Greenwich, 
Groton, 
Groveiand, 
Hadley, 
Halifax, 
Hamilton, 
Hampden, 
Hancock, 
Hanover, 
Hanson, 
Hardwick, 
Harvard, 
Harwich, 
Hatfield, 
Haverhill, 
Hawley, 
Heath, 
Hingham, 
Hinsdale, 
Holbrook, 
Hoi den, 
Holland, 
Holliston, 
Holyoke, 
Hopedale, 
Hopkinton, 
Hubbardston, 
Hudson, 
Hull, . 
Huntington, 
Ipswich, 
Kingston, . 



C. K. Despeau, 
Chas. N. Rust, 

T. J. Kearin, 
J. W. Bragg, . 

E. A. Sawtelle, 
J. F. Bateman, 
R. B. Larive, 
Edw. P. West, 

F. D. Lyon, 
E. G. Brewer, 



L. Russell, . 
Geo. T. Moore, 
Geo. J. Fay, . 
G. C. Maynard, . 
Arthur F. Cahoon, 
Seth W. Kingsley, 
M. J. Fitzgerald, . 



T. L. Murphy, 

Bradford Parks, 
W. H. Stearns, 
A. F. Blodgett, 
Herbert E. Jones 
T. A. Bray, . 
W. F. Durgin, 
W. A. MacMillan, 

E. A. Young, 

F. P. Hosmer, 
J. Knowles, . 

J. A. Morey, 
R. F. Randall, 



18 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Wtirden. 


Town, or Citj'. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


261-W, 


• 

Nathan F. Washburn, 


Lakeville, . 


N. F. Washburn, . 


7 


218-J, . 


Arthur W. Blood, . 


Lancaster, . 


L. R. Griswold, . 


4 


1295-24, 


King D. Keeler, 


Lanesborough, . 


Geo. H. Judivine, 


5 


362. . 


Dennis E. Carey, 


Lawrence, . 


I. B. Kelly, . 


3 


66-3, . 


Jas. W. Bossidy, 


Lee,. 






37-5, . 


B. H. Fog^-ell, 


Leicester, 


J. H. Woodhead, . 


5 


135, . 


0. R. Hutchinson, . 


Lenox, . 


T. Francis Mackey, 


5 


546 or 28, . 


Fred A. Russell, 


Leominster, 


D. E. Bassett, 


4 


9-44, Cooleyville, 
480, . 


0. C. Marvel, North Lev- 

erett. 
Robert Watt, . 


Leverett, 
Lexington, . 


H. W. Field, 
A. P. Howe, . 


5 
1 


289-11, Greenfield, 


Jacob Sauter, . 


Ley den. 


Wm. A. Campbell, 


5 


44-W, . 


J. J. Kelliher, . 


Lincoln, 


J. J. Kelliher, 


4 


17-4. • . 


A. E. Hopkins, 


Littleton, 


A. E. Hopkins, 


4 


6375-J. 


0. C. Pomeroy, 


Longmeadow, 






3400, . 


E. F. Saunders, 


Lowell, 


J. G. Gordon, 


1 


1-12, . 


H. A. Munsing, 


Ludlow, 


Ashley N. Bucher, 


5 


20, . . . 


Jas. S. Gilchrest, 


Lunenburg, 


James S. Gilchrest, 


4 


1174, . 


Geo. A. Cornet, 


Lynn, . 


G. H. McPhetres, . 


2 




Andrew Mansfield, Jr., 

South Lynnfield. 
Watson B. Gould, . 


Lynnfield, . 
Maiden, 


L. H. Twiss, 
W. B. Gould, 


2 
1 


319-W, 


Peter A. Sneahan, . 


Manchester, 


P. A. Sheehan, . 


2 


1-R or 1-W, 


Herbert E. King, . 


Mansfield, . 


Marvin J. Hills, . 


6 


226-W. 


Wm. H. Stevens, 


Marblehead, 


W. H. Stevens, . 


2 


117-2, . 


Geo. B. Nye, . 


Marion, 


J. Allenach, 


8 


416 or 151-M, 


E. C. Minehan, 


Marlborough, 


M. E. Lyons, 


4 


43-3, . 


Wm. G. Ford, . 


Marshfield, . 


P. R. Livermore, . 


7 


31-2, . 


Darius Coombs, 


Mashpee, 


W. F. Hammond, . 


8 


13-3. . 


Frank A. Tinkham, 


Mattapoisett, 


Webster Kinney, . 


8 


138-3, . 


Geo. H. Gutteridge, 


Maynard, 


A. Coughlin, 


4 


106-4, . 


Waldo E. Kingsbury, 


Medfield, . 


G. L. L. Allen, . 


6 


53 or 138, . 


Chas. E. Bacon, 


Medford, 


W. J. Gannon, 


1 


34-3, . 


Phineas MacNutt, West 
Medway. 


Medway, 
Melrose, 


F. Hager, 

J. J. McCullough, 


6 
1 


156-6, Milford, . 


Frank M. Aldrich, . 


Mendon, 


F. M. Aldrich, 


5 


21-3, . 


Edgar P. Sargent, . 


Merrimac, . 


C. R. Ford, 


3 


229, . 


Herbert Nichols, 


Methuen, 


A. H. Wagland, . 


3 


232-W, 


W. H. Connor, 


Middleborough, 


A. D. Nelson, 


7 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


8003-2, 
62-2, . 


Thos. H. Fleming, Ban- 
croft. 
Oscar H. Sheldon, . 


Middlefield, 
Middleton, . 


_ _ 
B. T. McGlauflin, 


_ 
2 


65-3, . 


Elbert M. Crockett, 


Milford, 


P. F. Fitzgerald, . 


5 


_ 


Harry L. Snelling, . 


Millbiiry, 


E. F. Roach, 


5 


5-2, . 


Chas. LaCroix, 


Millis, . 


E. W. Stafford, . 


6 


322, . 


Nathaniel T. Kidder, 


Milton, 


N. T. Kidder, 


7 


No telephone. 


S. R. Tower, . 


Monroe, 






12-22, . 


0. E. Bradway, 


Monson, 


Robert S. Fay, . 


5 


713-22, Greenfield, 


F. B. Gillette, . 


Montague, . 


Dennis F. Shea, . 


5 


164-4, . 


D. C. Tryon, . 


Monterey, . 


_ 


_ 


3-24, Russell, 


Andrew J. Hall, 


Montgomery, 


_ _ 


_ 


17-21, Copoke, 

n. Y. 


G. W. Patterson, 

_ _ 


Mt. Washington, 
Nahant, 


_ _ 
T. Roland, . 


_ 
2 


16-5, . 


Peter M. Hussy, 


Nantucket, 


C. C. Macy, . 


8 


31, . . . 


Thos. J. Deignan, . 


Natick, 


H. S. Hunnewell, 


6 


195-1, . 


Howard H. Upham, 


Needham, . 


E. E. Riley, . 


6 


No telephone. 


Chas. L. Baker, 


New Ashford, 






2280 or 353, . 


Edward F. Dahill, . 


New Bedford, 


C. F. Lawton, 


8 


6-4, Gilbertville, . 
13-6, Sheffield, . 


Frank A. Morse, West 

Brookfield. 
E. M. Stanton, Mill River, 


New Braintree, . 
N. Marlborough, 


E. L. Havens, 


5 


Pay station. 


Rawson King, Cooleyville, 


New Salem, 


R. King, 


5 


173-5, Newbury- 

port. 
380, . 


Wm. P. Bailey, 
Chas. P. Kelley, . 


Newbury, . 
Newbury port. 


Percy Oliver, 
C. P. Kelley, 


3 
3 


30, N. S., . 
41-5, . 


W. B. Randlett, Newton 

Center. 
Jas. T. Buckley, 


Newton , 
Norfolk, 


W. W. Colton, 
James T. Buckley, 


1 

6 


205-W or 265, 


H. J. Montgomery, . 


North Adams, . 


Franklin B. Locke, 


5 


821-W, 


Geo. A. Rea, . 


North Andover, . 


Fred W. Phelan, . 


3 


317-2, . 


Chas. F. Gehrung, . 


N. Attleborough, 


F. P. Toner, 


6 


5-13, . 


Colby H. Johnson, . 


N. Brookfield, . 


S. D. Colburn, . 


5 


33-3, . 


Henry Upton, . 


North Reading, . 


G. E. Eaton, 


1 


165, . 


F. E. Chase, . 


Northampton, . 


Christopher Clarke, 


5 


45-5, . 


T. P. Haskell, . 


Northborough, . 


T. P. Haskell, 


5 


71-5, 
2-3, . 


TT • Hi* ±j\X\.l±<Xy)^ VVllitlIio~ 

ville. 
Fred W. Doane, 


YT/wH* Vl VtT"! #1 OTA 

Northfield, . 


A., J; . VV Ultin, 

F. W. Doane, 


5 
5 


29-11, . 


Geo. H. Storer, 


Norton, 


G. H. Storer, 


6 


11-4, . 


John Whalen, . 


Norwell, 


J. H. Sparrell, 


7 


55-4, . 


Frank W. Talbot, . 


Norwood, , 


Ebin F. Gay, 


6 



20 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


119-4, . 


Frank W. Chase, 


Oak Bluffs, 


P. P. Hurley, 


8 


17-5, . 


Chas. H. Trowbridge, 


Oakham, 


C. H. Trowbridge, 


5 


67-13, . 


Frank M. Jennison, 


Orange, 


F. M. Jennison, . 


5 


33-2, . 


James Boland, 


Orleans, 


A. Smith, 


8 


15, . . . 


Durand A. Witter, . 


Otis, . 


- ■ 


- 


9-5, 


Clin D. Vickers, 


Oxford, 


C. G. Lamed, 


5 


53-12 or 53-3, 


James Summers, 


Palmer, 


C. H. Keith, 


5 


- 


Fred L. Durgin, 


Paxton, 


F. L. Durgin, 


5 


182-Y, 


M. V. McCarthy, . 


Peabody, 


J. J. Callahan, 


2 


144-3, . 


Edw. E. Adriance, . 


Pelham, 


Marion E. Ricnard- 


5 


7-23, Bryant ville, 


Jos. J. Shepherd, 


Pembroke, . 


son. 

J. J. MacFarlan, . 


7 


54-3 or 12-5, 


Geo. G. Tarbell, East Pep- 

perell. 
Walter H. Pike, 


Pepperell, . 
Peru, . 


J. Tune, 


4 


13-2, . 


Geo. P. Marsh, 


Petersham, . 


Daniel Broderick, 


5 


176-6, Athol, 
871-M, 


Wm. Cowlbeck, Athol, R. 

F. D. 
Thos. F. Dumont, . 


Phillipston, 
Pittsfield, . 


W. H. Cowlbeck, . 




33-22, . 


Albert F. Dyer, 


Plainfield, . 


- 


- 


283-J, North At- 

tleborough. 
451-M, 


R. P. Rhodes, . 
Ira C. Ward, . 


Plainville, . 
Plymouth, . 


Elmer Walden, 
A. A. Raymond, . 


6 
8 


11-14, Kingston, . 


Thos. W. Blanchard, 


Plympton, . 


D. Bricknell, 


8 


19-4, Highland, . 
13-4, . 


A. W. Doubleday, Green- 
wich Village. 
Fred W. Bryant, 


Prescott, 
Princeton, . 


CM. Pierce, 
F. A. Skinner, 


5 

' 


49-11, . 


J. H. Barnett, . 


Provincetown, . 


J. M. Burch, 


8 


1, . . . 


F. T. Billings, . 


Quincy, 


A. J. Stewart, 


7 


35-4, Randolph, . 


R. F. Forrest, . 


Randolph, . 


Chas. Cole, . 


7 


1284-R, 


John V. Festing, 


Raynham, . 


G. M. Leach, 


6 


518-W, 


H. E. Mclntire, 


Reading, 


H. M. Donegan, . 


1 


11-12, . 
- 


Benj. F. Monroe, Attle- 
borough, R. F. D. 


Rehoboth, . 
Revere, 


S. W. Robinson, . 
G. P. Babson, 


6 
2 


8-2, 


T. B. Salmon, . 


Richmond, . 


- 


~ 


No telephone, 
55-X, . 


Daniel E. Hartley, Mat- 

tapoisett, R. F. D. 
John H. Burke, 


Rochester, . 
Rockland, . 


Edw. F. Handy, . 
F. H. Shaw, . 


8 
7 


27-3, . 


A. J. McFarland, 


Rockport, . 


F. A. Babcock, . 


2 


22-6, Charlemont, 


Merritt A. Peck, Zoar, 


Rowe, . 






3-13, . 


Daniel O'Brien, 


Rowley, 


L. R. Bishop. 


3 


279-2, Athol, 


L. G. Forbes, . 


Royalston, . 


A. H. Brown, 


5 


8009-11, 


S. S. Shurtleff, 


Russell, 







1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 21 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


13-3, . 


Henry Converse, 


Rutland, 


H. E. Wheeler, . 


5 






Salem, . 


Warren P. Hale, . 


2 


1-8, Amesbury, . 


Jas. H. Pike, . 


Salisbury, . 


H. C. Rich, . 


3 


202-12, Winsted, 

Conn. 
43-2, Sagamore, . 


A. S. Strickland, New 

Boston. 
J. R. Holway, . 


Sandisfield, 
Sandwich, . 


- 

B. F. Dennison, . 


- 

8 


11.5, . 


Chas. L. Davies, 


Saugus, 


T. E. Berrett, 


2 


4-16, . 


Clinton Tilton, Brier, 


Savcy, . 


- 


- 


129-3, . 

399-Lr-5, Paw- 
tucket. 
121-2, . 


E. R. Seaverns, North 

Scituate. 
John L. Baker, Attle- 

borough, R. F. D. 
A. Alden Carpenter, 


Scituate, 
Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


P. S. Brown, 

G. W. Thompson, 

J. J. Geissler, 


7 
6 
6 


26. . . . 


Arthur H. Tuttle, . 


Sheffield, . 






130-2, . 
11-M, . 


Cha^. S. Dole, Shelburne 

Falls. 
Milo F. Campbell, . 


Shelburne, . 
Sherbom, . 


Chas. S. Dale, 
J. P. Dowse, 


5 
6 


1§-21, . 


A. A. Adams, . 


Shirley, 


A. A. Adams, 


4 


48-2, . 


Edward A. Logan, . 


Shrewsbury, 


Robt. C. Clapp, . 


5 


- 


N. J. Hunting, 


Shutesbxiry, 


E. Colfax Johnson, 


5 


2632-M., Fall 
River. 


Wm. F. Griffiths, Swan- 
sea, R. F. D. 


Somerset, 
S ornery ille, . 


C. Riley, 

A. B. Pritchard, . 


6 
1 


3164-W, 
151-23, 


Louis H. Lamb, South 

Hadlev Falls. 
C. S. Olds, 


South Hadley, . 

Southampton, . 


C. R. Frye, . 
C. S. Olds, . 


5 

5 


13, Marlborough, 


Harry Burnett, 


Southborough, . 


H. Burnett, . 


5 


11, . . . 


Aimea Langevin, 


Southbridge, 


A. Langevin, 


5 


8-2, .. . 


Benj. M. Hastings, . 


Southwick, 






77-4, . 


A. F. Howlett, 


Spencer, 


G. Ramer, . 


5 


20, Indian Or- 
chard. 
5-12, . 


T. J. Clifford, Indian 

Orchard. 
Joel T. Wilder, 


Springfield, 
Sterling, 


J. Alden Davis, . 
J. H. Kilburn, . 


5 
4 


Post Office, 


Geo. Schneyer, Glendale, 


Stockbridge, 


Browm Caldwell, . 


5 


176-3, . 


Albert J. Smith, 


Stoneham, . 


G. M. Jefts, . 


1 


121-3 or 8120, 


James Curley, . 


Stoughton, 


W. P. Kennedy, . 


7 


134-J, Hudson, . 
6 21, . 


W. H. Parker, Gleason- 
dale. 

Chas. M. Clark, Fiskdale, 


Stow, . 
Sturbridge, 


Henry W. Herrick, 
C. M. Clark, 


4 

5 


5-5, . 

46, . . . 


S. W. Hall, South Sud- 
bury. 
A. C. Warner, . 


Sudbury, 
Sunderland, 


W. E. Baldwin, . 
Richard Graves, . 


4 

5 


58-32, Millbury, . 
1911-J, 


R. H. Richardson, 
E. P. Mudge, . 


Sutton, 
Swampscott, 


Ransom H. Rich- 
ardson. 
E. P. Mudge, 


5 
2 


468-W, 


Thos. L. Mason, 


Swansea, 


A. E. Arnold, 


6 


320 or 1-W, 


Fred A. Leonard, 


Taunton, . 


L. W. Hodgkins, . 


6 



22 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens axd Local jSIoth Svperixtexdexts — Con. 



Telephone 

2s UMBER. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
SupGrmtGiiclGiit . 


Div. 
No. 


30 or 26-5, . 
4249-J, Lowell, . 


C. A. Fletcher, Baldwins- 

ville. 
Harris M. Briggs, 


Templeton, 
Tewksbviry, 


J. B. Wheeler, 
H. M. Briggs, 


5 
1 


161-4 or 102-3, . 
No telephone. 


Elmer C. Chadwick, Vine- 
yard Haven. 
C. L. Yining, . 


Tisbury, 
Tolland, 


H. W. McLellan, . 


8 


Central, 


Chas. W. Floyd, . 


Topsfield, . 


C. W. Floyd, 


2 


11-2 or 37-2, 


F. J. Piper, 


Townsend, . 


G. E. King, . 


4 


Xo telephone, 


Walter F. Rich, 


Trtiro, . 


J. H. Atwood, 


8 


1, . . . 


Otis L. Wright, 


Tyngsborough, . 


C. J. Allgrove, 


1 


1-2, Lee, . 


H. E. Moore, . 


Tyringham, 


- 


- 


7-2, 

51-5, . 


E. M. Baker, Upton Cen- 
ter. 

Lewis F. Rawson, . 


Upton, 
Uxbridge, . 


G. H. Evans, 
Willard Holbrook, 


5 
5 


45o-M or 59, 


Wm. E. Cade, . 


Wakefield, . 


W. W. Whittredge, 


1 


No telephone, 


Warren W. Eager, . 


Wales, . 


M. C. Royce, 


5 


107-2, . 


J. J. Hennessy, 


Walpole, 


P. R. AUen, . 


6* 


6, . . . 


Geo. L. Johnson, 


Waltham, , 


W. M. Ryan, 




203-3, . 


Louis A. Charbonneau, . 


Ware, . 


F. Zeissig, 


5 


45- 23, . 

46- 6, . 
73-3, Orange, 


Delbert C. Keyes, South 

Wareham. 
Jos. D. Vigneaux, West 

W arren. 
Chas. A. Williams, . 


Wareham, . 

Warren, 
Warwick, 


J.J.Walsh, . 
A. A. Warriner, 
Chas. E. Stone, . 


8 
5 
5 


12-4, . 


Lester Heath, . 


Washington, 






116, X e w t o n 
Xorth. 


John C. Ford, 
William Stearns, 


Watertown, 
Wayland, 


J. C. Ford, . 
•D. J. Graham, 


1 
4 


113-4, . 


Timothy Toomej', . 


Webster, 


C. Klebart, . 


5 


- 


John P. Doyle, 


Wellesley, . 


F. M. Abbott, 


6 


No telephone, 


John Holbrook, 


Wellfleet, 


E. S. Jacobs, 


8 


74-32, Orange, . 
74, Hamilton, 


Lewis B. Bowen, Wendell 

Depot. 
Jacob D. Barnes, 


Wendell, 
Wenham,, 


G. E. MUls, . 
Jas. E. Kavanagh, 


5 
2 


3-21, . 


Fred E. Clark, 


West Boylston, . 


R. K. Parker, 


5 


768, Brockton, . 


W. P. Laughton, 


W. Bridgewater, 


0. Belmore, . 


7 


37-13, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


W. Brookfield, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


5 


5-6, .. . 


Louis H. Flook, 


W. Newbiiry, 


Frank D. Bailey, . 


3 


2067-W 


Dan^ S. Moore 


W. Springfield, 


Geo. W. Ha5-den, . 


5 


1-6, .. . 


Benj. P. Bissell, 


W. Stockbridge, 






203-23, 


Wm. J. Rotch, 


West Tisbury, . 


H. W. Athearn, . 


8 


75-3, . 


Thos. H. Treadway, 


Westborough, 


Geo. HaA-den, 


5 


111-Y, 


T. H. Mahoney, 


Westfield, . 






44-11, . 


Harry L. Nesmith, . 


Westford, . 


H. L. Xesmith 


1 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 23 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


148-14. Easthamp- 

ton. 
1-3, . 


C.A.Bartlett, Northamp- 
ton, Stage. 
Windsor F. Neal, 


Westhampton, . 
Westminster, 


G. A. Sargent, 


5 


1392-M, 


Benj. R. Parker, 


Weston, 


E. P. Ripley, 


4 


14-21, . 


Frank Whalon, 


Westport, 


H. A. Sanford, . 


8 


123-M, Dedham, 


Elmer E. Smith, Islington, 


West wood, . 


Martin Sorenson, . 


6 


lo4-W, 


Edgar S. Wright, . 


Weymouth, 


C. L. Merritt, 


7 


69-2, South Deer- 

neiu. 
104-14, 


James A. Wood, 
C. A. Randall, 


Whately, 
Whitman, . 


Rylan C. Howes, . 
C. A. Randall, . 


5 
7 


1-4, .. . 


Henrj' I. Edson, 


Wilbraham, 


F. B. Metcalf, 


5 






Williamsburg:, 


- 


- 


34-14, . 


William Da vies. 


Williamstown, . 


Wm. Davies, 


5 


34-4, . 


Howard M. Horton, 


Wilmington, 


0. McGrane, 


1 


29, . . . 


Arlon D. Bailey, 


Winchendon, 


G. W. Drury, 


5 


123-2, . 


David H. DeCourcy, 


Winchester, 


S. S. Symmes, 


1 


201-12, Windsor, . 


Amos Ferry, 


Windsor, 


- 


- 






Winthrop, . 


M. F. Smith, Jr., . 


2 


110, . 


Frank E. Tracy, 


Wobum, 


J. H. Kelley, 


1 


7112, Park, . 


Arthur V. Parker, . 


Worcester, . 


H. J. Neale, . 


5 


10-22, . 


Chas. Kilbourn, 


Worthington, 






23-5 or 8037, 


Geo. H. E. Mayshaw, . 


Wrentham, . 


W. Gilmore, . 


6 


53-33, . 


Jos. W. Hamblin, 


Yarmouth, . 


C. R. Bassett, 


8 





The Application of Forestry to Moth Work. 
The work of applying forestry practice to the control of the 
gypsy moths has proceeded steadily and with gratifying success 
during the past year. This work was started hardly two years 
ago, and has grown until it is now one of the most important 
features of the activities of the department. The theory of the 
work as outlined in the last annual report — the removal from 
our woodlands as much as possible of the favorite food trees 
of the moths, and the substituting and encouraging of species 
more resistant to the moth attacks — has been confirmed by 
the test of actual practice. In the methods of carrying on the 
forestry operations, and in the utilization of the resulting prod- 
ucts, great advances have been made during the past year. 



24 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The combating of moths in shade trees, orchards and parks 
is a different problem from their control in vnld woodland. In 
the first case the chief value of the trees is in their beauty or 
fruit-producing capacity. Such trees are much more valuable 
than trees which are allowed to grow chiefly for the wood they 
will produce when cut, as is the case with forest trees. There- 
fore, it is possible to use much more expensive methods in con- 
trolling moth infestations on the valuable shade trees than in 
the relatively valueless forest trees. That is the reason why the 
forestry methods of control, which call for the cutting of indi- 
vidual trees rather than the saving of them, were established. 
Undoubtedly it would be possible to save most of our forest 
trees by using shade-tree methods, — by spraying, etc., — but 
the trees thus saved would not be worth the cost, and there is 
not enough money to do it. It would cost millions of dollars 
a year. 

In Europe, where these moths have existed from time im- 
memorial, less than 5 per cent, of the forest growth is of oak. 
In eastern Massachusetts fully 50 per cent, is of oak. We must 
get approximately the European proportion in this country 
before we can expect the natural agencies of parasites, disease 
and birds to control the moths as they do in Europe. If left 
alone the moths will do this by themselves and kill off most of 
the oak, leaving the resistant species to grow up in its stead. 
By cutting the oak we can hasten the process and prevent the 
tremendous economic waste that would follow the killing of 
the oak. We can also prevent the desolation and fire risk which 
w^ould accompany the killing. We know this is true, for we 
already have several thousands of acres of dead oak in the 
State. Proper cuttings made before the infestation becomes too 
serious will materially check moth spread. Taken after serious 
eating the cutting will merely lessen the resulting loss and 
hasten the return of the land to forest conditions. 

These moth thinnings are being carried on directly by the 
owners either in co-operation with the State or by themselves, 
rather than through the agency of the town authorities, as is 
the case of most of the other moth w^ork. However, in many 
towns the local men are giving splendid aid in this w^ork. jNIost 
of the towns have a sufficient financial burden in taking care 



Stevens estate, North Andover. Putting sawdust on corduroy road used in logging. 




Portable mill in operation on Stevens estate, North Andover. Process of rebuilding a hard- 
wood forest injured by moths to one of white pine, which is moth resistant. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



25 



of their shade trees and roadsides. They have not the time nor 
the money to continually take care of the wild woodland. For 
owners who are willing to furnish the capital, the policy of this 
department has been to take complete management of the work, 
cutting the trees necessary to the best possible advantage, and 
selling the product afterwards. For other owners we have found 
buyers for the wood which we wanted cut, or have given advice 
and marked trees, etc., and left them to manage the cutting 
themselves. Many others have followed the example of the 
owners whom we have helped, and have done the thinning of 
their own accord. 

The attempt in this work has been to put it on a firm 
business basis. The areas of large growth that have been cut 
have been lumbered according to the most modern methods, 
as would be done by any large lumber company. The smaller 
growth has been cut by the cord at the market price. Except 
where beauty or moth spread were factors, the owners have not 
been urged to carry on this work unless they could see before 
they started that it would at least pay for itself. The subject 
of utilization has been gone into most thoroughly. All the 
large wood dealers and brick yards have been called on, with 
the aim of persuading them to buy the wood which we have 
and will cut. New methods of utilization, such as chemical wood, 
charcoal, etc., have been studied. All the industries and 
dealers who use and buy oak lumber or logs have been written 
to, and many of them visited, in an attempt to find out what 
they want, so that the owners who cut may sell their product 
to them to the best advantage. In short, this office has been 
made a sort of clearing house for oak products, where the buyer 
and seller may meet. 

As in the year previous, an attempt was made to. get a com- 
plete list of all owners of infested woodland in the State. Many 
of these owners have since been written to and visited in an 
attempt to persuade them to practice forestry methods on their 
lands. Maps have been kept showing the infested areas, and 
also all lands examined. A card index of all owners to whom 
advice is given is also kept describing their peculiar conditions, 
and the attempt will be made to follow them up in future years; 
also an index of all oak buyers is maintained. 



26 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The educational and technical sides of the work have not 
been forgotten. A bulletin on thinning was pubUshed during 
the year and is being widely distributed. It tells how to do the 
work and contains many practical data. Any who have not 
received a copy and w^ho are interested are invited to apply for 
one, which will be mailed without charge. Accurate cost data 
of all operations carried on under our management are being 
kept. We are now collecting data for an oak log rule, and also 
volume and yield tables, which we hope will be quite a contri- 
bution to technical forestry. Several towns in the moth-infested 
section were mapped this past summer in an endeavor to find 
out the exact forest and moth conditions. These maps will 
prove very valuable in carrying on the practical work. 

This winter there are four trained foresters giving their whole 
time to this work, — tw^o in the Boston office, one resident in 
the southeastern section, and one working on the technical data. 
On December 1, we had under our management five crews 
working on these thinnings in different sections of the State, 
including two portable saw mills. Before the winter is over we 
expect to have double that number of crews and mills at work. 
Besides that, there are a good many more engaged in thinning 
under our advice or stimulus, although not directly managed 
by this office. Several thousand acres will be thinned over this 
winter, and at least 20,000 cords of wood cut, also 2,000,000 
or 3,000,000 feet of lumber and ties, making a total expenditure 
of private funds of probably $75,000. 

It is hard to make a report at this time because the opera- 
tions are in full swing, and the work reported on is incomplete 
and so accurate figures cannot be given. Following is an at- 
tempt to tabulate just what has been accomplished from Dec. 
1, 1913, to Dec. 1, 1914: — 

Examinations. — The lands of 204 owners were examined by 
experts from this department, advice given, and in many cases 
detailed reports written. The total area included in these ex- 
aminations was approximately 17,000 acres, situated in 81 
towns or cities of the State. 

Operations. — The following is a list of the thinning and cut- 
ting operations carried on during the past year, either under the 
direct management of this department or under its immediate 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



27 



supervision. Some of these operations were started before the 
year covered by this report and finished within the year, while 
others are now started but will not be completed until 1915. 
There are a total of 25 operations covering an area of 1,103 
acres. 



OWXER. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Miss Edith Andrew, .... 


Hingham, 


4 


Charles B. Barnes 


Hingham, 


30 


George H. Barton, 


Stow, 


12 


Mrs. Alexander Churchward, . 




30 


Erskine Clement, 




9 


Mrs. Abby G. Davis 




6 


Miss C. A. French, 


North Andover, .... 


35 


Walter P. Frye, 




12 


A. H. Hodgdon 


Westwood, 


12 


Karlstein Estate, 


Dedham, 


82 


Mrs. Alfred Rodman, .... 


Dedham, 


80 


New Bedford Water Works, 


Middleborough and Rochester, 


300 


Howard Marston, 




35 


Province Lands 




80 


F. P. Royce 




2 


W. E. Schrafft 


Weston, 


60 


J. Duke Smith 


Medfield 


10 


Nathaniel Stevens, 


North Andover, .... 


110 


Nathaniel Stevens 


Boxford, 


15 


United States Naval Magazine, 


Hingham, 


60 


Mrs. S. C. Wheelwright 


Cohasset, 


10 


W. A. Whitcomb, 


Dedham 


32 


Mrs. D. P. Wight, 




2 


Arthur Winslow 


Middleborough, .... 


35 


W. P. ^Miarton, 


Groton, 


40 


Besides these operations 


many have been carried 


on under 



the supervision of the district moth superintendents, and many 
more under the advice of this department without further 
assistance. 

Of the operations listed, 428 acres were actually cut over 
during the fiscal year of 1914. On them 4,718 cords of wood 



28 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



were cut, 286 piles, 148 posts and 385 thousand feet of lumber, 
including railroad ties which would number about 4,000. On 
this work the owners have spent $17,327.42, and the State has 
contributed merely the salary and traveling expenses of the 
forester managing and supervising. 

Utilization. — One of the important parts of the work has 
been the disposal and sale of the wood cut in these thinnings. 
Besides selling the wood cut under our direct supervision we 
have attempted to aid owners who have cut on their own re- 
sponsibility. This past year we have negotiated sales to the 
amount of nearly $5,000. We have contracts for products worth 
about $20,000, which will be filled as soon as delivery can be 
made. The owners themselves have sold about $4,000 worth 
of wood which was cut under our direction. There remains to 
be sold about $10,000 worth of wood which is already cut. 
Much of this will be sold as soon as it becomes dry enough to 
be merchantable. 

These results are only a beginning in what must be accom- 
plished in the woodlands of the State. The encouraging fea- 
tures are, first, that most of these operations have been on a 
paying basis. Only a few of them have resulted in any net 
expense to the owner. Most of them have shown a profit. 
Erom the $17,300 spent last year the returns should be over 
$23,000, a profit of $5,000. This work has proven that the 
moths can be attacked in the woodland without the expenditure 
of large sums of money, as is necessary in the other methods 
of moth control. The one great need is of capital to finance 
these operations. The poor man who owns woodland may not 
be able to do this work, w^hich will yield a profit in the end, 
because he cannot pay for the wood chopping. However, we 
hope to overcome this difficulty in a large measure in the 
future by finding purchasers for the wood before it is cut. 
Second, this work is on a practical and common-sense basis, and 
cannot help appealing to the ordinary citizen. Third, this 
work will result in better and more valuable forests for the 
Commonwealth in the future. The pine, which is the natural 
and more valuable species for the land, is being made to sup- 
plant the oak, which is not best suited for most of the land on 
which it grows, and which is worth only a tenth as much. 



191o.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



Furthermore, these operations stand as practical and easily 
accessible object lessons in the practice of forestry, and are 
awakening great interest in the subject among many of our 
citizens. ]\Ir. Kneeland and the young men assisting him in 
this work are accomplishing a great amount of constructive 
moth and forestry work that is bound to prove of great future 
economic value. 

Forest Mapping. 

This last season the field work of the forest survey of Worces- 
ter County towns has been completed save for a portion of 
Hubbardston, which will have been finished shortly after this 
report goes to the printer. 

A very thorough forest map of Winchendon, showing the 
character of growth on every portion of the town, was made in 
co-operation with the United States Bureau of Entomology. 
Mr. Ingall, of the United States Bureau of Entomology, and 
Mr. C. H. Guise, surveyor for this office, did the field work of 
forest mapping, being accompanied by Mr. Wilcox and Mr. 
Schaffner, respectively, experts from the United States Ento- 
mological Laboratory, who collected data for classifying and 
mapping areas according to their susceptibility to gypsy moth 
infestation. The field work was done by running the paced 
compass lines from one town line to the other every quarter 
mile, instead of every half mile as has been done in other towns. 
This quarter-mile strip in the field enabled Mr. Ingall to com- 
plete a very satisfactory detail working map showing in different 
colors the different combination of species. It is hoped the 
town will use this in eradicating the gypsy moth food, which 
would prove at the same time a long step towards converting 
the large woodland area of the town into a coniferous forest, 
practically immune from the gypsy moth. It is to be hoped 
that the town of Winchendon will co-operate with the Federal 
and State governments in this, since it would not only prove 
a valuable experiment on a large scale with gypsy moth 
conditions, but would make the woodland areas of Winchendon 
vastly more valuable than at present by converting large areas 
of practically worthless growth into pine. For Winchendon 
we have figures showing in detail the area in practically every 
combination of species for different sizes of growth. 



30 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Owing to serious insect conditions in Plymouth County it 
was thought best to begin mapping and estimating there before 
completing Worcester County. Five towns of Plymouth County 
were covered, approximately one-third the area of the county. 
The towns are Brockton, Hingham, Hanover, Middleborough 
and Carver. 

For the Plymouth County work we have used, instead of 
pantographic enlargements, photographic enlargements of the 
United States Geological Survey maps, the scale being approxi- 
mately 1 inch to 2,000 feet. This should prove a very satis- 
factory standard map for all the woods work of the different 
branches of the department. The cost of the maps is several 
dollars a town less than the old process, and the maps are far 
more satisfactory. Adopting this process and standard scale 
for all field maps should save the State many thousands of 
dollars. We acknowledge our indebtedness to Forester W. 0. 
Filley of Connecticut for a valuable suggestion in connection 
w^ith this process. 

While figures of acreage estimates, and the estimate maps, 
are available for practically all the towns covered individually, 
they have not yet been tabulated for comparison. This should 
be completed in a few weeks, and shortly thereafter we hope to 
have the estimate maps colored, and to have them on file at 
the ofiice easily accessible so that any one can get an idea visually 
of the character of growth in any section. It might be said here 
that our figures show forested areas of the towns averaging about 
60 per cent., with forested areas of some towns as high as 80 
per cent. 

Another season we may try mapping forest areas from auto- 
mobile, with the half-mile strip method used only on every 
fifth town. While much less satisfactory, especially unless done 
by a very capable man, the automobile mapping would be very 
much quicker and cheaper. By having every fifth town worked 
by the strip system, fairly accurate detail figures could be 
obtained for each county as a whole. 

This mapping work has been done under the supervision of 
Mr. Harold Fay, who has also assisted in other important 
general forestry work as occasion demanded. '< 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 73. 



31 



Forest Management. 
The increasing interest being shown each year by woodland 
owners in connection with the management of their holdings 
according to now well-established forestry principles is very 
encouraging. Requests have come in continually during the 
past season from owners desiring an examination of their forest 
property, and advice as to its proper management. These re- 
quests have been attended to in the order in which they have 
been received, and in every case a trained forester has made an 
examination and given either verbal or written advice in regard 
to the management of the property. A list of these examina- 
tions for the season just ended is as follows: — 





Name. 


Location. 


Area (Acres). 


Appalachian Mountain Club, 


Warwick, ...... 






Worcester, ..... 


A 

4 




Molyoke, ...... 


10 




South Royalston, .... 


10 


W. B. Cross 


Halifax, 


140 


W. B. Cross 


Brockton, 


15 


E. H. Pratt, 


North Adams, .... 


85 


CO. Prescott 


Westford, 


500 


A. R. Sharp 


Taunton 


75 


State Board of Agriculture, 


South Walpole, .... 


400 


E. L. Gillett 


Westfield, 


300 


Indian Spring Camp, .... 


Plainfield, 


250 


Greenfield Women's Club, 


Greenfield, 


20 


Mansfield Water Board, .... 


Mansfield, 


200 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Northborough, .... 


160 


Nevins Librarj-, 


Methuen 


1 


Mount Hermon School, .... 


Gill 


50 


Northampton Water Board, 


Northampton, .... 


30 


Miss M. Deane, 


East Taunton, .... 


3 


Northfield Seminary, .... 


Northfield 


150 


Hopedale Park Board 


Hopedale, 


75 


Irving Smith 


Ashburnham, 


3,500 




Williamstown 


1,000 


Miss F. True 


Salisburj^ 


50 



32 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Name. 


Location. 


Area (Acres). 


C T WiMor 




190 




Soutnville, ..... 


210 


(jix'). Blake, ...... 




250 


\\nlpole Pflrlc Board, .... 


Walpole, ..... 


300 


\fisi A W P Prnrk-pr 

.firs. .A . fi . X • v^ioi-i^tri, .... 


Foxborough, ..... 


80 


Tir V P PfiniJ 


Foxborough, ..... 


105 


a \f Finn no 

VI. «ii • ...... 


Coldbrook, ..... 


75 




West Stockbridge, .... 


300 




Lincoln ..... 


20 


H. W. Smith 


North Grafton, .... 


150 


W \ Gaston 


Barre, ...... 


100 


Mr Tnrk-pr 


Acton 


30 


Dr P'lrlv Phinnq 


Sherborn 


25 


BovlstoQ Alaiiiifacturiii^ Cornpanv, 


Jefferson 


42 


D. W. Gaskill, 


Blackstone 


143 


Aliss C Hosmcr 


Oran^^e 


200 


Foxborougli 3o2.r(l, 


Foxborou°^h 


75 


Aliss BEsirriGt Ames 


Shutesbury 


125 


E C Wood 


Northfield 


50 


State Colony 


Gardner 


1,600 


State Colony 


North Grafton 


900 


Worcester Countrj' Club, 


Worcester 


40 


Alice H. Marsh, 


Sturbridge, 


10 


B. Curtis, 


IVfedfield 


40 


F Houghton 


Millis 




Mrs M B Cutting 






Miss Sarah Pratt 




zuu 


George Timmons 


Ware 




C. K. Ellis 




20 


John White 






Wellesley College, .... 


Wellesley, 


60 


State Fish and Game Farm, . 




200 


Blanche M. Brine, 


Manomet, .... 


40 


Geo. A. Brooks, 




10 



Total number of examinations, 58; area covered, 13,255 acres; expense to owners, S124.45. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 73. 



33 



Thinnings. 

The department's work in connection with woodland thin- 
nings has shown an increase this year over last. In some cases, 
and where so desired by the owner, this department has taken 
charge of the thinning operations from beginning to end, while 
in other cases the trees to be removed have been marked and 
the owners have supervised the remaining work themselves. 
Some of the places that have received attention this year are 
as follows: — 

Wellesley College. — A heavy marking in the trees on about 
60 acres was made during the fall. The marked trees are to be 
removed by the grounds superintendent and his men this 
winter. Stumps are to be cut low, brush burned, and the area 
will be in suitable condition in the spring to stock with conifers 
if the authorities desire to do so. The trees to be removed are 
mostly white oaks. 

St. Augustine Farm. — Work was started last winter and is 
being continued at the present time on the 125-acre property 
known as the St. Augustine Farm, located in Foxborough, 
Mass. The operation consists of heavy, medium and light 
thinnings, clean cutting in places to be followed by planting. 
A JBre line 75 feet wide and 2,000 feet long has been made 
during the past two months. The woodland consists of large, 
medium and small white pine and mixed hardwoods. One small 
stand of planted pine about twenty years old is making excel- 
lent growth. 

Alfred Mellor Property. — This operation is continued from 
last season, and is at present under way on the 200-acre tract 
of Alfred Mellor, located in Cummington, Mass. It consists of 
a thinning in conifer and mixed hardwood growth, and is of 
especial interest on account of the very large size of many of 
the trees involved. There are several hemlocks on the tract 
that will run over 1,000 board feet per tree, and very large 
maples are numerous. Trees of such size are unusual in Massa- 
chusetts at the present time, and give one an idea of what the 
original forest of the State was like. 

Mrs. W. A. P. Crocker. — This 80-acre tract, located in Fox- 
borough, Mass., consists of one of the best pine stands remain- 



34 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



in*: ill the section. About 50 acres is stocked with pure white 
pine of all ages up to ninety to one hundred years of age. A 
camp has been erected and a crew has been in the woods for the 
past throe months removing marked trees. Several thousand 
feet of lumber have been cut from this tract up to date, and it 
is believed that, aside from putting the area in much better 
condition, the operation will show a profit to the owner. All 
wood products are to be used at the owner's mill. On this 
tract, also, is a planted stand of white pine twenty-two years 
old that is making good growth. Planted pine thirty-five to 
forty years old is also to be seen. 

Boijhion Manvfaduring Company. — A thinning and clean- 
cutting operation is at present in progress on the 45-acre tract 
in Jefterson, Mass., owned by the Boylston Manufacturing 
Company of Easthampton. The thinning and clean cutting is 
to be followed by planting to pine in the spring. This opera- 
tion is of interest as an indication that large business concerns 
owning forest land are beginning to reaHze that it is not good 
business policy to allow their holdings to remain idle and 
neglected. 

Fire Line. 

On the W. B. Cross property in Brockton, Mass., a fire line 
nearly 1 mile long and 60 feet wide has been made during the 
past two months. This fire line follows the highway for the entire 
distance, and in conjunction with the road itself makes an ex- 
cellent line of protection against fire for the property of Mr. 
Cross. All brush was clean cut and burned. 

Other places where the trees have been marked and work is 
to be done this winter are as follows : — 



Name. 


Location. 


Area (Acres). 


W. A. Gaston Estate, .... 


Barre, 


20 


Worcester Country Club, 


Worcester, 


40 


H. W. Smith 


North Grafton, .... 


100 


State Hospital, 


Taunton, 


50 


State Hospital, 


North Grafton, .... 


400 


State Hospital, 


Gardner, 


1,000 


Geo. Timmons, .... 


Ware 


350 


E. F. McSweeny, 


Lake Boone, ..... 


5 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



35 



This department is pleased to note that some of the State 
institutions are inaugurating a forest pohcy for their woodland 
property. This year something along forestry lines is being 
done on the woodland of the Taunton, North Grafton and 
Gardner State hospitals for the insane. It has been proven 
that the able-bodied men inmates of the insane institutions can 
do very well the needed work in the woodland areas owned by 
the various institutions, and thereby benefit not only the wood- 
land and institutions, but themselves as well, for the forest 
work makes a very healthful occupation. At the Gardner 
colonies alone there are 75 or 80 inmates who will be employed 
this winter in improving the woodland areas of that institution. 
There are 600 or 700 acres of blank, or what is termed as 
absolute, forest land that can and should be planted with co- 
nifers during the next few years. This work can all be done by 
the inmates. It is planned to establish a nursery in the spring 
at the Gardner Colony that will stock 100,000 transplants a 
year for the next six years: The seedlings will be furnished by 
the department's nursery at Amherst. 

The department is pleased to assist the various State insti- 
tutions in any way in connection with the better management 
of their forest property. The combined areas of the various State 
institutions amount to thousands of acres, and it is certain that 
were a definite forest policy followed up on these areas much good 
would result. 

Walpole Town Forest. 
It is quite probable that during the coming year a definite 
start will be made towards establishing a permanent town 
forest in ^Yalpole, Mass. The proposition has been considered 
by Mr. Charles Sumner Bird, Jr., chairman of the park board, 
and other citizens of the town during the past few months. 
A survey of 200 acres has been made, 100 acres more examined, 
and data collected in connection with the town forest plan, and 
it is hoped an appreciable start will soon be made in the matter. 
That a town forest is an excellent and valuable asset to a 
town cannot be disputed. There are many towns throughout 
the Commonwealth that have right at their very doors, so to 
speak, the property suitable for the making of excellent town 
forests, and it is hoped that during the next few years many 
towns will make a start along this line. 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Surveys. 

The following is a list of the lots taken over for reforesta- 
tion: — 



Name. 


Location. 


Area (Acres). 


Eleanor Johnson, 


North Adams, 


100 


.Marcus M. Brown, 


Marlborough, 


90 


Harmon & Thayer, 


Savoy, 


35 


W. G. Perry, 


Medfield 


26 


W. G. Perry 


Medfield 


12 


W. G. Perry, 


Medfield. 


3 



Surveys were also made of the St. Augustine Farm in Fox- 
borough and of the Crocker lot in Foxborough. 

Working Plans. 

A working plan was made this year for the property of 
Irving' Smith. This property consists of 3,350 acres in Ash- 
burnham and 50 acres in Winchendon. The complete plan 
consists of (1) an examination, with estimates and recommenda- 
tions in the form of a typewTitten report; (2) a forest map 
covering the entire tract, based upon a lot survey by a pro- 
fessional surveyor and a timber survey by this office; and (3) 
a large scale detail map showing the areas recommended for 
treatment during the next ten years. The growth w^as divided 
into types, each of which was estimated separately. The gen- 
eral recommendations were made covering cutting, thinning and 
planting. 

Specific recommendations w^ere also made, to be follow^ed 
closely for the first ten years, but subject to revision in the 
future to meet varying conditions. 

If possible, w^orking plans vdll be made during the summer of 
1915 for the 1,600-acre tract of the State Colony at Gardner and 
the 900-acre tract of the State Colony at North Grafton. A 
certain amount of data has been procured in connection wdth a 
plan for the Fish and Game Farm of 200 acres in Palmer. 



Extracting seed from pine cones, Fall River water commission, on Wautuppa Reservation. 




feet to the acre. Our waste lands can be made to yield thus if replanted to pine. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



37 



Maps. 

All unfinished maps were completed during the year. At 
the present time a large line map is being made for the use of 
observation stations in connection with forest fire work. Pocket 
field maps are also being made for use during the coming season. 

Nursery Work. 
Our principal advance in nursery work this past season was 
the leasing of 7 acres of remarkably fertile soil in the village 
of Barnstable. In the early spring a portion of the ground was 
cleared and plowed, and 300 12 by 4 feet seed-beds were placed 
in position. These beds are of the latest type wooden frames, 
with wire sides and a combined wire and lath cover screen. 
In addition, some 200,000 pine, spruce and ash were set in as 
transplants. The seed-beds have shown remarkable germina- 
tion, and will produce an immense crop of two-year seedlings 
one year hence. Water is supplied by a gasoline engine pump- 
ing from a well to an elevated tank. A small but neat building 
to serve as a camp for the men and a storehouse for tools was 
also erected. Only one-half of the 7 acres is at present in use, 
but by next spring the entire area will be ready for transplant- 
ing. 

The nursery at Sandwich, which, owing to the sandy soil and 
the difficulty of getting water, was unsuccessful, has been dis- 
continued. . 

We also did no further transplanting at Hopkinton, where 
we have in the past set in some surplus stock that could not be 
accommodated at Amherst. 

The nursery which we operate in co-operation with the State 
Farm at Bridgewater this spring suffered severely from frost heav- 
ing. ' We lay this to two causes, — fall transplanting and the 
rawness of the soil, which had just been newly cleared and 
never cultivated. W^e shipped 100,000 seedlings to take the 
place of those heaved out, and do not anticipate that the same 
trouble will occur again. If it does, another site can be selected 
foE future work. 

The Amherst nursery has been our main source of supply 
during this year, as it has been in the past. One hundred and 



3S THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

fifty of the latest type seed-beds have been installed, and water 
conditions improved by the laying of a larger main from the 
college grounds to the connection with our nursery. A tele- 
j)hone also aids materially in the transaction of business. 

Three classes of stock are shipped from our nursery. The 
first is for use on the lots which we have taken over under the 
reforestation law, and is largely transplanted material. The 
second class goes to other State institutions, which under the 
nursery law we furnish with forest planting stock, and is partly 
transplanted and partly seedling material, according to whether 
it is intended for use in the field or for the' transplanting in 
their own nurseries. The third class is seedling material which 
we send to our nurseries for transplanting. 

Stock for planting on Reforestation Lands. 



White pine (four-year transplants), 390,000 

White pine (three-year transplants), 210,000 

Norway spruce (three-year transplants), 16,000 

White ash (two-year seedlings), 5,000 

European larch (two-year seedling's), 6,000 

Stock shipped to Other State Departments. 

^letropolitan Park Commission (twc-j^ear seedlings), . . . 200,000 

Metropolitan Water Board (two-year seedlings), .... 300,000 

Fisheries and Game Commission (two-year seedlings), . . . 50,000 

Fisheries and Game Commission (three-year transplants), . . 3,000 



Reforestation Work. 

The lands taken over under the terms of the reforestation 
law can be divided into two classes. The first is land pur- 
chased outright by the State, which it is probable it will hold 
as a permanent investment, and the second is land which pri- 
vate owners have deeded to the State without cost, for tha pur- 
pose of having the State Forester plant and care for it for a 
period not to exceed ten years, when they will redeem the 
land by paying the cost of reforesting and maintenance. The 
first we call purchased lands, and the second deeded lands. 

Reforestation work usually partakes of two operations, — 
planting and brush cutting. On old pasture land, and often on 
cut-over pine land where sprout or bush growth does not come 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 73. 



39 



in very rapidly, planting is the only work necessary, but in 
cat-over hardwood land, or on very brushy pastures, it is nec- 
essary to clear the brush in whole or in part either before or 
after planting. As a usual thing such brush clearing is not done 
until a year or two after the planting, because the shade of the 
sprouts is a useful factor of protection for the newly planted 
pines. However, where sprout growth is exceedingly dense i^ 
must be cleared before planting can be attempted. 

It is evident from the above that in addition to the new work 
carried out each year there must be more or less done along the 
lines of maintaining and improving the growing plantations. 
Not only must the growing pines be freed from encumbering 
hardwood sprouts, but blanks in the stand due to drought or 
other causes must be filled in and losses by fire made good. 
Fences must be repaired and kept up. We are glad to say, 
however, that fire losses have been comparatively few. During 
the past year we have lost through fire one lot of 20 acres in 
Dennis and one of 15 acres in Oakham. 



Xew Work, 1914. 
Purchased Lands. 



OWXER. 


Town. 


Area 

(Acres). 


Number 
of Trees 
planted. 


Brushed 
(Acres). 


Fenno 

Fiske, 

Rice, 


Westminster, . 
Buckland, 

Spencer, .... 


100 
75 
40 


85,000 
70.000 
50.000 


100 
25 


Deeded Lands. 


Irving Smith, 

Eben Smith, .... 
Webster, .... 

Lewis, 

Johnson, .... 

Baker, 

Perry. 


Ashbtirnham, . 
Barnstable, 

Warwick, .... 
Groton, .... 
North Adams, 
Phillipton, 

Medfield 


150 
17 
50 
18 

100 
10 
35 


70.000 
20,000 
51,000 
14,000 
50,000 
11,000 
15.000 


17 
5 



THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Maintenance Work. 



Lot 
Number. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Nature of Work. 


75 




18,0001 


Filling in blanks. 


91 




20,0001 


Filling in blanks. 


11, 12 




60 


Brushing. 


22 




10 


Brushing. 


26 




60 


Brushing. 


6 




30 


Brushing. 


37 




50 


Brushing. 


53 




25,0001 


Replanting. 


3 




15,0001 


Filling in. 


16 




302 


Brushing and filling in 


38 




20 


Brushing. 


8 




4 


Brushing. 


80 




6 0001 


Filling in. 


74 




14 


Brushing. 


7 




20 


Brushing. 


25 




8 


Brushing. 


IH 




5 


Filling in. 


50, 51 




303 


Brushing and filling in. 



1 Number of trees used in filling in. The area covered would vary greatly on different lots. 

2 10,000 trees used in filling in. 
» 20,000 trees used in filling in. 



To summarize the above tables: along the line of new work, 
planting equals 500 acres and brushing, 150 acres; in the line 
of maintenance, planting is equivalent to 115 acres and brush- 
ing to 340 acres. 

^Yhen we say the planting is equivalent to 115 acres we mean 
that the number of trees used in filling in, if planted 6 by 6 
feet apart, would cover that area. The actual area covered is 
much greater. 

The State Fire Warden's Report. 
Mr. F. W. Kane, State Forester. 

Sir: — In compliance with your request, and in accord with the pro- 
visions of chapter 722, section 2, Acts of 1911, 1 beg to submit the following 
report of the w^ork accompHshed by this branch of the department this 
year: — 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



41 



While we have experienced a very serious drouth during the summer 
and fall of 1914, and our number of fires exceeds by a large margin that of 
any former yesLT in the history of the department, we have been able, by 
the efficient work of our men and the hearty co-operation of many residents 
of the Commonwealth, to hold our loss to a remarkably low figure. With 
a period of thirty-eight days, from September 9 to October 17, with only 
one-fourth of an inch of rainfall, and during this period a legal holiday, 
October 12, which was also the opening day of the hunting season, with 
60,000 hunters and as many more pleasure seekers roaming through the 
woods from Cape Cod to the Berkshire Hills, it is not surprising that 
many dangerous fires occurred. On this date our reports show 166 fires 
reported, mostly confined to Middlesex, Worcester and the western coun- 
ties. Of the above fires, 13 were dangerous, and burned over an area of 
nearly 8,000 acres. While the area burned was not all forested land, con- 
siderable timber was destroj^ed. IMost of these fires would have been con- 
trolled at the start providing our observation system had been completed 
in this locality, but it is necessary- that 7 more stations be estabhshed 
throughout the central and western part of the State in order to fully 
protect this area. On October 12 there were 166 fires, and for the week end- 
ing October 17, 384 fires were reported. Owing to the large number of fires 
at this time. His Excellency the Governor was obhged to declare a close 
season on game extending to October 17. 

We have maintained the same arrangement of districts as in former 
years, viz., four districts, each under the supervision of a district forest 
warden; but owing to our construction work throughout the eastern part 
of the State being done entirely by the district men, they have been unable 
to devote as much time to organization work in their several towTis as had 
been hoped. This difficulty will be overcome as our sj'^stem becomes com- 
pleted, and we are in hopes that another year will practically finish the 
construction work. 

The amendment of the forest law relative to the appointment of town 
forest wardens, allowing such appointments to be made in January instead 
of in March and April, has facihtated the work of this department, as we 
are enabled to have our lists completed during Februarv^ and in readiness 
for spring fires. I am still of the behef that much better results would be 
accomphshed throughout the State if this department were to appoint 
these town forest wardens. We are handicapped in a nimiber of to\ras by 
having inefficient wardens who do not have the faculty of handling men 
and who are not interested in the protection of the forests. I firmly believe 
that our district men can recommend to this department in the different 
touTis throughout their districts men who have the interests of the Com- 
monwealth at heart and who would make ideal forest wardens, — men 
who would co-operate with our observers, perfect a forest fire-fighting 
organization in their towns, and not onl}^ be the means of lessening the 
expense of extinguishing fires, but also materially reduce the damage. 



42 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Observation Stations. 
We have had in operation this year 24 observation stations reporting 
3,013 fires, as follows: — 



Beckct Mountain, Becket, 

Blue Hill, Milton, 

Bluff Head, Sharon, 

Bonney Hill, Hanson, . 

Bournedalc, Bourne, 

CV)p?cut Hill, Fall River, 

Cran Pond Hill, Ashfield, 

Fay Mountain, Westborough, 

Grace Mountain, Warwick, 

Hart Hill, Wakefield, . 

Harwich, Harwich, 

Rowland's Hill, Falmouth, 

Lincoln Mountain, Pelham, . 

Massacmet Mountain, Shelburne Falls, 

Middleborough, Middleborough, 

Mt. Tom, Eisthampton, 

Morse Hill, Essex, 

Reservoir Hill, Plymouth, 

Richmond Hill, Dighton, 

Robbins Hill, Chelmsford, 

Shoot Flying Hill, Barnstable, 

Steerage Rock, Brimfield, 

Tower Mountain, Savoy, 

Wachusett Mountain, Princeton, 



63 
236 
203 
68 
54 
33 
2 

386 
94 
174 
35 
1 
47 
130 
133 
135 
96 
116 
105 
302 
14 
90 
11 
485 



Total, 3,013 

Of the above stations five were new this year, four of which were placed 
in operation late in the season. Two substations, one on Prospect Hill 
in Petersham, and one on Little Mugget Hill in Charlton, it was not 
deemed advisable to use this season. 

A new steel tower 40 feet high, with a 10 by 10 foot room at the top, 
has been erected on Shoot Ftying Hill, Barnstable, to replace the old 
wooden structure that had been in use for nineteen years. The new tower 
is 10 feet higher than the former one, and gives an excellent view for a 
radius of 12 miles. 

During the season an obser^^ation room for the Bournedale tower has 
been completed. A new 40-foot tower has been erected on Howland's 
Hill, Falmouth, which enables us to protect several other towns. 

A new 60-foot steel tower has been erected on Copecut Hill in Fall 
River. This is located near the Watuppa Reservation and protects a 
large forested area in Fall River and adjoining towns. The city of Fall 
River, as well as the towns of Westport and Dartmouth, contributed very 
liberal!}^ toward the expense of erecting this tower. 

An observation station has been established on Prospect Hill, Peters- 
ham, but no tower was erected. One mile of telephone fine was con- 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



43 



stnicted. This station protects the Harvard School holdings of several 
thousand acres. 

A wooden tower, with 1 mile of telephone line, has been installed on 
Cran Pond Hill in Ashfield. This is one of several stations that are needed 
in western Massachusetts to protect the large forest areas in that portion 
of the State. 

The observation towers have again demonstrated their value in the 
large number of fires reported and extinguished in their incipiency. The 
following comparative statement of forest fires during the year 1911 with 
those of 1914 is ver}'- interesting, the 1911 loss being before the present 
fire lookout system was established. 



CoMPARATR^ Table of Fires, 1911 and 1914. 





Number 
of Fires. 


Acreage 
burned. 


Cost 
to extin- 
guish. 


Damage. 


Average 
Acreage 
per Fire. 


Average 
Damage 
per Fire. 


1911 

1914 


2,536 
3,181 


99,693 
38,975 


$47,093 
48,750 


$537,749 
95,389 


39.31 
12.25 


$226 24 
29 98 



These figures are very significant. The period of drouth was more 
serious and considerably longer in 1914 than in 1911, thereby making the 
fire danger much greater. In studying this table you will note that we 
had 645 more fires in 1914 than in 1911, but that our damage was reduced 
nearly $450,000 in 1914. Again, the average damage per fire in 1911 was 
$226.24 as against $29.98 this year. 

While we have had some large fires, they are not chargeable to the 
inefficiency of our obser^^ers or to their neglect of duty. I have in mind 
an instance where the observer called up the town forest warden, giving 
him the exact location of a fire which was just starting. The warden, 
being doubtful, telephoned two or three parties near the location of the 
fire and received the reply that they were unable to discover any fire. 
Two hours later he received a telephone call stating that the fire had then 
covered 50 acres. The outcome was that 500 acres were burned over. 

We have had an unusualty large number of visitors to the towers this . 
year, and I believe that when pleasure-seeking automobihsts become 
famifiar with our roads leading to within a few minutes' walk, and in 
many cases directly to the towers, this number will be materially increased. 
Our towers are nearly all equipped with stairs, so that they are accessible 
to any one. We are always pleased to have the public visit them, not 
only because of the pleasure they may derive from the beautiful scenery 
for miles around, but also from an educational standpoint. Our observers 
are always verv^ courteous and take pleasure in explaining our system, 
giving visitors a comprehensive idea of what the State is endeavoring to 
do to suppress our forest-fire evil. 



44 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Proposed Stations. 
I am in hopes that during the coming jcslt we shall have sufficient 
ai>]iropriation to install the following observation stations, thereby 
l)ra(.'tically completing our system: — 

Nobscot Hill, Framingham. 
Great Meadow Hill, Rehoboth. 
Miscoe Hill, Mendon. 
Lair Hill, Tolland. 
Holcomb Hill, Chester. 
Berlin Mountain, Berlin. 
Yokunis Seat (Pinnacle), Lenox. 
Mt. Everett, Mount Washington. 

The last three would be maintained jointly by Massachusetts, Vermont, 
New York, Connecticut and the Federal department. 

Forest-fire Equipment. 
Under an act of the Legislature, passed in the spring of 1910 and a- 
mended in 1914, appropriating $5,000 annually for forest-fire protection, 
towns with a valuation of $1,750,000 or less are entitled to 50 per cent, 
reimbursement on all forest fire-fighting equipment they desire to purchase 
not exceeding $500, no towTi being allowed an amount exceeding $250. 
All forest-fire equipment purchased under this act is approved by this 
department and placed under the supervision of the town forest warden, 
subject to inspection at all times by the State Fire Warden or the district 
forest wardens. 

There are at the present time 165 towns entitled to reimbursement 
under the act. Of this number, 120 towns have expended a portion, and 
in some instances all, of their allotment, as is shown in our inventory 
of equipment on page 50. Nearl}^ all the to"\vns throughout the eastern 
part of the State that come under the act have taken advantage of it, but 
we still have many towns in the central and western portions of the State 
that have not. We hmit the towns to the purchase of equipment that is 
suitable for forest-fire work, such as motor trucks, fire wagons, pumps, 
extinguishers, water cans, pails, shovels, brooms, etc. Ovvdng to the finan- 
cial condition of many of our smaller towns it has been extremely hard 
this year to get appropriations for purchasing forest-fire equipment. Our 
table on page 54 shows, however, that 50 towns have taken advantage 
of the act and have been reimbursed to the amount of $2,127.05. 

Railroad Fires. 

It is certainly very gratifying to note the marked improvement that 
has been made during the past three j^ears by the railroads throughout 
the Commonwealth in endeavoring to lessen the number of forest fires 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 45 



caused by locomotives. For the past two years this department, in co- 
operation -with, the Pubhc Service Commission, has maintained a system 
of inspection of spark arresters and ash pans at the different railroad ter- 
minals in the State, and the inspections made this year certainly show 
that extra precautions have been taken by the railroad officials to keep 
t^eir ash pans and screens in perfect condition. While we have found 
defects, they have been mostly minor ones and have been promptly re- 
paired. In nearly all instances the railroads have comphed with the law 
relative to keeping the right of way free from all combustible material, 
and several miles of lands adjoining the right of way have been thinned 
out so that where this work has been done there is very little danger of 
fire making much headway in case it should start. 

The reports show that the percentage of railroad fires has been reduced 
to 26 per cent, and the loss to $16,000, which is the lowest railroad fire 
dam.age of which we have any record. With over 2,000 locomotives in 
operation we must expect a certain percentage of fires from this source, 
but the efforts put forth by the railroads show that they can be reduced 
to a minimum, and I feel that due acknowledgment should be given to 
Mr. E. A. Ryder of the Boston & Maine, Mr. R. D. Smith of the Boston 
& Albany, Mr. Chas. B. Rood and Mr. G. W. Wildin of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford for their hearty co-operation with this depart- 
ment. Our reports show that we have had 830 railroad fires, as follows: 
New York, New Haven & Hartford, 389; Boston & Albany, 128; Boston 
& Maine, 253; and Central Vermont, 60, burning over a combined area 
of 4,508 acres, with a damage of Sl'6,649 and a cost to extinguish of $4,884. 

The following information has been received from the Boston & Maine 
and Boston & Albany railroads relative to fire-prevention w^ork done by 
them during the past year : — 

Boston & Maine Railroad, Department of Fire Claims, 
Boston, Mass., Dec. 21, 1914. 

Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir : — In accordance with your request for information regarding the 
fire-prevention work done by this company during the past season, we beg to 
submit the following: — 

Although there was a greal deal of snow last winter, which remained up to the 
middle or last of March, the high winds immediately following its departure made 
everything extremely dry, and conditions were favorable for fires. In April, May 
and June it was hot and dry, and there were many fires; in July and August there 
was considerable rain, and we had reports of only 98 fires on the whole system in 
July and 45 in August; but September, October and November were generally dry, 
— in fact, the weather was much like real summer days, and fires were numerous. 
There was a very noticeable increase in the number of reports of fires as soon as 
the hunting season opened, and it was most fortunate that His Excellency Governor 
Walsh was so quick to scent the danger and prompt in taking steps to relieve it. 
Comparing this season with the very bad season of 1913, they average about the 
same, although this season the fires supposed to have been set by sparks from loco- 
motives have not shown as much damage, which we think is accounted for in a 
large measure by the prompt discovery and fighting of fires. 



46 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Since the 1st of last March we have secured 16 permissions from the owners of 
land adjacent to our property in Massachusetts to clear back a strip for say 100 
feet from our right-of-way fence, and this work has been completed. We hope the 
new Massachusetts law which will take effect Jan. 1, 1915, requiring operators to 
clear back the brush for a distance of 40 feet from our right of way will be of great 
assistance in keeping down the fire hazard, as a similar law in New Hampshire, 
with the prescribed distance only 25 feet, has certainly produced good results, and 
when owners or operators have been clearing the slash we have in many cases per- 
suaded them to remove it a greater distance than required by law. 

In addition to the customary inspection which is made of the spark arrester and 
ash pan on all our locomotives, since March 1, 1914, we have requested special 
inspections made of 433 locomotives reported as setting fires, with the result that 
only 56 were found to have any defect, most of these being very slight. We mention 
this only to show that the matter of inspection of locomotives is receiving more 
than routine attention. 

Last June we placed a "fire warning" card in all of our principal stations and 
terminals, believing it is absolutely necessary to keep fire prevention constantly 
before the eyes of the public. While it is difficult for any one to really know how 
much value there is in publicity, from remarks we have heard, and the many in- 
quiries we have received from various people, about this subject we feel positive 
that it is beneficial; for instance, the superintendent of schools in Winchester, Mass., 
requested a supply of these cards so that the subject could be discussed with and 
placed before the school children in his town. 

During the past season we have given special attention to improving the patrol 
service in dangerous sections on our system, and the result has been very gratifying 
to us. 

During the past year much more effective co-operation has been attained with 
the towns in the matter of discovering and promptly fighting fires, and we are 
pleased to speak most highly of the faithful attention of the "lookout" men and 
the splendid work of the fire wardens. The bills from the towns for fighting fires 
are now rendered promptly after each fire, properly made out on the standard form, 
with explanation of the detail, which assists us in approving their payment. Prac- 
tically every town with which we have had dealings has accepted the rate of 25 
cents an hour for fighting fires; and all this co-operation and assistance is in a large 
measure the result of the splendid efforts on the part of your district chiefs. 

Yours truly, 

E. A. Ryder, 
Commissioner. 

Statement hy the Boston & Alh'any Railroad {New York Central Railroad 

Company, Lessee). 

The Boston & Albany Railroad, during the year 1914, reduced both 
the number and extent of the fires on its right of way and adjoining prop- 
erty, the number of fires reported being the smallest since 1908. The 
co-operation of the employees of the company and the fire wardens in the 
cities and towns through which the railroad runs contributed largely to 
this result. There have been no extensive forest fires along the line of the 
road during the present year. 

All buildings have been equipped throughout with fire extinguishers 
of an approved type, hand grenades, fire buckets, with tubs filled with 
water and painted red and marked "For use in case of fire only." Regular 
periodical inspection of this equipment is made, and instructions are in 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



effect that the fire buckets and tubs are not to be obstructed or used for 
any other purpose. 

The use of wooden shingles has been discontinued altogether, and 
adjacent to the right of way all new roofs are now covered with either 
asbestos shingles, slate or tin. Fireproof paint has been used to a con- 
siderable extent in the interior of buildings. 

Special zinc-Uned receptacles have been provided outside of buildings 
where stoves are used, for taking care of ashes and cinders from the stoves. 

Regular inspection is made underneath all wooden platforms, and all 
rubbish and paper refuse, etc., is removed. 

Instructions are in effect that the right of way shall be carefully and 
completely burnt over at least twice a season, and oftener if necessary; 
and that such operations shall be carried on in co-operation with the local 
fire warden, and if necessary with owners of adjacent property. In some 
cases where there has been added risk, permission from owners of adjacent 
property has been obtained and railroad employees have done the burning. 
In places where the hkelihood of fire is great, additional vigilance is used, 
and in some places patrols are placed. Section cars within the zones most 
subject to fires are all furnished with approved extinguishers, which are 
carried at all times on the car during the season fires are most hkely to 
occur. On many occasions these have been found to be of great service. 

All Bostou & Albany locomotives are now equipped with a standard 
smoke-box arrangement with netting, which has been approved by the 
Public Service Commission of Massachusetts. The ash pans have wire 
screens to prevent live coals and cinders from being thrown out onto the 
tracks or right of way, and comply with the regulations of the Public 
Service Commission. All the locomotives operating on the Newton cir- 
cuit are equipped with special patented exhaust pipes, which soften the 
exhaust and greatly reduce the number of sparks thrown from the stacks. 
On some of the locomotives the overflow pipes from the injectors have 
been relocated so as to discharge into the ash pans, thus coohng off the 
hot cinders in the pan. The smoke-box netting of all the locomotives is 
inspected at regular intervals and corrected before the locomotive is 
allowed to go into service. A number of locomotives used in switching 
in yards are equipped with fire extinguishers according to law and in com- 
pliance with orders of the PubHc Service Commission, and all car and 
locomotive shops are equipped with fire extinguishers and fire hose, with 
special men designated to man this hose in case of fire. Fire drills are 
also had at regular intervals. 

Federal Co-opeil\tion. 
The co-operative work carried on in the State in connection with the 
Federal department in protecting the watersheds of the Nashua, Chicopee, 
Miller, Thames, Blackstone, Hudson, Connecticut and Deerfield rivers 
has allowed us to better protect the central and western portions of the 
State than would have otherwise been possible. An allotment of $2,500 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



was made to us b}^ the Federal department for this purpose, to be expended 
in payment of observers. This practically maintained our observation 
stations west of the east line of Worcester County. I am in hopes that 
as we extend our observation system in this portion of the State this 
allotment may be increased to meet, at least partially, the increased 
cost of maintenance. 

Co-operative Forest Fire Conference. 
Through an invitation extended by this department to the State for- 
esters of the New England States, New York and Pennsylvania, and the 
Federal department, a co-operative forest fire conference was held in this 
city on Jan. 20, 21 and 22, 1914, at which the following program was 
carried out: — 

January 20, Morning Session, 9 a.m. 
Chairman, State Forester F. W. Rane. 
The "Weeks Law," Go-operative Fire Protection and Federal Requirements in 

its Administration, Mr. J. G. Peters of the United States Forest Ser\'ice. 
Lookout System, Telephone Construction and Telephone Contracts, Mr. Wm. 
G. Howard, New York. 

Afternoon Session, 1.30 p.m. 
Chairman, Mr. W. O. Filley of Connecticut. 
Interstate Co-operation in the Reporting of Forest Fires, Mr. F. W. Rane. 
Co-operation with Rural Mail Carriers, Mr. Blaine S. Viles, Maine. 
Forest Fire Patrol, and Co-operation with Private Owners, Mr. E. C. Hirst, New 
Hampshire. 

January 21, Morning Session, 9 a.m. 
Chairman, Mr. E. C. Hirst. 
Publicity as a Valuable Adjunct in Forest Fire Prevention Work, Mr. Chas. P. 

Wilber, New Jersey. 
Slash Disposal, Fire Lines and Trails, Mr. A. F. Hawes, Vermont. 
Methods of handling Severe Forest Fires, Mr. Wm. G. Howard, New York. 
General Discussion of Unassigned Topics. 

Afternoon Session, 1.30 p.m. 
Chairman, Mr. A. F. Hawes. 
Railroad Fire Protection, Mr. W. O. Filley, Connecticut: — 

(a) Equipment of locomotives with suitable fire protective devices. 
(6) Methods of securing satisfactory inspection of railroad rights of way and 
provision for the removal of all inflammable material from the same. 

(c) Railroad fire lines. 

(d) The disposal of slash on privately owned lands adjacent to railroad rights of 

way or highways. 

Representatives from, the New York, New Haven & Hartford, Boston & Maine, 
Boston & Albany and New York Central & Hudson River, Central Ver- 
mont and Rutland railroads were in attendance during this discussion. 

Reception at New American House, 5.30 p.m. Banquet, 6 p.m. Mr. F. W. Rane, 
Toastmaster. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



49 



Addresses by Mr. E. A. Ryder of the Boston & Maine Railroad, Mr. C. X. Wood- 
ward of the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Mr. J. H. 
Foster of the New Hampshire State College, Mr. Harris A. Reynolds, 
Secretary- of the Massachusetts Forestn,- Association, Mr. A. F. Hawes, 
State Forester of Vermont, and others. 

January 22, Mornin/j Session, 9 a.m. 
Mr. W. L. Larry of the Massachusetts Public Ser\-ice Commission in charge. 
Inspection of the different style spark arresters used by the Boston & Maine and 
New York, New Haven & Hartford railroads, including the Mudge-Slater 
and the Steams spark arresters. 

Afternoon Session. 
Mr. M. C. HuTCHixs, Massachusetts State Fire Warden, in charge. 
Inspection of observation tower and equipment, also modem forest-fire wagon, 
at South Hanson. 

-\inong those present were Mr. Robert S. Conklin. Commissioner of 
Forestn.', Harrisburg. Pa., ^Ir. Jesse B. Mowry, Commissioner of Forestn,^, 
Chepachet, R. I., Robert ]M. Ross, State Fire Warden, Burlington, Vt.^ 
.Alien Chamberlain and Harris A. Re>Tiolds representing the Massachu- 
setts Forestry- Association, as well as man\' representatives of woodland 
owners, who took part in the discussions. A ver}' interesting and instruc- 
tive meeting was enjoyed. 

Forest Warden Coxferexces. 

During the months of February' and March this department held a 
series of forest warden conferences throughout the State. These were 
held at Pittsfield, Greenfield, Worcester, Fitchburg, Springfield, Haverhill, 
Middleborough and Boston. The object of the meetings was that em- 
ployees of the department might get in closer touch with the town forest 
wardens and selectmen, and discuss with them the different methods of 
handling forest fires, the organizing of forest fire-fighting crews, the appoint- 
ing of deputies located in the outh'ing portions of the different towns, and 
the importance of procuring suitable equipment for handling forest fires. 

These meetings were ven,' instructive and were attended by nearly all 
the forest wardens throughout the State, each one being free to discuss 
matters pertaining to his locality. Short talks were given by members of 
this department on the general outhne of the sj^stem and work. Mr. E. 
A. R^'der of the Boston & Maine Railroad and Mr. Chas. B. Rood of the 
New York, Xew Haven & Hartford Railroad were in attendance, and 
explained fully what these railroads are endeavoring to do in order to 
lessen the expense caused by railroad fires. 

The following law enacted this year relative to the disposal of slash 
and brush is a forward step toward reducing our forest-fire hazard. While 
the law is not as broad and as far-reaching as I would desire, at the same 
time it will necessitate the removal of much dangerous slash accumulating 
along highways and railroad rights of way, and will protect areas adjoin- 
ing land where wood and lumbering operations are being carried on. 



50 



TPS STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Acts of 1914, Chapter 101. 

An Act relative to the Disposal of Slash or Brush following Wood or 
Lumber Operations. 

Section 1. Every owner, tenant or occupant of land, and every owner of 
stumpagc. who cuts or permits the cutting of wood or timber on woodland owned 
or occupied by him or on which he has acquired stumpage by purchase or otherwise, 
and which borders upon the woodland of another or upon a highway or railroad 
location, shall clear the land of the slash and brush wood then and there resulting 
from such cutting for such distance, not exceeding forty feet, from the woodland of 
such other person, highway or railroad location as the local forest warden shall 
determine, and within such time and in such manner as he shaU determine. 

Section 2. Any person who cuts or causes to be cut trees or brushes or under- 
growth within the limits of any highway or public road shall dispose of the slash 
and brush wood then and there resulting from such cutting within such time and 
in such manner as the forest warden of the city or town wherein such cutting is 
done shall determine. 

Section 3. Whoever neglects to comply with the directions of the forest warden 
with regard to the disposal of slash and brush, as provided in sections one and two 
of this act may be punished by a fine of not less than five dollars nor more than 
fifty dollars. 

Section 4. This act shall take effect on the first day of January in the year 
nineteen hundred and fifteen. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement Act. 



• 

Town. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


CO 
o 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


o 

S3 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


ReimBurse- 
ment. 


Acushnet, 


1 


10 


16 








4 


1 








21, 3 


1 

$250 00 


Ashburnham, 






8 




















25 00 


Ashby, . 






36 








2 


2 




6 






115 70 


Ashfield, 






33 




















99 00 


Ashland, 




12 


10 








12 


6 




6 


12 




77 91 


Aubarn, 






83 




















249 00 


Avon, . 




10 










12 












9 90 


Becket, . 




14 


16 










2 






24 




79 50 


Bedford, 


1 


14 


24 


















12 


249 67 


Belchertown, 






40 










1 








1 


175 87 


Bellingham, . 




16 


23 








6 






8 




li 


122 92 


Berkley, 




36 


24 




















162 00 


Berlin, . 


2 


10 


38 






1 


12 




3 


12 




11 


241 45 


Blandford, 




1 


16 




















59 80 


Bolton, . 




14 


"27 








6 






6 






107 15 


Boxbo rough, 


1 


12 


30 






2 






3 


4 


3 


11 


182 80 


Boxford, 


























45 60 



1 One-horse. 2 Two-horse. » Motor truck. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 51 



In^textory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Town. 


Axes. 


T 

c 

o 


Extinguishers. 


to 

§ 


Lanterns. 1 


Mattocks. 1 


CO 
1 


O. 
c 

3 


m 
o 

c3 

Pi 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Boylston, 


- 




66 




- 


- 


24 






28 


- 


- 


$243 61 


Brimfield, 


- 


10 


30 




















99 75 


Burlington, 


- 




20 




- 


- 








- 


- 


- 


100 00 


Carlisle, 


2 


15 


IS 




2 


- 


6 




1 


6 


- 


12 


247 72 


Charlton, 


- 




77 




- 


- 


40 






60 


- 


- 


250 00 


Chatham, 


2 


15 


11 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


- 


11 


152 98 


Chester, 


- 


37 


15 




- 


- 




5 




- 


12 


- 


97 02 


Lhesternela, 


- 




25 




- 


- 








- 


- 


- 


75 00 


Cummington, 






12 




















6i 50 


Dana, 


- 




6 




- 


- 








- 


- 


- 


18 75 


Dighton, 


2 


8 


18 




1 


- 






2 


2 


18 


11 


117 79 


Douglaji, 


- 


25 


50 




















175 00 


Dunstable, . 


2 


25 


10 




1 


- 


4 




3 


6 


6 


11 


106 14 


East Longmeadow, 


2 




18 




2 


- 


12 


1 




4 


- 


11 


153 96 


Edgartown, . 


2 


5 


10 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


- 


11 


152 17 


Enfield, 


- 


20 






















1 50 


Erving, 


- 




25 


6 


- 


- 








18 


- 


- 


86 52 


Essex, 


- 


24 


12 




















37 80 


Florida, 






8 




















26 00 


Freetown , 


- 


24 


20 




- 


- 




2 




72 


- 


- 


167 48 


Georgetown, 


- 


30 


54 












6 


12 


- 


- 


194 08 


Gill, 


- 


5 


20 




















65 00 


Goshen, 


- 


12 


58 




















244 05 


Granby, 




12 


12 




















39 90 


Gran\'ille, 
























21 


130 00 


Greenwich, . 






18 




















60 45 


Groveland, . 




6 


12 












3 


12 






51 Oo 


Hadley, 






15 




















75 00 


Halifax, 




12 


64 








12 






18 




11 


241 91 


Hampden, 






12 




















39 00 


Hanson, 




6 


24 








6 






5 




21, ^ 


250 00 


Harvard, 


2 


7 


29 




2 


3 






3 


12 




12 


250 00 


Harwich, 
















2 










8 50 


Holbrook, 




12 


10 




















69 00 



1 One-horse. 



2 Two-horse. 



3 Motor truck. 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Town. 



Holland, 

Hubbardston, 

Lanesborough, 

Leveret t, 

Leyden, 

Lunenburg, . 

Lynnfield, 

Mashpee, 

Mendon, 

Merrimac, 

Middlcton, 

MillLs, . 

New Braintree, 

Newbury, 

New Salem, . 

Norfolk, 

North Reading, 

Northborough, 

Norwell, 

Oakham, 
Otis, 
Paxton, 
Pelham, 
Pembroke, 
Petersham, 
Phillipston, 
Plainville, 
Plympton, 
Prescott, 
Princeton, 
Raynham, 
Rehobotb, 
Richmond, 
Rochester, 
Royalston, 



1^ 



55 



52 



6 
20 
18 
38 
25 
32 
30 
10 
28 
19 
31 
36 
38 
22 

10 
80 
30 
48 
25 
60 
22 



36 



30 



12 



One-horse. 



2 Two-horse. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 53 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Concluded. 



Town. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


Hoes. 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


Rakes. 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Russell, 


- 


7 


39 


















11 


$220 25 


Rutland, 


- 


12 


18 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


V 


250 00 


Salisbury, 


3 


- 


9 


- 


6 


- 


24 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


38 87 


Sandwich 


22 


12 


36 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


24 


- 


11 


245 60 


Shelburne, 


- 


- 


50 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


6 


- 


11 


186 87 


Shirley, 


- 


48 


36 




















139 50 


Shutesbury, 


- 


16 


25 




















87 50 


Southwick, 


- 


12 


26 


















11 


101 50 


Sterling, 


- 


- 


25 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 


12 


241 12 


Stow, 


- 


- 


42 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


131 31 


Sturbridge, 


- 


11 


35 




















116 45 


Sudbury, 


- 


- 


40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 00 


Sutton, . 


- 


50 


50 


24 


- 


- 


- 


- 


32 


24 


- 


- 


188 46 


Tewksbiiry, 


2 


- 


24 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


30 


- 


11 


174 00 


Tolland, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


4 


- 


18 26 


Townsend, 


- 


- 


46 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 00 


Tyngsborougli, 


- 


220 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


54 


12 


24 


36 


- 


250 00 


Tyrins;ham, . 


2 


10 


10 


- 


2 


- 


10 


- 


2 


3 


- 


12 


112 30 


Upton, . 


- 


- 


30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


1' 


235 28 


Wales, 


2 


- 


40 


- 


2 


2 












1' 


236 77 


Warwick, 


- 


6 


10 


















1' 


154 35 


Washington, . 


- 


- 


10 


3 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


8 


- 


1' 


86 92 


Wendell, 


- 


38 


27 


- 


2 


- 


12 


- 


- 


18 


- 




163 24 


West Boylston, 


- 


- 


107 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 00 


West Bridgewater, 






20 


















11 


200 12 


West Brookfield, 




12 


37 




















121 75 


West Newbury, 




8 


13 




















68 75 


Westhampton , 






16 




















48 00 


Westminster, 




77 


48 


24 






24 






24 






244 09 


Wilbraham, . 




27 


32 








23 




12 


6 






118 38 


Wilmington, . 




12 


40 




1 






18 




34 






187 38 


Windsor, 






40 




















200 00 


Worthington, 


2 


15 


10 






3 








5 




11 


86 01 


Wrentham, . 




12 


30 






4 












11 


250 00 


Totals, . 


83 


1,484 


3,143 


116 


44 


42 


407 


137 


129 


712 


247 


54 


?17,012 56 





1 One-horse. 



2 Two-horse. 



3 Motor truck. 



54 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Towns receiving Fire -equipment Reimbursement during Year 1914. 



Acushnet, 


$106 


78 


LEiriGsborovigli J 




Ashby, 


SI 


20 




22 35 


Asnlancl, 




60 


L\inGiibu,rg, 


11 09 


Becket, . . . . 


51 


25 


Lynnfield, 


3 70 


Bclchertown, 


4 


25 




50 00 


Bellinghani, 


9 


75 


AlGiicion 


80 22 




18 


00 


New Braintree, 


44 10 


Bolton, . . . . 


48 


75 


N^ewbury, 


37 75 


Boxborough , 


2 


34 


Norwell, 


6 13 


Boylston, . . . • 


167 


41 


ORkharn, . . . 


32 12 


l_ narlioii, . . . . 


28 


63 


Otis, 


2 50 


(Tlicstcr, , , . . 


97 


02 


Pelb.£Lm 


7 50 


Cuniinington, 


64 


50 


Petersham 


45 50 


JL/l^IlL'UIl, . . > • 


9 


12 


Phillipston, 


81 50 


]*j£ist> IjOngmGa,doW| . • 


4 


25 


Plainville, 


41 50 


Edgartown, 


152 


17 


Southwick . • 


19 50 


Enfield 


1 


50 


Tolland, . 


18 26 




37 


80 


Tyngsborongh, 


60 20 


Florida 


26 


00 


Washington, 


66 92 


Georgetown, 


59 


25 


Wendell, . 


128 17 


Goshen, . . . . 


122 


32 


West Newbury, 


35 00 


Granby, . . . . 




90 


Westminster, 


1 87 


Hampden, 


39 


00 


Windsor, . 


50 00 


Harvard, . . . . 


48 


48 


Wrentham, 


39 90 


Harwich, . . . . 


8 


50 






Holland 


25 


00 


Total, 


. $2,127 05 



Forest Fires of 1914. 



Months. 


Number. 


Acres. 


Cost to 
extinguish. 


Damage. 


1913. 


2 


19 


S85 71 


$175 00 


1914. 

January, 


2 


16 


25 90 


15 00 




1 


1 


1 80 


10 00 




67 


99 


91 91 


15 00 




857 


6,929 


5,768 22 


17,554 00 


May, 


516 


6,557 


6,077 67 


19,383 00 




298 


2,258 


4,699 64 


6,144 00 


July 


65 


231 


755 92 


1,240 00 




41 


827 


460 96 


518 00 


September, 


302 


3,348 


6,115 64 


8,609 00 




821 


17,412 


22,079 41 


38,141 00 


November, 


209 


1,278 


2,587 47 


3,585 00 


Totals, 


3,181 


38,975 


S48,750 25 


$95,389 00 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



55 



Types of Land burned Over (Acres). 



Timber, 3,001 

Second growth, ........... 9,016 

Second growth, not merchantable, ....... 7,943 

Brush, 11,645 

Grass 2,510 

Not classified 4,860 



Total, 38,975 

Types of Classified Dajliges. 

Standing trees, .......... $50,697 

Lumber, logs and cordwood, ........ 14,427 

Buildings, bogs, ........... 3,530 

Bridges, fences, . . • . • . . • • .331 
Not classified, 26,404 



Total, $95,389 



C0MPAIL\TIVE DA^L\GES BY FoREST FiRES FOR THE PaST FiVE YeARS. 



Year. 


Number 
of Fires. 


Acreage 
burned. 


Cost 
to extin- 
guish. 


Damage. 


Average 
Acreage 
per Fire. 


Average 
Damage 
per Fire. 


1910, 




1,385 


42,221 


$23,475 


1205,383 


30.46 


S148 29 


1911. 




2,536 


99,693 


47,093 


537,749 


39.31 


226 24 


1912, 


■ : : : 


1,851 


22,072 


20,219 


80,834 


11.92 


43 67 


1913, 




2,688 


53,826 


35,456 


178,357 


20.02 


66 35 


1914, 




3,181 


38,975 


48.750 


95,389 


12.25 


29 98 



Cl.\ssified Causes of Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 





1912. 


1913. 


! 1914. 


CAUSES. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 




649 


35.1 


650 


24.2 


1,174 


37.0 




640 


34.6 


913 


34.0 


830 


26^ 


Burning brush, 


93 


5.0 


148 


5.5 


196 


6.2 


Hunters and smokers. 


223 


12.0 


386 


14.3 


520 


16.4 


Steam sawmills, .... 


8 


.4 


6 


.2 


3 


.1 


Children, 


79 


4.3 


109 


4.1 


140 


4.4 




159 


8.6 


476 


17.7 


318 


9.9 


Totals, 




100.0 


2,688 


100.0 


3,181 


100.0 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Precipitation ix Inches for the Years 1911, 1912, 1913, ant) 1914, 
WITH December of Previous Year. 



Months. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


1 

1 1914. 


Normal. 


December 


3.24 


2 


59 


5 


73 


3.66 


3.74 


January 


3.07 


3 


87 


3 


21 


4.30 


4.12 


February 


3.20 


2 


24 


3 


77 


3.52 


3.97 


March, 


3.27 


5 


26 


5 


32 


4.20 


4.34 


April 


2.86 


4 


05 


4 


73 


5.51 


3.46 


May 


.89 


4 


03 


2 


85 


2.95 


3.37 


June 


4.76 




53 


3 


20 


1.75 


3.07 


July 


4.55 


4 


16 


2 


00 


3.38 


3.65 


August 


6.70 


3 


85 


3 


30 


4.59 


3.70 


September, 


3.36 


1 


71 


2 


77 


.45 


4.36 


October, 


3.01 


1 


52 


7 


62 


2.03 


4.13 


November 


5.71 


3 


45 


2 


70 


3.06 


3.96 


Totals, .... 


44.62 


37 


26 


47.20 


39.40 


45.87 





Our comparative tables on page 55 are ver^^ interesting, showing 
comparative fire losses for the past five years, comparative causes for the 
past tliree j'ears, the number of forest fires b}^ months, and the rainfall by 
months during the past year. Nearly 2,000 of our fires, classed as "un- 
known," "hunters" and "children," can be attributed to carelessness. 
It is certainly unfortunate m this enlightened age that pleasure seekers 
who are allowed the free use of the thousands of acres of forested area in 
the State wiW not use at least a httle precaution when traveling through 
the woods, and not throw do^^^Ti hghted matches, cigarette stubs and cigar 
butts. We have had many prosecutions and convictions for violations of 
the fire laws, but it is almost impossible to convict the person who is trav- 
eling through the woods alone, as while we are satisfied in our own mind 
that he is the cause of the fire we have no evidence whatever that will 
convict him. 

The permit law has been enforced quite generally tliroughout the State 
and is giving general satisfaction. Over 20,000 permits have been issued. 
While a few to^^ns have not accepted this act I am in hopes that legislation 
may be enacted bringing all to^Tis under its provisions. 

Twelve thousand copies of the following fire notice, quoting extracts 
from the fire laws, have been posted throughout the forested area of the 
State: — 




Light thinning in spruce woodland, C uimuiugton, Mass. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



57 



FOREST FIRES. 

Your help is absolutely necessary if we are to prevent woodland 
fires. Do not throw down lighted matches, cigars, or cigarettes. 
Notify the nearest Forest Warden or Deputy in case of fire, and 
get busy yourself. 

Good Citizens will be Cautious. 
Others are hereby 
WARNED 

Setting fire to growing wood or timber of another. 

Punishable by a fine of not more than SlOO or by imprisonment for not 
more than six months. R. L. 208, Sec. 7. 

Letting Fire Escape. 

Negligently allowing fire to escape from yoiu* own land to adjoining 
land. Pmiishable b}' a fine of not more than S250, also hable for damages. 
R. L. 208, Sec. 8 and 9. 

Permit necessary. 

A permit must be procured from the Town Fore^st Warden for all fires 
in the open air between March 1 and December 1, except as provided in 
Sec. 1, Chap. 2-14, Acts of 1911. Penaltj^ for violation, not more than SlOO 
fine or imprisonment for not more than one month, or both such fine and 
imprisonment. 

Penalty for Refusing Aid. 

Any person between the ages of IS and 50 years who refuses, without 
good cause, to assist the Forest Warden or his Deputies in the fighting of 
forest fires is hable to a fine of not less than 85 or more than SlOO. R. L. 
32, Sec. 21; 1907, 475, Sec. 3. 

Auto Parties. 
Picnic Parties. 
Hunters and Campers. 

All persons visiting the forests will be held responsible for an\' damage 
they may cause. 

F. W. RAXE, State Forester, 
Forest Warden. 6 Beacon St., Boston, ^Mass. 



Posted by authority of Acts of 1S07, Chap. 475, Sec. 2. 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Wc have experienced considerable trouble with fires just over the town 
line this year. While we have made improvement along this line during 
the past three years we still have town officials who refuse to go into an 
adjoining town and extinguish a small fire, preferring to let it burn up to 
the line and then endeavor to extinguish it. I feel that our district war- 
dens will in time overcome this jealousy between towns, so that we shall 
not then have these serious town line fires. 

The power sprayers in use by many towns in the suppression of the 
gypsy and bro\\Ti-tail moths have demonstrated their value at forest fires, 
possibly more along the North Shore than in any other portion of the 
State. During the months of September and October one was located at 
Beverly, one at Essex and one at Manchester. These were at the disposal 
of the forest wardens in these towns, and were brought into use at several 
fires. At a turf fire in Beverly two of them were in use for several days 
and did ver^^ effective work. 

As our appropriation for forest-fire protective work is only $23,000, we 
have not been able to do as much construction work as we had desired to, 
but we have made it a point to erect substantial, permanent observation 
towers in each instance. These towers are all set on cement abutments 
which go below frost line, and all that is now required, that they may last 
for years, is painting once in three years. Nine of them have been painted 
this year. 

We are asking for an increase of $7,000 in our appropriation this year, 
making a total of $30,000, which is absolutely necessary if we are to com- 
plete our construction work and maintain the present forest-fire policy. 
It is important that each of the four district wardens be furnished with a 
suitable truck properly equipped with fire-fighting apparatus, which may 
be held in readiness for use in case of emergencies. This would enable 
them to take on ten or more trained fire fighters and go to any serious fire. 
The above appropriation would allow the purchasing of at least tw^o this 
year. The importance of such a truck was demonstrated at a fire on 
Sugar Loaf Mountain, New Ashford, which, after burning thirty-six 
hours, had assumed such proportions that it was practically beyond con- 
trol. Owing to the serious fires burning west of the Connecticut River 
we had shipped to our district forest warden a supply of equipment for 
his use. This equipment, consisting of pumps, extinguishers, etc., was 
loaded on an automobile at 10 o'clock at night, and a 40-mile run was 
made to New Ashford, the district man arriving there about 2 o'clock in 
the morning. At 7 o'clock that morning 30 men were at work with the 
equipment on the fire, and before night the fire was imder absolute con- 
trol. This is but one case in many where the town had absolutely no 
equipment, and without a doubt this fire would have burned over a large 
area of the Greylock Reservation if assistance had not arrived at that 
time. This shows the importance of having equipment, with ways and 
means of getting to disastrous fires. While many of our towns have suffi- 
cient equipment for handling ordinary fires, it is an impossibility for them 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



59 



to cope with large ones. It therefore seems necessary, if we are to lessen 
the damage caused by our large fires, that our four district men be provided 
with suitable apparatus and nieans of getting it to a fire if the efficiency 
of their service is to be increased to a maximum. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my appreciation of the loyal and 
hearty co-operation of all employees in this branch of the service. 
Respectfully submitted, 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

State Fire Warden. 

Chestnut Bark Disease. 

This disease, which was mentioned quite fully in last year's 
report, still continues to spread throughout the State, and at the 
present time is to be found to a greater or less degree in nearly 
all places where chestnut is growing. Regardless of the fact 
that both government and State men have given much time 
and effort to combat this very virulent tree disease, little has 
been learned during the past year that would tend to solve the 
problem of eliminating the disease without eliminating the 
chestnut trees on an extensive scale. Mr. Roy G. Pierce, the 
expert on chestnut blight who was connected with this office 
until July 1, 1914, covered the State quite thoroughly, making 
examinations, giving advice and lectures, and disseminating 
knowledge generally in regard to the disease and its workings, 
so that most woodland owners have at present a very fair idea 
of what the disease is like. 

Clean cutting of all infected specimens is recommended where 
the disease occurs in woodland areas, and a certain amount of 
spread can be checked if the trees infected are cut when the 
cankers first appear rather than after they have girdled and 
killed the trees completely. 

State Highway Planting. 
At the request of Mr. Pillsbury, division engineer of the 
Highway Commission, we undertook a piece of work on a line 
which we have never undertaken extensively before, namely, 
setting out trees on the highway. After looking over several 
possible situations it was decided to do the planting on the 
State road between Ipswich and Newburyport. Eight hundred 
trees were set out in all, on a stretch of road 10 miles in length. 



GO 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



at a cost, including the trees, of about $900. The following 
species and number of trees were planted: Norway maples, 
400; white ash, 250; pin oak, 50; linden, 50; oriental plane, 50. 
Three hundred of the trees were staked, but guards were not 
put on them, as they stand on a road in the country, and few 
of them are near houses. The cost analyses are approximately 
as follows: — 





Per Tree. 


Total. 




SO 45 


$356 50 




40 


318 00 




10 


80 00 




10 


32 00 




04 


30 00 




SI 09 


S816 50 



Municipal Forests. 
It is believed that the time is ripe for many of our Massa- 
chusetts towns and cities to make a beginning in establishing 
a municipal forest. Already a few towns and cities have made 
a start in the right direction by planting the areas about their 
source of water supply, but why stop with this when there are 
in most instances available cheap lands that either already 
belong to the town or city or can be purchased at a low price. 
The great good to come from such an enterprise as this can 
only be appreciated when we take into account the experiences 
of the municipal forest propaganda of the old world. They 
have succeeded and our chances for success are even greater. 
If this office can be of any service to any city or town in 
establishing a municipal forest, we certainly shall consider it 
a pleasure to serve you. The Massachusetts Forestry Asso- 
ciation of 4 Joy Street, Boston, is sending out some very 
interesting information on establishing municipal forests, and 
is also offering prizes to cities and towns which make the best 
showing. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 61 



Special Co-operative Moth Work. 

During the past season the general co-operative work, similar 
in many ways to that carried on heretofore with the North 
Shore people, has been executed in several places. The North 
Shore work is so well in hand, we are happy to report, that the 
expenditure has been greatly reduced the past season, and we 
hope to see still further curtailment the coming year, with 
equally good results. 

The town of Dover entered into similar co-operative work 
over a year ago, and at present the results are extremely satis- 
factory. It was simply a case of doing the work properly and 
in time. 

Some very effective work has been done in co-operation with 
those owning cottages about Lake Boon, and at present several 
undertakings are under way which are being entirely financed 
by individuals, corporations and municipalities. 

Moth and Forest Survey of Winchendon 
As was slightly alluded to in last year's report, relative to 
making the town of Winchendon a "Black Forest" town, co- 
operative plans were agreed upon with Dr. L. 0. Howard, 
representing the United States Department of Agriculture, 
and Mr. Ralph Zon of the United States Forest Service, where- 
by a thorough survey of the town was made. This report was 
submitted and explained to the townspeople at a public meeting 
called by the selectmen recently. A committee of three citizens 
was appointed at this meeting to confer with the State and 
government authorities for further consideration and recom- 
mendations. 

The goal aimed at is to remove all trees that are the natural 
food plants of the gypsy and brown- tail moths. This logically 
carried out will give way to a large acreage of evergreen growth, 
particularly of white pine and spruce, which are of greater ulti- 
mate value. Already the town is well stocked with pine, and 
it is believed that an experiment on such a large scale — 
29,000 acres — will be of great value not only to the town 
itself, but to the State and, in fact, to New England. 



62 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



It is to be hoped that somethmg definite can be undertaken, 
as the experiment will be valuable not only in eliminating 
future moth troubles, but in establishing a coniferous forest on 
an extensive scale, which economically and sesthetically would 
prove of great interest. 

Moth Work in Boston. 

When the moth-suppression work was placed under the 
supervision of the State Forester in 1909 the city of Boston 
was one of the worst infested districts in the State. The city 
up to that time had not attempted the work of suppression on 
a scale sufficient to make any permanent impression upon the 
insects, and the State had taken the attitude that the funds 
were not sufficient to be able to compel the city to do what 
the law requires. With these conditions, it inevitably followed 
that the trees were stripped bare of their leaves in various 
sections, and a great many trees died that might have been 
saved. 

The following year, in 1910, this department began a system- 
atic campaign of co-operative work with the city, and that 
work has progressed until at the present time we are happy to 
announce that the Boston trees are being as well cared for as 
any, and that hereafter the State's financial assistance will be 
relatively small if any. During the past five years the reim- 
bursement from the State to Boston has been $82,000, and the 
city has also been at a very heavy expense. Now that the 
city superintendent, Mr. Wm. F. Long, has the work well in 
hand with modern spraying equipment, and a corps of trained 
men, this work should henceforth be kept up to its present 
standard at relatively small expense. It certainly would be 
suicidal to allow any indifference to creep in that would tend 
to lessen this work in Boston in the future. Trees are certainly 
one of Boston's greatest assets, and now that the conditions 
are so favorable, it is to be hoped that all Bostonians will up- 
hold the work of Mr. John H. Dillon, chairman. Park and 
Recreation Department, and Mr. Wm. F. Long, the moth 
superintendent. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



63 



It is with pleasure that I pubUsh the following report of Mr. 
Long, which points out more in detail Boston's present con- 
dition : — ■ 

Dec. 19, 1914. 

Dear Sir: — In response to your request for a report of the state of 
the g}Tsy and browTi-tail moth infestations in the city of Boston, includ- 
ing Hyde Park, I would say that up to the present date conditions have 
been improved about 80 per cent, since we first commenced the suppression 
work. During each of the last two 3'ears we have been able to cover entire 
city and have had no defohation. In the past year, particularly, we have 
made such good headway that we are considering the advisability of doing 
away with, winter destruction and depending entirely upon the spraying 
treatment. ' 

The woodland conditions of Boston are very good — infestations by 
gypsy moths very hght, broT\Ti-tail moths, hardly sltij. 

Hyde Park, which was so badly infested, is in excellent condition at 
the present time; so, also, are the woodlands of Dorchester and West 
Roxbur>\ CharlestowTi has no gynpsy infestations and a very hght brown- 
tail moth annoyance. East Boston has practically no moth troubles, 
Boston proper has a very hght brown-tail infestation. South Boston has 
light quantity brown-tail but no gypsy disturbance. Conditions in Rox- 
burj^ are similar to those prevailing in South Boston. Brighton has very 
light infestations of both gypsy and bro\\Ti-tail moths. Jamaica Plain 
and Forest Hills sections have very hght gy^sy moth infestations. Dor- 
chester has a light general infestation of g^^sy, but very few of brown-tail 
moths. 

A section of our parkway has a bad infestation of gypsy moths, but it 
can be handled easily. It seems as if all the caterpillars in the neighbor- 
hood selected this particular season. 

During this past yesLT we have been able to do considerable tree work, 
cutting out, cementing cavities, etc. The cement work was done princi- 
pally in the East Boston section, but the removal and priming was done 
hberally all over the city, also the roadside work. 

Yery truly yours, 

WiLLLiM F. Long, 

Foreman. 

Moth Work in Brookline. 
The town of Brookline has always been ready and willing, 
not only to co-operate in the moth-suppression work, but has 
always paid for all expenditures made in the town, although 
the town could have come under the reimbursement head. 
Both the moth superintendent, ]Mr. E. B. Dane, and the 



64 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



deputy, Mr. Daniel G. Lacy, have put the proper spirit 
into the work, and they have had a large territory to cover. 
It is believed that the following report of the work in this- 
town will be of interest: — 

Brookline, Mass., Dec. 18, 1914. 

Dear Sir: — The follo^^dng is a report of the condition of the town of 
Brookline relative to the gypsy and brown-tail moth situation. This 
past year the sum of $21,000 was appropriated by the town for insect 
work on the roadside trees and for private propertj^ 

Last winter we had a serious infestation of brown-tail moths, but from 
January to the middle of March we covered the town and removed the 
nests. The gypsy moth situation last winter was rather a scattered infes- 
tation. This past summer all the roadside tr^es in the town, about 65 
miles in all, were carefully sprayed, and private property which was in- 
fested. A recent examination shows us more egg clusters of the g3T)sy 
moths in isolated cases than last year, but on the whole the situation is 
improved. 

During the coming winter the entire town, including both roadside and 
all private property and woodland areas, will be carefully creosoted, and 
sprayed next spring. 

We have very few brown-tail moths this year, and so far in our winter 
work, covering a period of five weeks, we have not found more than lOQ 
nests of this insect. Last spring we had a considerable number of both 
varieties of the tent caterpillars, but prompt spraying remedied this 
condition. 

In our recommendation to the town for the ensuing year the amount 
to be asked for will be larger than this past year, owing to the increase in 
wages paid, and acceptance by the town of the act giving the employees 
two weeks' vacation. 

The moth situation in Brookline is well under control, as will be shown 
by the fact that the past two years we did not receive a single complaint 
on the defoHation of any tree in the town. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Daniel G. Lacy, 
Superintendent. 

Moth Field Day in Lincoln. 
On July 7 a field day was held in Lincoln on the estate of 
Gen. Charles Francis Adams. This splendid estate comprises 
upwards of 600 acres, a large portion of which is covered with 
forest growth. This estate afforded one of the best opportuni- 
ties to demonstrate moth-suppression work, as it contains a 
great variety of conditions. One of the finest so-called primeval 
growths of white pine is found here, while on other sections of 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 73. 



65 



the estate some magnificent specimens of oak and chestnuts 
can be seen. Mr. Adams has been reforesting and underplant- 
ing, as well as thinning and carrying on general forestry- 
management, for several years. 

Before the moths began to be destructive in Lincoln Mr. 
Adams conferred with the State Forester, and co-operative 
work was undertaken. He has a modern spraying equipment, 
and was able, through modern methods, to retain the foliage 
on his trees while adjoining properties have been in most cases 
stripped. 

In order to facilitate matters, and call attention to the vary- 
ing methods and conditions, placards were posted at various 
places over the estate, and a printed program explained each. 

The State Forester wishes here to acknowledge the splendid 
interest that Mr. Adams has shown in this work, and to thank 
him in behalf of the Commonwealth for his hospitality on this 
occasion, as even the delicious luncheon for all attending was 
furnished by him. 

Protecting and increasing Birds. 

There is an increasing interest on the part of our people in 
doing what we can to encourage the bird life of our State, and 
this is commendable. Trees and birds are closely associated 
in the minds of all naturalists. State and national laws are 
being enacted to regulate wild life generally, and none are more 
interested in this work than foresters. 

The birds are the guardians of our forest and shade trees 
and the orchards of the farmer. They are eternally waging a 
relentless warfare upon the insect hosts that prey upon the 
foliage, fruit and even the trunks and branches of the trees. 
In return for this safeguarding the trees themselves offer their 
hospitable branches as nesting sites for the birds, and stretch 
over them a canopy of green as a shelter from the oppressive 
rays of the sun and as a protection against the downpour of 
rain. 

Some species of birds do not build nests among the branches, 
but excavate holes in the decayed trunks and branches of trees, 
and still others, not able to excavate homes for themselves, use 
these vacated apartments of the woodpecker family, and also 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the nesting boxes offered by their human friends. All of the 
birds having? this nesting habit are of the most beneficial species, 
from the fact that their food is composed largely of insects, and 
we should in every possible manner encourage their numbers to 
increase. 

Dead trees and decayed branches are a menace to the health 
of the forest, and are removed by the forester, who at the same 
time unwittingly destroys the future nesting site of a wood- 
pecker. In order to provide nesting places, and at the same 
time promote the welfare of the forest by eliminating these 
plague spots of beetle and fungus, we must place in open spots, 
and along the borders of the woods, nesting boxes. 

It is the purpose of the State Forester to interest woodland 
owners and others in building bird houses, or purchasing them 
from reliable dealers, and seeing that all localities take some 
part in this fascinating work. Mr. Bradford A. Scudder, sec- 
retary of the ]\Iassachusetts Fish and Game Protective Associa- 
tion, gives us the proper dimensions and descriptions necessary 
to build various kinds of bird boxes. Mr. Scudder and his 
association are very active in the work of caring for birds, 
having distributed tons of food for them in winter and offering 
for sale at small cost bird boxes of all kinds, etc.; hence the 
data which follow are reliable : — 

The proper inside dimensions for nesting boxes for the 
following species are as follows : — 

Bluebird. — Depth of box, 10 inches; floor, 5 by 5 inches; entrance, 1^ 
inches; lower edge of entrance, 7 inches above the floor. 

Chickadee. — Depth of box, 10 inches; floor, 4 by 4 inches; entrance, 
Ij inches; lower edge of entrance, 7 inches above the floor. 

Flicker. — Depth of box, 20 inches; floor, 6 b}^ 6 inches; entrance, 2f 
inches in diameter; lower edge of entrance, 16 inches above the floor. 

Tree Swallow. — Depth of box, 7 inches; floor, 5 by 5 inches; entrance 
1\ inches in diameter; lower edge of entrance, 4 inches above the floor. 

The four species enumerated above are the ones most Kkely 
to occupy the nesting boxes, for they are found in large num- 
bers throughout Massachusetts. The white-breasted nuthatch 
and the house wren are not as abundant as the birds just 
mentioned, but nevertheless each of these should be offered a 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



67 



home. The bluebird box will suffice for the nuthatch, and that 
of the chickadee for the wren. 

Pine lumber seven-eighths of an inch in thickness, planed 
on one side only, is good material to use in the construction of 
these boxes. The rough side of the board should form the 
inside of the box. Stain the outside, only, a neutral tint of 
brown or gray. The entrance hole in each instance is circular, 
and should be cut with an extension bit, which is easily set for 
the varying size of entrance. Cut the entrance on an upward 
slant, rather than at direct right angle with the surface. This 
prevents the rain from driving in, and also simulates the door- 
way of the woodpecker architect, whose work we are copying. 
The roof should project an inch and a half in front, but be 
flush with the sides and back. The top should be removable, 
so that at the end of the season, after the departure of the 
birds, the box may be cleaned and any egg clusters of moths 
that are sometimes deposited there destroyed. 

Each nesting box should have a layer of coarse, dry sawdust 
to the depth of 2 inches placed in the bottom. This is an 
important detail and should not be overlooked, especially in 
the box designed for the flicker. 

Nesting boxes may be fastened to the trunk of a tree, or one 
of its large branches, care being taken that no intervening 
branches will prevent an easy ingress and exit by the occupants 
of the box. About the borders of fenced land boxes may be 
fastened to the tops of light poles, 12 feet in length, and these 
poles may then be fastened to posts in the fence, using lag 
screws or heavy wire spikes for the purpose. Tree swallows 
and bluebirds will tenant these boxes and gather their food 
from the insect hosts of field and orchard. 

Do not place the boxes too near one another. Birds of the 
same species are apt to dispute ownership, so let a space of at 
least 200 feet intervene between the boxes. 

Bird boxes should be placed at a height of not less than 8 
or more than 20 feet above the ground. Boxes for the chicka- 
dee and house wren may be placed at the first-mentioned 
height, but for all others a height of at least 15 feet is better. 

Bird boxes should have the entrance face the south or south- 
west, thus preventing the beating in of rain during violent, 



68 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



cold, northeasterly storms that frequently occur during the 
nesting period. 

In placing the nesting boxes in position, have them as nearly 
vertical as possible. Should they incline at all, let them tip 
slightly forward rather than backvvards. 

Boxes designed for bluebirds and tree swallows, and placed 
in the open where they are exposed to the full glare of the sun, 
should be painted white, and also have a few quarter-inch 
holes bored in the sides, about an inch below the top, for 
ventilation. 

Wood is the only suitable material for the construction of 
nesting boxes, and boards are obtainable anywhere throughout 
this land of ours, so that by following the above instructions 
the farmer, the schoolboy and the commuter may construct a 
bird house that will be accepted by the birds, and at the same 
time enjoy both the pleasure and the satisfaction of doing 
the work himself. 

Placing the nesting boxes in position after completion does 
not complete the responsibility of the landlord. The farmer 
plants corn, but in order to reap a harvest he must remove the 
weeds that spring up. The same applies to the bird houses. 
Without watchfulness on our part they will be pre-empted by 
English sparrows and squirrels, and an unceasing warfare must 
be waged upon these pests. Number your bird houses and 
keep a record of the number and kind of species that use 
them during the season. Numbers may be placed at the foot 
of the tree or pole upon which the box is placed, or on the 
bottom of the box itself. 

The insect that birds seem to care the least about, unfor- 
tunately, is the gypsy moth. Many observations and experi- 
ments have been made with a purpose of determining to what 
extent birds can be depended upon to aid in the control of this 
insect. It is generally conceded, however, that the gypsy moth 
is so hairy and, in fact, bristly during its larval stage, when the 
birds would naturally seek it for food, that it really is objec- 
tionable and distasteful to them. 

One of the insects that at the present time is very destruc- 
tive, especially to our shade trees, is the leopard moth. This 
insect develops into a large, fleshy, boring larva which lies in 
the branches or trunks of the trees, and the woodpeckers are 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



69 



our best assistants in devouring them. These birds should be 
encouraged as much as possible. 

There has been much concern in the past about the effect of 
spraying with arsenate of lead upon bird life, but after a careful 
study of the subject by ]\Ir. Forbush, the State Ornithologist, 
he became convinced, as published in his report of 1909, that 
spraying was a benefit rather than a hindrance to bird life. 
Where the trees are not sprayed, and defoliation takes place, 
the birds are the first to leave. Where the foliage is retained 
by spraying, thus giving shade and protection, here birds are 
found in large numbers. 

For further information on bird-house construction the 
reader is referred to Farmers' Bulletin No. 609, United States 
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. This bulletin 
is sent free upon application and is very valuable. 

A new handbook, "The Conservation of our Wild Life," 
published by the Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective 
Association, price 35 cents, treats on methods of attracting and 
increasing our useful birds and the establishment of sanctuaries. 

For detailed information on birds in general, of course the 
reader is referred to Mr. E. H. Forbush, the Massachusetts 
State Ornithologist, Room 136, State House, Boston, Mass. 

After writing the above the following letter was received 
from Mr. E. C. Ware, Wareham, Mass., which explain? itself: — 

Dear Sir: — I have some new circulars in the printer's hands at the 
present time. Boxes now made are for flickers, bluebirds, swallows, wrens 
and chickadees, and I intend to start on martin boxes in the near future. 
Price is 35 cents for all boxes except the flicker box, which is 75 cents. All 
boxes are complete, ready to put up, and stained with a brown oil stain. 
Twenty-five or more boxes in one order can allow a discount of 25 per 
cent. Roofs of all boxes are covered with a good grade of roofing paper over 
the wood, and the entrance hole is faced with zinc to keep the squirrels 
from doing injury to the box. 

The Army Worm Outbreak. 
One of our native insects which at times appears so abun- 
dantly as to be regarded by the farmer and agriculturalist as an 
extremely dangerous pest, and one against the ravages of 
which prompt and vigorous action should be taken, is the 
army worm, Heliophila unipuncta. This insect is found from 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the Atlantic Ocean to the Rocky Mountains and from Canada 
to Texas. Fortunately, serious outbreaks of this species are 
not frequent in Massachusetts. 

Beginning about the middle of July, 1914, the State Fores- 
ter's office began to receive, through the mail and otherwise, 
many specimens of this insect sent in by citizens from several 
sections of the State for identification. The large number of 
insects thus received, together with the receipt of many letters 
describing it, made it obvious that the State was suffering from 
an invasion of the dreaded army worm. 

On July 28 His Excellency Governor Walsh, recognizing the 
importance of adopting remedial measures to relieve conditions, 
addressed to the State Forester the following letter: — 

Mr. F. W. Rane, State Forester, 6 Beacon Street, Boston. 

Dear Mr. Rane : — My attention has been called to the fact that 
serious injury is being wrought in various sections of the Commonwealth 
by the presence of the sumy worm, which is attacking and destroying 
crops. 

I am of the opinion that your department, acting in co-operation with 
the Board of Agriculture, should at once request a sufficient number of 
your local moth superintendents to advise with farmers and others in the 
communities affected as to the best means of suppressing this destructive 
pest. 

I understand the State Board of Agriculture and your own. department 
have already sent out a large number of notices containing instructions, 
but it would seem that the situation now would require the employment 
of active agents in the various sections. 

In view of the fact that you have no funds available for this work, I am 
convinced that this is such an emergency that would justify my asking 
the Executive Council to suppl}^ the sum of money necessary to direct 
the work of suppressing this pest. 

I would also suggest that sprajdng apparatus owned wholly or in part 
by the town, or jointly with the State, should be brought into use as far 
as possible in carrying on this work. 

In conclusion, I would also ask that the gypsy moth field agents and 
inspectors employed hy your department be given instructions to aid 
and co-operate with the local moth superintendents in the infested areas. 
I would suggest that the widest pubhcity be given to the presence of the 
army worm in the Commonwealth, because it is a well-known fact that if 
precautions are taken the harm and injury wrought by this pest can be 
minimized. 

Yours very truly, 

David I. Walsh. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



Upon receipt of the above letter the State Forester caused 
a circular letter to be sent to the mayors of cities and select- 
men of towns, informing them of the purpose of the Forestry 
Department to co-operate with them in suppressing the pest. 
The form of the letter follows : — 

Gentlemen: — By request of His Excellency Governor Walsh, this 
department will co-operate with cities and towns in suppressing the so- 
called army worm, which in some sections of the State is causing serious, 
damage to crops. Local superintendents will be asked by this department 
to aid property o^\^le^s in suppressing tliis insect. If it is found necessary 
to incur an}^ expense m cariying on this work such expense will be borne: 
by the Commonwealth. Local superintendents have been advised by 
agents of this department that all bills, after being approved by the divi- 
sion superintendent, must be forwarded to the office of the State Forester. 
It is distinctly understood that "no part of such cost shall be borne by the 
city or town wherein the work is performed. 

Yery truly yours, 

F. W. Rane, 
State Forestei\ 

Instructions were immediately given to the State field agents^ 
employed in the gypsy and brown-tail moth work, to render to 
cities, towns and private owners within their respective dis- 
tricts all possible aid in the work of extermination. 

The thorough training of the gypsy moth men in insect- 
suppression work, and the fact that the moth department of 
each city and town is well equipped with spraying apparatus, 
made it possible to apply quickly and effectively the necessary 
measures of suppression. The presence of the army worm was 
reported to the State Forester's office from the following- 



named towns : — 






Abington. 


Brockton. 


Fairhaven. 


Arlington. 


Carver. 


Fall River. 


Athol. 


Chatham. 


Falmouth. 


Attleboro. 


Chelmsford. 


Gloucester. 


Barnstable. 


Cohasset. 


Halifax. 


Berkley. 


Dartmouth. 


Hanover. 


Boston. 


Dighton. 


Hanson. 


Bourne. 


Duxbury. 


Harvard. 


Braintree. 


East Bridgewater. 


Harwich. 


Brewster. 


East on. 


Hingham. 


Brighton. 


Edgartown. 


Holbrooke 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Longineadow. 

Mansfield. 

iMcclford. 

Middleborough. 

Milford. 

Nantucket. 

Newbury. 

Nortli Andover. 

Northbridge. 

Norton. 

Norw'ell. 



Oak Bluffs. 

Pembroke. 

PljTnouth. 

Pljanpton. 

Raynliam. 

Rochester. 

Rockland. 

Rockport. 

SalisburJ^ 

Scituate. 

Seekonk. 



Somerset. 
Taunton. 
Tisbury. 
Topsfield. 



Wareham. 
West Boylston. 
West Bridgewater. 



Weymouth, 

Whitman. 

Worcester. 



State Forester's Exhibit at the Panama-Pacific Exposi- 



An appropriation of $3,000 was made this department by 
the Board of Managers for Massachusetts for making an exhibit 
at San Francisco. This has been spent in getting together the 
following material : — 

(1) A large reUef map of the w^hole State in w^hich the forest 
and agricultural areas are show^n. The forest-fire lookout 
stations are all located on this map by miniature tow^ers; also 
the various State and private reservations are painted in. The 
State Forester was fortunate in securing the services of Mr. 
Warren Manning, landscape architect, of Boston, who had full 
charge of the construction. This map is 15 feet long by 6 feet 
wide, and is the exact size of the United States geological maps. 
This map will prove of great value after the exposition is over, 
as it can be used for many purposes by this department. 

A duplication of this map w^as also made for the State Board 
of Agriculture, w^hich has been colored to show^ the lands 
adapted for general agriculture in contrast to the present con- 
ditions as show^n on the forestry map. The tw-o maps are to 
be in adjoining booths at the exposition, w^hich w^ill add to 
their value. 

(2) A fully equipped Massachusetts forest-fire w^agon, similar 
to those used in our towms. 

(3) A miniature steel lookout station of our ow^n design. 

(4) A large-sized, fully equipped power sprayer, a facsimile 
of those constructed and used in the moth w^ork in Massa- 
chusetts. 



TION. 



1915.] 



FOLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



73 



(5) Two cases of colored transparencies, each containing 48 
pictures, showing ^lassachusetts forestry and moth conditions 
and work. These pictures are each 8 by 10 inches in size, and 
electric fixtures are so arranged that the artificial light brings 
out their coloring. 

(6) Several large sketches of t^'pical Massachusetts scenery 
painted in colors by Mr. Manning will be used on the wall 
space. 

(7) Various maps and placards, showing forestry data, pub- 
lications, etc. 

This material is all of such a nature that it can be used in 
this department when the exposition is over. 

Xatioxal Associatiox of Coxservatiox ComilSSIOXERS. 

The State Forester was elected secretary of this association 
at its meeting in Washington, D. C, in 1913, and the annual 
meeting this year was held at Xew Orleans, La., at the invita- 
tion of the State Conservation Commission of Louisiana. The 
meetings were held at the St. Charles Hotel, X'ew Orleans, 
from Monday, X'ovember 16, to Thursday, X'ovember 19, 
after which the Louisiana Conservation Commission extended 
invitation to the delegates for a trip to the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi River, where an exceptional opportunity was offered to 
see and study wild life and the fish and oyster industries of 
the section. 

The subject, ''Forests as X'urseries of Wild Life," was the 
topic on the program discussed by the author. The subject of 
wild life, and the importance of national and State laws regu- 
lating the same, particularly in the case of migratory birds, 
was given due consideration. 

The MASSACHrsETTS State Forest Folict. 
Each year has seen a gradual step forw'ard in our forestry 
work in Massachusetts, until sufficient fundamental legislation 
has accumulated so that it is not boasting, it is believed, to 
say that we now have in this State a well-rounded-out forest 
policy. It was with the idea of calling attention to this fact 
that the State Forester prepared and delivered the following 



74 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



paper before the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural 
Science, which held its annual meeting at Washington, D. C, 
on Nov. 10, 1914, a copy of which is as follows: — 

The ^Iassachusetts State Forestry Work. 

It is believed that we are still woefully lacking in the United States 
in being unable to show more results from the practice of modern forestry. 
In analyzing the situation it caimot be attributed to lack of enthusiasm 
and wiUing-ness on the part of the men in the profession. For some reason 
the o\mers of the larger tracts of forest lands seem interested, but non- 
active, and real operating lumbermen change their methods relatively 
slowly. PubUc, national and State undertakings in forestry, from the 
standpoint of constructive and businesshke methods, seem to be lacking 
in vigor. Lack of funds to do ^ith would appear to be the trouble; but 
why should tliis be, if the investment vdll warrant the expenditure? I 
beheve the greatest weakness in forestrj^ at present is the lack of stalwart 
men able to convince our Legislatures, business corporations and men of 
affairs of the great importance of doing something on a much larger and 
more comprehensive scale than we have yet accomphshed. Planting a 
thousand or two trees, or thinning and practicing modern forestry 
methods on a 5-acre tract here and there, are but drops in the bucket as 
compared to what ought to be undertaken in forestry in our various States 
and throughout the nation. Had we attempted to dig the Panama Canal 
under the same momentmu that we are practicing forestry to-daj^, it is 
questionable .'f it would ever have been completed; we, however, are 
allo'v^'ing our lands adapted for splendid forest crops to he idle, and worse 
than that, not even forest fires are kept imder control. 

Up to the present time most American foresters have looked vdse, 
given a great deal of advice, T\Titten pamphlets and books, and kept up 
a very good propaganda of forestry interest, but we have still, it is be- 
Heved, a great lack of results that ^^11 come onl}^ when the fundamental 
problems have been given deeper root. 

In calling attention to the work in forestry in ^Massachusetts I preface 
my remarks thus because it has not been a question of object lessons, 
examples and demonstrations to follow, but a working out of our State 
sj'stem b}^ our own efforts. 

Before the States began to have foresters, the United States Forest 
Service offered advice and assistance thi^oughout the nation. During this 
time many examinations and recommendations hy experts were made for 
Massachusetts people, but strange to say, when these same documents 
were checked up for results later it was found very little had been accom- 
phshed. The work on behalf of the forest service was well executed, and 
the o^\Tiers were evidently interested in the beginning, but the work 
failed to be carried out simply because it was not followed up and kept 
ahve by further personal contact. One tiling has been conclusive thus 
far in our experience in ^Massachusetts, and that is, if anj-thing tangible 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



75 



is to result in forestry work it must first be demonstrated by technical 
men right in the State; then our farmers and lumbermen will know we 
are advocating what can be accomphshed from actual experience. The 
more real and definite examples a State forester can have scattered about 
his State, the sooner will he be able to make headway toward bettering 
general forestry conditions. Object lessons not only educate, but encom- 
age action. 

During the past eight years, year by year, through kindly consideration 
and definite legislation, the members of our General Court, enthusiasti- 
cally headed by our pubhc-spirited Governors, have given us statute 
after statute, until lam pleased to say I beheve we now have a thoroughly 
well-rounded-out Massachusetts State forest pohc3\ I am frank to say 
that I know of no State in the Union wherein the individual who cares to 
practice modern forestry can get more co-operation on the part of the 
State than in ^Massachusetts. "\Miile it is not the State's pohcy to actually 
give anj^thing away, we nevertheless are so sohcitous over ultimate suc- 
cess that we are doing everything possible to encourage our people to 
practice modern forestry. 

I do not care to weary you hy citing all of our various laws which are 
the foundations of our State forest poUcy, as they can be had in their 
printed form, but I do wish to point out briefly what is being done for 
forestrs^ in Massachusetts. 

(1) Expert forestry sen'ices are given at no expense, except travel and 
subsistence, to anybody in iVlassachusetts. Blank form.s for requesting 
such assistance are available from the State Forester's office, Boston. 

(2) In addition to expert advice, the State Forester's office has pub- 
fished, for free distribution, bulletins on the subjects of chief interest, as 
follows : — 

Forest Thinnings. 

Reforestation and Nurserj' Work. 

Mensuration of White Pine. 

Forest Fire Control and Management. 

The Chestnut Bhght Disease. 

"VMiat is Forestry. 

How and when to collect White Pine Seed. 
Forest Taxation, etc. 

(3) Organization. — The State Forester has general supervision. He 
is given trained assistants in the various branches represented in State 
work. The assistant in forest-fire work is given the title of State Fire 
Warden. Each tovm and city in the State has an officer kno^n as forest 
warden. This officer is appointed b}^ the officials of the to^\Ti or cit}^, and 
his appointment is subject to the approval of the State Forester. The 
local forest warden is clothed with enough power to get results in his 
jurisdiction. Some of his powers and duties are as foUows: — 

(a) Xo warrants can be paid for fighting forest fires -^-ithout his ap- 
proval. 

(6) May compel am^ citizen between the ages of eighteen and fifty-one 



76 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



to assist in fighting forest fires, or may compel the use of teams and imple- 
ments of another for similar use. 

(c) No fires are set out of doors from March to December ^\'ithout a 
pennit from him. 

(d) The power to arrest without a warrant where persons are caught 
setting fires. 

(e) Appoints his deputies. 

{/) Has charge of local forest-fire apparatus. 
(g) Pastes forest fire notices. 

(/?) Has responsibility of controlhng brush and slash disposal. 
(0 Gives assistance to assessors when called upon to secure data for 
forest taxation. 

The State is divided into four parts, and each of these divisions is 
looked after by a so-called district forest warden. This man is appointed 
by the State Fire Warden, and is supphed with a runabout auto. It is 
the duty of the district forest wardens to supervise the w^ork of fire pro- 
tection within their respective districts. They have charge of the obser- 
vation stations within their districts, receive reports from the observers 
each week, and are at all times subject to the call of each observer to 
attend any disastrous fire. They shall visit all towTis ^^atliin their districts, 
instructing the town forest wardens and deputy forest wardens relative to 
their duties, making such recommendations as in their judgment will 
improve the service. They shall inspect all forest fire-fighting apparatus, 
seeing that the same is in perfect condition and in readiness for an imme- 
diate response to an alarm of fire. They shall visit the selectmen of the 
different towns, advising them as to the necessity of properly providing 
their towns wdth forest fire-fighting apparatus. They shall report the 
number of each locomotive operating in their district not properly equipped 
-with, spark arrester, as required by law, and whose ash pan and grate are 
not sufficiently protected from setting fires. They shall submit to this 
oflSce a weekly report shovang the work accomphshed by them each day, 
and shall report to this office {xny inefficiency or neglect of any observation 
man, forest warden or deputy. 

The surface of the State of Massachusetts is of a rolhng nature and 
particularly well adapted for fire lookout stations, by utihzing its higher 
hills and mountains. Puring the past three years 26 of these stations 
have been in operation throughout the State. At first improvised tow^ers 
were used, but now substantial ones of steel construction ranging in size 
from 40 feet high, which is the standard, to 75 feet. The accompanying 
map indicates their distribution over the State. 

The position of obsen^er on the lookout station is the most important 
position under our present forest fire system. The future preser^^ation of 
the forests of the State of Massachusetts depends largely on the men in 
charge of these stations. If they are ahve to the situation, and appreciate 
the importance of the position they hold, disastrous fires within this 
State \^dll be eUminated. 

Each observ^er has under his supervision over 400,000 acres of land, a 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



77 



large percentage of which is valuable forest land. He is equipped with a 
field glass and the best map that can be obtained, and has the names and 
telephone numbers of everj^ towTi forest warden and deputy forest 
warden -^^ithin his territory. There has also been placed in each station 
a time-clock, to be punched every half hour, shov>dng the exact time the 
obser^-er is at his station, and the daily slips are to be forwarded, with the 
weekly report, to the State Fire Warden at the end of each week. The 
clock system affords a protection not onl}' to the State, but to the man in 
charge of the observation station as weU. Each observ^ation man is di- 
rectl}^ under the supervision of the district forest warden, and shall for- 
ward him a copy of his weekly report. He must become thoroughly famil- 
iar with the territory under his supervision, studying the map and country 
carefulh', becoming familiar with the names of the different mountains, 
hills, streams, ponds, roads, trails, railroads and trolley Hues. He should 
know tlie local names which prcA^ail in the region, the settlements where 
help ma}^ be collected quickly in case of fire, and the telephone connec- 
tions in all directions from the station. All such information \^.ill assist 
in getting help to a fire as soon as smoke arises. 

The weekh^ report has printed instructions on the back. This report 
is to be filled out each day, regardless of whether any fibres are observed 
or not. If there are no fires, one line should be used each day, showing 
weather conditions, wind, etc. All fu*es obsei'ved must be reported. The 
observer must be yery particular about the location of a fire, tim.e ob- 
ser\^ed, who notified, time of notification and time extinguished. He should 
keep his telephone in working order, calling up the central office each 
morning and after storms, to determine whether or not the fine is in 
working order. If it fails to work he should go over the fine and try to 
find breaks, and get it in working condition as promptly as possible. He 
should not open, disconnect or interfere \vith. the telephone instrument in 
any way until he is absolutely satisfied that the line is not in perfect order. 
If it becomes necessary to examine the instrument, unless he is perfectly 
famihar with the construction and repair of the telephone he should not 
interfere with it in an}" wa}^, but get a competent telephone m^an to make 
the necessary repairs. In case of inattention of any of the town forest 
wardens or their deputies he should notifj^ the district forest warden and 
the State Forester's office. 

(4) Forestry Conventions. — In order to enable the various officials to 
keep in close touch with the forest wardens throughout the State, and 
also to enable neighboring groups of wardens to discuss methods, equip- 
ment, etc., the State Forester is allowed to spend not exceeding $2,000 for 
conventions during a j'ear. AMiile forest fires, their control and manage- 
ment form a vevy important part of the program, such subjects as 
reforestation, thinning and general forestry improvement practices are 
discussed. 

(5) State Aid for Forest-Fire Equipment. — Massachusetts expects its 
towns with a valuation of over §1,750,000 to be able to support its owti 
forest-fire equipment, but aU towns having a valuation below this amount 



78 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the State agrees to reimburse for 50 per cent, of an expenditure not to 
exceed S500. This has encoiu-aged our poorer to^iis to greater protec- 
tion. The forest-fire lookout stations have been built usually on the co- 
operatiAT plan, the toMTis covered pacing one-half and the State the 
remainder. 

(6) Utilization. — No more important part of forestiy needs attention 
than does that of finding the best use for all products. IMassachu setts 
was the first State to pubhsh a bulletm on ''Forest UtiHzation.'' This 
was done in co-operation with the United States Forest Senice. We are 
at present continuing these studies, and have some very promising experi- 
ments being carried on, 

(7) Brush and Slash. — One of the great causes for the larger forest 
fires, and hence those of greatest damage, has come from fu'e getting into 
old slashings or brush left from operating lots. A law was enacted last 
year, taking effect Jan. 1, 1915, making it compulsory- for every- one 
operating a tract of forest land to leave a 40-foot strip free of slash or 
brush, as a natural fire prevention line, along the highways, railroad loca- 
tions and all abutters' lands where there is danger from fire. 

(8) Railroad Fires and Railroads. — A State law compels all railroad 
engines to carry- spark arresters, and by an order from the Pubhc Service 
Commission aU engines ruiming in ^Massachusetts are subject to examin- 
ation by agents deputized for tliis work. Tlie commission has a special 
man in charge of this inspection, and the State Fire Warden also per- 
manently assigns one of his deputies to overcoming railroad fires. They 
are experts on the inspection of spark arresters, ash pans, grates, etc. 

The signal for all forest fires is a whistle of one long and tlu^ee short 
blasts, and all engineers are required hy law to comply with it. 

By a ^Massachusetts law all expenses a town or city may have incmTed 
in extinguishing railroad fires are reimbursed by the raihoads responsible. 
This is in addition to the property damages themselves. 

Since these enactments far better co-operation has resulted, and rail- 
road fires are rapidly diminishing. 

At our forest warden conventions the raihoads are always represented. 

(9) Forest Taxation. — Few subjects have received more agitation in 
^lassachusetts than this one. An amendment of the State Constitution 
— a process of several y^ears — was found necessary, followed by confirma- 
tion on the part of the people. Fast year, however, the recommendations 
of a special forest taxation commission were adopted. At present, there- 
fore, we have a modern system of taxing forest lands. Briefly, there is an 
annual tax upon the land at cut-over valuation, and then a so-caUed 
products tax is assessed when the products are harvested. This law 
safeguards any one who desires to invest in forestiy from being imposed 
upon, and, as well, expects from the owner recognized methods of culture. 

(10) Reforestation Assistance to Owners. — A ^Massachusetts law is in 
force wherebj- any one haying a tract of forest land adapted to reforesta- 
tion may, by tm-ning the title oy-er to the State Forester, temporarily hay-e 
it reforested for him at cost. The tract is then supervised by the State 
Forester imtil the oyvner cares to redeem the same. The period for re- 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



79 



demption is ten years, and thereafter it becomes the propert}' of the 
State. This law has been yery popular, and has enabled the State For- 
ester to start forestry work in many sections where individuals would not 
have the time or feel experienced enough to undertake the work. As the 
law contemplated scattering the work over the State as demonstrations 
and object lessons, the tracts thus planted range from 10 to 80 acres. 
The State in some instances has bought tracts for such use, but in this 
case the law restricts the acreage in any one year to 80 acres. "When 
land has been thus handled for the individual, and has been redeemed, 
the owner is required to thereafter handle the plantation according to 
modem forestry- methods. 

In doing this work the State Forester of coiu-se is anxious to demon- 
strate and satisf}' the owner that the work is economicall}'- and properly 
done. This encourages others to do similar work who do not care to turn 
the title over to the State. Either method is getting results, and that is 
the goal in \-iew. 

(11) Causes and Numbers of Forest Fires. — Each season we have se- 
cured more definite data as to causes of fires, and tlirough a better check- 
ing up system practically all fires are now reported to the State Fire 
Warden. Blank forms are filled out by the forest warden after each fire, 
and mailed to the State Forester's office. With the causes of forest fires 
well understood it is less difficult to study out ways and means of obvi- 
ating them. 

(12) State Forests. — Our recent Legislature enacted a law empowering 
the Governor to appoint two State Forest Cohunissioners who, with the 
State Forester, are to purchase lands for State forests. The sum of S90,000 
was appropriated for this purpose. The commission is restricted in the 
purchase price of the proposed forests. They are not allowed to pay 
over So an acre on the average. The pohcy of the State is to estabhsh 
these proposed forests on lands now improductive and hkely to remain 
so, did the State not step in and reclaim them for forestry. Already the 
commission has gone over the State quite thoroughly, and many pro- 
spective tracts are in view. These tracts will give the State Forester an 
opportunity to demonstrate forestry- on a more pretentious scale. 

(13) Stat^ Forest Nurseries. — The State of Massachusetts grows its 
own small trees. A nursery of 7 acres is estabUshed on the farm of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, and another of 4 acres 
is located at Barnstable on the Cape. Last year our inventory showed 
7,000,000 trees, and our seed beds are increased in numbers this season. 

A nurserj' has been started at the Massachusetts State Farm at Bridge- 
water, and this will be enlarged upon for transplant stock next season. 
With the advent of State-o\sTied forests we vdH need a large output of 
3^oung stock. 

(14) Lectures and Exhibitions. — Tte State Forester and his assistants 
are called upon for talks and lectures by many organizations, colleges, 
schools, boards of trade, etc., and it has been through this medium that 
many people have become interested in forestry. The State Forester 
alone gave fifty-four talks and lectures one season. This season the 



so 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



department has a new feature in demonstrating its work by moving 
pictures. Numerous exhibits are made of the State work each j^ear at 
various fairs, food shows, sportsmen's shows, etc. A State Forester's 
exhibit is being prepared at the present time for the Panama-Pacific 
Exposition at San Francisco next year. 

(15) Other reguhitions worthy of mention are: — 

(a) Power of the Governor to issue a proclamation closing the open 
season for hunting in dry times. This action was taken in the State this 
fall for the fii'st time in many years. 

{b) Boy scouts are voluntarily becoming our best forest-fire fighters. 
Co-operative encouragement here brings remarkable results. 

(c) Fish and game deputies have the same authority in many respects 
as forest wardens. They are required to report all fires to the forest 
wardens. 

(d) The rural mail carriers who penetrate practically every forest sec- 
tion of the State are required to report all forest fires to the forest wardens 
in their territory. Three hundred carriers throughout the State, traveling 
a total mileage of 6,000 miles each day, are of great assistance in getting 
help to extinguish fires in their incipiency. 

In conclusion, I trust I have at least given you a general idea of what 
the Massachusetts State forestry work is. Much more might be pointed 
out, as, for example, the great undertaking in the suppression of the 
gypsy and the brown-tail moths, which Massachusetts is doing at great 
expense, but wliich has already been discussed by the writer before this 
association. 

The most important point I wish to m_ake is that the forestry work in 
Massachusetts has progressed, and now that enough laws and general 
regulations are at hand for encouragement in forestry it is believed we 
shall from now on see more rapid development along modern forestry 
fines. 

Lectures and Addresses. 
The unabated interest felt by the citizens generally through- 
out the State in forestry matters is evidenced by the con- 
tinual demands made upon the department by public-spirited 
organizations for lectures on the subject. While it was impos- 
sible to accept all the invitations received, speakers were sent 
to the following meetings : — 



Brockton and Abington Boards of Trade. 
Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 
ture. 

New England Forest Fire Conference. 
Young Men's Catholic Union, Brook- 
line. 

Brotherhood of Hope Church, Spring- 
field. 



Farmers' Club of Leominster. 

Men's Club, Newton Highlands. 

Maiden Natural History Club. 

Oakham Farmers' Club. 

Berkshire Meeting, Forest Wardens, 

Pittsfield. 
Springfield Meeting, Forest Wardens. 
Rural Progress Meeting. 




Improvement thinning in a mixed stand of chestnut and pine, where the chestnut was 
affected with blight. The pine is left standing to reseed the land. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



81 



Worcester Meeting, Forest Wardens. | 

Fitchburg Meeting, Forest Wardens. i 

Greenfield Meeting, Forest Wardens. 

Farmers' Week, Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College. 

South Bristol Farmers' Club. 

Short Courses, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College. 

Haverhill Meeting, Forest Wardens. 

Boston Meeting, Forest Wardens. 

Middleborough Meeting, Forest War- 
dens. 

Marlborough High School. 
Massachusetts State Firemen's Asso- 
ciation. 

Cornell Universitj- — Forestry- Dedica- 
tion. 

Marshfield Farmers' Club. 
Old Colony Pomona, Bridgewater. 
Middleborough Farmers' Meeting. 
Quaboag Pomona Grange, West Brook- 
field. 

Cape Cod Cranberrj- Growers' Associa- j 
tion. ! 
New Hampshire State Board of Trade. 
Oxford Pomona Grange. 
Harvard Single Tax Colony. I 



Wakefield Grange. 
Newton Forestry Meeting. 
West Roxburj^ Women's Club. 
Massachusetts State Grange. 
Worcester Board of Trade. 
Winchendon Public Forestrj^ Meeting. 
Williams College Forestry Talks. 
The Cottages Association, Cotuit, Mass. 
Colony Club, Sagamore Beach. 
State Grange Meeting, Southwick. 
State Grange Meeting, East Long- 
meadow. 

State Grange Meeting, Greenu-ich. 

Winter Hill Improvement Association. 

West Medway Grange. 

Bridgewater Grange. 

New England Florists' Association, 

Horticultural Hall. 
Fitchburg Women's Club. 
Holden Improvement Society. 
The Princeton Grange. 
Franklin Farmers' Club. 
State Board of Trade. 
Old Colony Pomona Grange. 
Field Day at Lincoln. 
Westminster Grange. 



Field ^Meetings of the State Grange. 

It may be said without fear of exaggeration that the people 
of Massachusetts come nearer to applying the intensive method 
to their industrial and agricultural interests than any other 
section. This spirit in enterprise and progress is demonstrated 
in many ways, but in none with more marked effect than by 
the work of the Patrons of Husbandry. The organized effi- 
ciency of the grange is well known and is of a high order, and 
is made possible by the unselfish personal service given to its 
endeavors by both the officers and members. A fact which is 
more and more apparent as the years go by is that as an 
organization it has become a powerful factor in accomplishing 
those ends calculated to promote to the fullest extent the social 
and industrial life of the community. 

It has been the custom of the State Grange during the past 
few years to hold summer field meetings in various sections of 
the State. These meetings have been very popular with the 
members of the order and have been largely attended. At 
each meeting speakers have been provided to discuss matters 



82 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



relating to the welfare of the Commonwealth. The summer 
field meetings for 1914 were as follows: — 



Middlesex Essex Pomona, Wilmington, 
Silver Lake. 

Cape Cod Pomona. Cotuit. 

Chebacco Pomona, Gloucester, River- 
dale Park. 

Worcester Central Pomona, Worcester, 
Green Hill Park. 

Berkshire County, Pittsfield, w-ith J. H. 
Noble. 

Western Hampden Pomona, Southwick, 

with F. D. Lambson. 
Worcester East Pomona. 
Middlesex Vv'orcester Pomona, Aver, 

Ayer Park. 
Middlesex North Pomona, Tj'ngsbor- 

ough. 

Worcester Norfolk Pomona, Mendon. 
Hampshire Pomona, Amherst. 
Springfield Pomona, East Longmeadow. 
Swift River, Greenwich Plains. 



Old Colony Pomona, Bridgewater. 
Essex County Pomona, Canobie Lake. 
Boro Pomona, Westborough. 
Worcester West Pomona, Winchendon, 

Lake Dennison. 
Connecticut Valley Pomona, Greenfield, 

Shattuck Park. 
Maj-flower Pomona, North Hanson. 
iSIiddlesex Norfolk, Cochituate. 
Quaboag Pomona, West Brookfield. 
Worcester Southwest, Sturbridge. 
Norfolk Pomona, Norwood. 
Deerfield Valley Pomona, Colrain. 
I Hillside Pomona, Cummington. 

Berkshire South, Lake Buell, Sumner's 

Landing. 

Worcester Franklin, Brookside Park 

(Athol and Orange). 
Middlesex Central Pomona. 



The State Forestry Department was represented at many of 
these meetings by State Forester F. W. Rane, or the secretary, 
Mr. C. O. Bailey, at all of which meetings an enthusiastic 
interest was shown in the work of the department as described 
by the speakers. 

Work on State FIighwats. 

The usual custom of this department having supervision of 
the insect work along the State highways throughout the 
moth-infested district, has been carried out again this year. 

Work was done in the following cities and towns on the 
State highways, and paid for by the Highway Commission: — 



List of Highway Work, 1914. 



Abington, 


S20 .34 


Attleborough, 


S16 50 


Acton, 


156 63 


Auburn, 


27 58 


Amesbun,-, 


114 51 


Ayer, 


33 76 


Amherst, . 


41 63 


Barnstable, 


358 00 


Andover, . 


87 33 


Barre, 


58 00 


Ashbumham, 


73 75 


Bedford, . 


89 45 


Ashby, 


53 50 


Bellingham, 


12 70 


Ashland, . 


32 58 


Beverly, 


290 79 


Athol, 


34 40 


Billerica, . 


69 25 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 83 



List of Highway Work, 1914 — Continued. 



Bourne, 


. $157 06 


Marshfield, 


$42 86 


Boxborough, 


128 65 


Mashpee, . 


5 50 


Braintree, 


22 38 


Melrose, . 


33 00 


Brewster, . 


36 00 


Merrimac, 


41 97 


Bridgewater, 


26 57 


Methuen, . 


85 35 


Brookfield, 


76 95 


Middleborough, 


13 44 


Burlington, 


99 75 


Middleton, 


14 75 


Canton, 


11 70 


Montague, 


20 05 


Chatham, . 


18 25 


Natick, 


59 41 


Chelmsford, 


105 10 


Needham, 


38 36 


Chester, 


112 88 


Newburj', 


88 53 


Cohasset, . 


40 41 


Newburj'port, . 


38 00 


Concord, . 


231 04 


North Andover, 


177 45 


Deerfield, . 


12 25 


North Attleborough, . 


58 05 


Dennis, 


18 00 


North Reading, 


54 50 


Dover, 


40 65 


Northborough, . 


105 00 


Dracut, 


68 40 


Northbridge, 


19 83 


Duxbury, . 


30 94 


Northfield, 


72 50 


Essex, 


27 51 


Norton, 


40 67 


Falmouth, 


121 80 


Orleans, 


35 60 


Fitehburg, 


65 76 


Palmer, 


44 19 


Foxborough, 


94 93 


Pembroke, 


5 11 


Framingham, 


104 40 


Pepperell, 


68 47 


Franklin, . 


37 50 


Pittsfield, . 


64 00 


Gardner, . 


13 20 


Plainville, 


25 15 


Gloucester, 


21 00 


Princeton, 


14 00 


Grafton, . 


83 75 


Quincy, 


29 97 


Greenfield, 


27 00 


Reading, . 


120 25 


Groton, 


37 29 


Rehoboth, 


47 20 


Groveland, 


59 26 


Rockland, 


29 69 


Hadley, . 


71 38 


Rockport, 


13 00 


Hamilton, 


106 33 


Rowley, 


101 17 


Hardwick, 


28 84 


Russell, 


61 45 


Harvard, . 


46 81 


Salisbury, 


95 88 


Harwich, . 


4 50 


Sandwich, 


38 00 


Haverhill, 


132 45 


Scituate, . 


150 20 


Hingham, 


27 63 


Seekonk, . 


50 00 


Holbrook, 


14 00 


Shrewsbury, 


117 80 


HoUiston, . 


63 02 


Somerset, . 


150 00 


Hudson, . 


44 46 


South Hadley, . 


77 00 


Huntington, 


104 56 


Southborough, . 


60 96 


Ipswich, . 


44 50 


Spencer, 


21 05 


Lakeville, . 


9 75 


Sterling, . 


100 50 


Lancaster, 


55 10 


Stoneham, 


88 30 


Leicester, . 


29 00 


Stoughton, 


21 25 


Leominster, 


64 00 


Sudbury, . 


219 30 


Lexington, 


94 45 


Sutton, 


12 31 


Lincoln, 


65 35 


Swampscott, 


4 00 


Littleton, . 


72 80 


Swansea, . 


126 25 


Lowell, 


42 68 


Taunton, . 


23 75 


Lunenburg, 


71 40 


Templeton, 


73 30 


Marion, 


18 00 


Tewksbury, 


78 39 


Marlborough, 


228 65 


Townsend, 


125 00 



8-1 

List 


THE STATE FORESTER. 

OF Highway Work, 1914 — Concluded. 


[Jan. 


Truro, 


$10 50 


W^estford, . 


. $184 00 


Tyngsborough, . 


169 08 


Westminster, 


19 35 


Ware, 


53 50 


Weston, 


96 00 


Warren, 


44 54 


West wood, 


12 25 


Wayhind, . 


102 83 


Weymouth, 


130 50 


Wellflect, . 


44 50 


Whitman, 


19 95 


Wcnham, . 


94 25 


Wilmington, 


66 74 


West Boylston, . 


51 11 


Winchester, 


67 25 


West Bridgewater, 


28 11 


Woburn, . 


206 19 


West Brookfield, 


44 54 


Worcester, 


29 54 


West Newbury, 


115 62 


Yarmouth, 


A7 9(1 


Westborough, 


39 27 






Westfield, 


118 85 




$10,038 12 



Pakasite Wokk. 

Report of Mr. A. F. Burgess, in Charge of Moth Work, Parasite 
Laboratory, Melrose Highlands, Mass. 

Jan. 12, 1915. 

Dear Professor Rane: — Dr. L. 0. Howard, chief of the Bureau of 
Entomolog}^, has requested me to prepare a brief report on the parasite 
work for the year 1914. The information enclosed relates particularly 
to conditions in Massachusetts, and is of especial interest to the citizens 
of tliis State. 

Very truly yours, 

A. F. Burgess, 
In Charge of Moth JVork. 

The plan for conducting the parasite work of the gypsy and brown- 
tail moth has been to collect and rear the most important natural enemies 
of these insects, and colonize them in territory remote from where the 
parasites had aheady spread. This was done in order to enable the bene- 
ficial species to become estabhshed over the entire infested territory as 
rapidly as possible. In order to secure further information in regard to 
the work of the parasites of the gypsy moth in Europe, Dr. John N. 
Summers, one of the assistants in the Bureau at the Gypsy Moth Labora- 
tory, visited Germany during the spring and summer of 1914. 

Unfortunately, severe gypsy-moth outbreaks did not exist in Germany 
this year, so that he was not able to obtain as much information as was 
anticipated. He visited, however, a number of large forests in Hungary 
where the gypsy moth was present in large numbers, and secured some 
data concerning the habits of this insect in its native home. Owing to the 
fact that he did not receive information in regard to the presence of this 
gypsy-moth outbreak until late in the season, it was impossible to secure 
parasites for shipment to this country. No parasites have been imported 
during the present year. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 



85 



During the spring of 1914, 1,500,000 specimens of Anastatus bifasciatus 
\^ ere colonized. Most of these were Hberated in towns in northern Massa- 
chusetts, but a few towTis in Xew^ Hampshire were also supphed. An 
examination of egg clusters from some of the colonies of this species which 
were liberated several years ago showed that the parasitism is sometimes 
as high as 43 per cent., and very commonlj' 25 per cent, of the eggs in a 
cluster are destroyed by this insect. 

In the fall of 1914 collections in the field enabled us to rear at the 
laboratory large numbers of Schedius kuvanae, and over 2,000,000 speci- 
mens of this species have been colonized in 111 towns, 60 of which are 
located in ^Massachusetts. The colonization work in Massachusetts was 
begun in the Cape district, and extended in a crescent form to the New 
Hampshire fine, plantings having been made in practically all the kno^Ti 
woodland colonies of the g^'psy moth in southern ^Massachusetts. 

During the summer Comps^ilura concinnata, one of the species of Toch- 
inid flies which has become most firmly established in this country, was 
found in manj^ localities throughout the area infested by the gypsy moth. 
This species seems to occur locally, and it is sometimes present in large 
numbers in small and scattered moth infestations. One generation of 
this parasite usually develops on the caterpillars of the brow-tail moth 
in the earlj^ spring, and as the latter species was locally rather than gen- 
erall}' common throughout the infested area last spring, this may, in 
part, account for the local rather than general distribution of Compsilura. 

Apanteles ladeicolor, a parasite of both the small gyps}' and broun-tail 
moth caterpillars, was not as abundant as usual this season. The larvae 
of this species hibernate within the small bro\Mi-tail caterpillars in the webs 
diuing the winter, and as there was a hea^y mortalit}^ of the brown-tail 
caterpillars during the winter of 1913-14, the number of Apanteles was 
seriously reduced. 

Several other introduced parasitic species have been found in small 
nimabers, but not common enough to cause an}' appreciable benefit. 
Another species of Apanteles, Apanteles melanoscelus, was found in satis- 
factory numbers in Melrose and vicinit3^ Only one colony has been 
hberated in this country, and this was the last species which was imported. 
It has sur\'ived two New England winters and gives promise of being a 
very satisfactory enemj' of the gypsy moth. Several 3'ears, however, will 
be required for the insect to become abundant enough to spread over the 
infested area. 

The Calosoma beetle, Calosoma sycophanta, was more abundant and 
was found over a larger area than in any previous 3'ear. A number of 
colonies were hberated in remote parts of the infested area. The work 
of this insect is very striking, and enormous numbers of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moth are destroyed by this species. 

The summer of 1914 was unusually mild, particularly during June and 
early July. During this period the g\'ps3'-moth caterpillars flourished and 
their numbers were not reduced to anj^ great extent by the ''wilt" disease 
until the caterpiUars were nearly fuU grown. During the past two years 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the parasites and the "wilt" disease have made enormous inroads on the 
gypsy-moth larvcT during June and early July, but less reduction of the 
caterpillars took place this year over the entire infested area as a whole. 

In many locaUties the gypsy-moth infestation has decreased materi- 
ally, as a result of the work of natural enemies, but in some of the older 
infested territory, particularlj^ south of Boston and on Cape Cod, a marked 
increase in infestation has been observed. 

It is believed that a reduction will be made by natural enemies during 
the coming year, but the problem is very complex, and with our present 
knowledge it is impossible to state definitely what will happen next sum- 
mer. Doubtless there will be seasons when an unexpected increase of 
the moth will take place, but the general trend for the past few years has 
indicated that the natural enemies are bringing about greatly improved 
conditions. 

New Legislation. 
The Legislature of 1914 is fairly entitled to the credit of 
having enacted more important legislation calculated to ad- 
vance the forestry interests of the Commonwealth than has 
been done in any previous year. 

Forest Taxation. 
Much has been said during the past few years with regard 
to the importance and desirability of a law which would change 
the unsatisfactory method of taxing wild and forest lands 
which has been in vogue in this State from time immemorial. 
The insistent demand of those interested in the subject cul- 
minated in the passage by the last Legislature of an act en- 
titled, "An Act to provide for the 'classification and taxation 
of wild or forest lands." This bill was prepared by a com- 
mission appointed by the Governor for that special purpose. 
\Yhile the act is too long to be published in this report, the 
State Forester has recently issued a booklet containing a full 
text of the law with explanatory notes, which will be mailed 
to any one on request. 

Slash Law. 

Another law, which if properly enforced cannot fail to be of 
great benefit in reducing the forest fire evil, is the so-called 
slash law, which is printed under the head of the State Fire 
Warden's report. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



Injurious Insects. 
The State Forester desires also to call attention to an act 
passed enabling cities and towns to suppress the tent cater- 
pillar, leopard moth and elm beetle. This aot was passed upon 
the petition of prominent town and city officials of the met- 
ropolitan district, and reads as follows: — 

Acts of 1914, Chapter 404. 

Ax Act to authorize cities and towns to suppress the tent cater- 
pillar, LEOPARD MOTH ANT) ELM BEETLE. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The city forester, superintendent or other persons ha\ing 
charge of the suppression of gj^ps}^ and bro^Ti tail moths in each city and 
town in the commonwealth, or, where there is no such person, the tree 
warden, may destroy witliin the hmits of his city or town the tent cater- 
pillar, leopard moth and elm beetle, if authorized so to do by the mayor 
and city council or commission in cities, or by the selectmen in towns. 

Section 2. For the purposes of this act the city forester or other officer 
designated in section one of this act may enter upon private land, and the 
owners of private land may be taxed for work done under the provisions 
of section one of this act in the manner provided by sections six and seven 
of chapter three hundred and eightj^-one of the acts of the year nineteen 
hundred and five and acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto : 
provided, however, that notliing contained in tliis act shall require the com- 
monwealth to pay any part of any such expense, other than for the suppres- 
sion of the gv'psy and brown tail moths, that no land shall be assessed under 
the proAdsions of this act which has been assessed the maximum amount 
provided by said sections six and seven and amendments thereof for the 
suppression of the g^T^^y ^i^d brown tail moths, and that the aggregate 
assessment on any parcel of private land for the suppression of the tent 
caterpillar, leopard moth, elm beetle and gypsy and brown tail moths shall 
not exceed the maximum pro\'ided by said sections six and seven and the 
amendments thereof. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 23, 1914. 

State Forest Commission. 
Chapter 131, Acts of 1913, creating a Forest Tax Commis- 
sion, authorized said commission, in addition to a study of the 
tax problem, to ''investigate the present policy of the com- 
monwealth with regard to the acquisition and management of 
wild or forest lands and report what further leg^'slation, if any, 
is necessary." In its report to the Legislature of 1914, the 



88 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



commission recommended the creation of a commission to ac- 
quire suitable lands for State forests. In accordance with the 
commission's recommendation, the following bill was enacted: — 

Acts of 1914, Chapter 720. 
An Act to establish a state forest commission and to provide for 

THE purchase OF LANDS FOR STATE FORESTS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as folloivs: 

Section 1. There is hereby established a state forest commission, to 
be composed of three persons, one of whom shall be the state forester and 
two other members who shall be appointed by the governor, with the advice 
and consent of the council, and who shall serve without compensation. 
The term of office of the appointive members of the commission shall be 
six years, except that when first appointed one of the members shall be 
appointed for six years and one for three years. Thereafter one member 
shall be appointed every tliird year. 

Section 2. The com^mission shall have power to acquire for the com- 
monwealth by purchase or otherwise, and to hold, woodland or land suit- 
able for timber cultivation within the commonwealth. The commission 
may, after a pubhc hearing, sell or exchange any land thus acquired which 
in the judgment of the commission can no longer be used advantageously 
for the purposes of this act. The average cost of land purchased by the 
Commission shall not exceed five dollars an acre. 

Section 3. Lands acquired under the provisions of this act shall be 
known as state forests and shall be under the control and management of 
the state forester. He shall proceed to re-forest and develop such lands and 
shall have power to make all reasonable regulations which in his opinion 
will tend to increase the public enjo^mient and benefit therefrom and to 
protect and conserve the water supphes of the commonwealth. The state 
forester shall keep and shall pubhsh in his annual report an account of all 
money invested in each state forest and of the annual income and expense 
thereof. 

Section 4. In the reforestation, maintenance, and development of 
lands purchased under this act, the state forester, so far as it is practicable, 
shall obtain the labor necessary therefor under the provisions of chapter 
six hundred and thirty-three of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
thirteen, and acts in amendment thereof and in addition thereto. 

Section 5. Land acquired under the provisions of this act shall be 
exempt from taxation; but the commonwealth shall reimburse cities and 
to^vns in which such lands are situated for taxes lost by reason of their 
acquisition, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of 
lands acquired for public institutions under the provisions of chapter six 
hundred and seven of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and ten. 

Section 6. The sum of ten thousand dollars may be expended during 
the present year and the sum of twenty thousand dollars may be expended 
annually for the four succeeding years by the state forest commission in the 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



89 



acquisition of lands under the provisions of this act : provided, that the said 
commission may, at its discretion, authorize the state forester to expend a 
part of said sum in the maintenance of said lands. If any part of said 
twenty thousand doUars remains unexpended at the close of any j^ear, the 
balance may be expended in the following year. The said commission may 
also expend not more than five hundred doUars annually for its necessary 
expenses incurred in carr^^dng out the provisions of this act. 

Section 7. This act shaU take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
June 29, 1914. 

FiXAXCiAL Statements. 
General Forestry. 
In accordance with section 6, chapter 409 of the Acts of 
1904, as amended by section 1, chapter 473 of the Acts of 1907, 
the following statement is given of the forestry expenditure 
for the year ending X#v. 30, 1914: — 

State Forester's Expenses. 
Appropriation for 1911, S20,000 00 

Expenditures : — 

Salaries of assistants, S6,188 82 

Traveling exT)enses, 3,030 69 

Stationen.' and postage, etc., .... 327 87 

Printing, 31 98 

;Maps, photographs, material, etc., . . . 297 80 

Equipment, tools, etc., 223 66 

Sundries, including teaming, .... 133 13 

Xurser^' account : — 

Payroll, 6,541 50 

Travel, 23 13 

Equipment, 1,836 99 

Seeds and seedHngs, . . , . ' , . 711 41 

Express and freight, 583 78 

Sundries, 69 13 

• 19,999 89 



Balance returned to treasury', SO 11 

Purchase and Planting of Forest Lands. 

Appropriation for 1914, 810,000 00 

Receipts: — 

Wm. D. Sohier, 120 00 

Davis Hardware Company — rebate, . . 28 42 

810,118 42 



Amount carried forward. 



S10,14S 42 



90 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Amount brought fonvard, $10,148 42 

Expenditures : — 

Pav roU S9,186 44 

Travel, 99 60 

Tools and equiproent, 272 69 

Express, freight and teaming, .... 247 47 

Telephone, 3 95 

Land, 330 00 

Sundries, 8 07 

• 10,148 22 



Balance returned to treasury, SO 20 

Prevention of Forest Fires. 

Appropriation for 1914, * $23,000 00 

Receipts: — 
Xew England Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany — rebate, 58 

Various towns for cans, brooms, etc., . . 643 64 

TowTi of Falmouth, 350 00 

Town of Dartmouth, 150 00 

Town of Yarmouth, 100 00 

Town of Barnstable, . . . . . . 350 00 

City of FaU River, 225 00 

$24,819 22 

Expenditures : — 

Salaries, $13,972 94 

Travel, 3,920 39 

Printing, 991 44 

Stationer}' and postage, 300 39 

Equipment, 1,390 21 

Construction, 3,203 52 

Telephone, 898 82 

Express, freight and teaming, .... 80 89 

Sundries, 59 60 

24,818 20 



Balance returned to treasury, .... 
Reimbursement for fire-figbting apparatus to towns, 



$1 02 
$2,127 05 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUIMENT — No. 73. 



91 



Suppressio?i of Gypsy and Broivn-tail Moths. 
The balance shown on the general appropriation for the 
suppression of the gypsy and bro\A^n-tail moths, as carried at 
the end of the fiscal year, will be practically expended in re- 
imbursements to towns and cities for the work of the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1914. 

General Appropriation. 
Balance on hand, Nov. 30, 1913, . . . $121,558 10 
Less reimbursement paid for 1913, . . . 48,310 36 



Balance for 1914 work. 



S73,247 74 



Receipts : — 
Town of Braintree, 
Town of WejTnouth, 
City of Lynn, 
City of Quincy, 
TowTi of Westborough, 
Town of Natick, . 
Town of Southborough, 
Town of Boylston, 
Town of Dedham, 
Town of Lincoln, . 
Town of WeUesley, 
Town of Raynham, 
TowTi of JVIa^Tiard, 
ToT\Ti of Ayer, 
Town of Andover, 
Town of Ashland, 
Town of Rochester, 
Tovrn of East on, . 
TowTi of Topsfield, 
Town of Royals con. 
City of Medford, . 
Town of Milton, . 
Town of Hingham, 
Appropriation for 1914, 
Town of Arlington, 
ToT\Ti of Wakefield, 
Dow Chemical Company, 
To^Ti of Braintree, 



220 00 
585 90 
1,361 72 
241 87 
404 43 
87 80 
39 96 
518 07 
1,159 98 
79 20 
3 50 
37 42 
79 29 
110 36 
204 68 
613 80 
29 35 
12 50 
1,974 51 
3 90 
1,040 94 
2,391 15 
393 68 
125,000 00 
1,172 67 
829 68 
15 26 
7 99 



Amount carried forward, 



$211,867 35 



92 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Amount brought forward, .... $211,867 35 

Tovm. of Stoneham, 47 12 

Salem Cadet Association, 113 95 

To\vi\ of Natick, 44 53 

Town of :\Iilt.on, 18 50 

Harbor and Land Commission, .... 82 01 

Prevention of forest fires, 295 80 

Fall River Water Works, ..... 47 80 

Dover g^i^sy moth fund, 2,236 10 

State Forester's expenses, 40 84 

Special North Shore fund, 5,655 77 n 

Appropriation for 1915, 75,000 00 

City of Quincy, 1,127 34 

Checks returned on Lexington and Princeton 

pay rolls, 7 00 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 

Company (for lost magneto), ... 57 75 
Balance on appropriation for exhibit at Food 

Fair, 16 01 

Town of Hopkinton, 1,142 60 

Use of outfit in tliinning work, . . . . 101 50 

$297,901 97 

Office expenses : — 

Salaries of clerks, $3,061 96 

Rent of offices, 2,409 96 

Stationerj^ and postage, 1,661 53 

Printing, 1,387 94 

Office supplies, 281 25 

Sundries, including telephone, lights, express, 

etc., 1,318 48 

Field expenses : — 

Pay roU, 44,493 86 

Travel, 9,228 01 

Supplies, 102,513 92 

Rent of supply store, 750 00 ' 

Store equipmenc, 207 90 

Special work, 8,200 00 

Reimbursement to tovms and cities, . . . 31,104 25 
Sundries, including freight, express, teaming, 

etc., 2,408 28 

209,027 34 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1914, $88,874 63 

Reimbursement paid December, 1914, and January, Feb- 
ruary and March, 1915, for the year 1914, . . . $39,670 10 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



Special North Shore Fund. 

Balance from 1913, $9,999 76 

Receipts : — 

City of Beverly 3,500 00 

Town of Manchester, 3,500 00 

W. D. Sohier, agent, 7,000 00 

South End Improvement Association of Rock- 
port, 190 00 

Town of Rockport, 200 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 7,000 00 

Appropriation for suppression of gypsy and 

brown-tail moths, 3,448 83 

Town of Swampscott, 19 50 

F. W. Rane, State Forester (for Rockport 

work), 200 00 

Dover gypsy moth fund (for use of truck), . 108 75 

■ $35,166 84 

Expenditures: — 

Pay roll, $14,053 33 

Travel, 458 23 

Supplies, 10,443 72 

Rent, 296 20 

Stationery and postage, 3 53 

Store equipment, 8 60 

Sundries, including teaming and express, . 1,572 53 

26,836 14 

Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1914, $8,330 70 

Dover Gypsy Moth Fund, 
A special fund was created in August, 1913, for woodland 
work in the town of Dover, the work to be done in a co-opera- 
tive manner, similarly to that done on the North Shore. A 
statement of the income of the fund and expenditures under it 
is given here, from the beginning of the work to the end of the 
present fiscal year. 

Receipts : — 

Town of Dover, $1,000 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 1,000 00 

Town of Dover, 1,220 40 



Amount carried forward, 



$3,220 40 



94 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Amount brought forward, .... $3,220 40 

F. AV. Ranc, State Forester, .... 2,000 00 

Union Liunber Company, 7 00 

Winthrop Harvey, 197 38 

R. E. Shennan, 93 80 

F. H. Diehl Son, 1,133 96 

Richard Bragey, 2 40 

Appropriation for suppression of gypsy and 

brown-tail moths, 4 84 

J. E. Lonergan & Co., 3 00 

To\Mi of Dover, 1,000 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 1,000 00 

Poore & Chadwick, 7 92 

Simpson Bros. Corporation, 65 25 

Geo. M. Cushing, 29 00 

Winthrop A. Harvey, 97 76 

W. Rodman Fay, 149 24 

Robert K. Rogers, 8 80 

Tools lost, 2 00 

Norfolk Hunt Club, 125 00 

Richard Smalley, 13 50 

Robert Baker, 3 50 

Turner Bailey, 4 00 

C. F. Eddy & Co., 66 00 

Geo. D. Hall, 57 67 

Town of Dover, : 1,000 00 

■ $10,292 42 

Expenditures : — 

Pay roU, $6,788 54 

Travel, 52 09 

Supphes, 2,358 84 

Sundries, 31 13 

9,230 60 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1914, $1,061 82 



The following is a list of cities and towns, with amount of 
supplies for moth work furnished them, for the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1914. The amounts given are the gross amounts 
furnished, some of the cities and towns having made payments 
to the State Forester's office for all or a part of the amounts, 
according to the amount of their net expenditures or their 




Connecticut River Lumber Companj-, Mount Tom Junction, Mass. The largest sawmill 

in the State. 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 73. 95 



class under the provisions of the law. For amounts received 
from this office in reimbursement and supplies see the table 
on page 97. 

Third-class Towns. 



Acton, 


boyo y/ 


Middleborough, 


S836 4/ 


Ashburnham , 




^liddleton. 


ooA oo 


Asnby, 


46 05 


Nantucket, 


40 


Ashland, 


iUU OO 


Newburj', 


ooi o8 


Auburn, 


1Q1 no 


IsTorfolk, 


111 nc 

111 yo 


Avon, 


yu D/ 


North Andover, 


/ / o o7 


Ayer, 


l\dZ OO 


North Reading, 


1,017 92 


xseaioru, 


l,ooi ZU 


Northborough, *. 


448 73 


xserJcley, 


21 30 


IS or well, 


1,231 53 


Berlin, ^ . 


1 Ton CK[\ 


Pembroke, ^ 


1,920 17 


Billerica, . 


814 96 


Pepperell, 


571 79 


rSolton,* 




Plaim'ille, 


150 97 


Boxborough, 


fl -O 1 Q 


Plympton, 


Zo4 o4 


B oxford, 


4yu OO 


Princeton, 


Doz yo 


Boylston, . 


62 31 


Raynham, 


Al AX 

4/ 4o 


Bridgewater, 


4oU Oo 


Rowley, 


AnQ K"7 


Burlington, 


oUo Ui 


balls Dury, * 


l,0/4 04 


Carlisle, 


625 50 


Sandwich, 


1 XA C\0 

loD yo 


Carver, 


667 93 


Scituate, . 


^ AAQ A1 

1,UDo Di 


Chelmsford, 


1 1 Q S 01 


Sherborn, . 


QOA "7 i 


Deerfield, . 


6 /O 


onirley, 


ACiX. 1 X 

4UO lo 


Dracut, 


o4y / 


Shrewsbury, 


oo Di 


JJunstabie,! 


1,188 65 


Southborough, . 


OOQ A A 

ZOO 4d 


Duxburj', . 


202 35 


Sterling, 


A OA ^O 

4zD oy 


East Bridgewater, i 


1 noA on 
l,yoU 39 


Stoneham, 


dTX AO 

D/o oy 


Essex, 


141 22 


Stoughton, 


OOD UO 


Georgetown, ^ 


T nnn a a 

i.yuy 44 


Stow, 1 . . . 


O O -1 Q AO 


Groton, 


754 94 


buaDurj', . 


/ 4D Zz 


Groveland, 


163 23 


i empleton. 


Z4o / 


xlalilax. 


22 76 


lewKsbury, 


l.Ulo 40 


Hamilton, 


774 01 


Topsfield, . 


on 1 n 1 

zy4 yi 


Hanover, . 


1,176 11 


Townsend, 


r: so QA_ 
OOZ o4 


Hanson, 


276 76 


Tyngsborough, . 


1,021 85 


Harvard, ^ 


2,405 56 


Wayland, . 


922 70 


xlolden. 


299 57 


Wenham, . 


0/1 / i 


H rfcl 1 1 «t run 


Oo 






Hopkinton, 


60 89 


West Bridgewater, 


366 55 


Hudson, 1 . 


. 1,976 21 


West Newbmy-, 


215 42 


Ipswich, 


957 38 


West borough. 


138 61 


Kingston, . 


294 73 


Westford, . 


912 82 


Lincoln, 


. 1,700 38 


Westminster, 


130 62 


Littleton, . 


697 82 


Whately, . 


5 26 


Lunenburg, 


676 75 


Wilmington, 


812 67 


Lynnfield, 


567 44 


Wlnchendon, 


325 73 


Marshfield, 


871 93 






Mashpee, . 


253 03 




$58,728 12 


Merrimac, 


216 59 







1 Received sprayer from State, town or city paying one-half the cost. 



96 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



First and Second Class Towns and Cities. 



Andover, . 


S864 17 


Milton, 


S18 50 


Barnstable, 


456 98 


Natick, 


92 15 


Braintree, 


7 99 


Newton, 


4,789 55 


Canton, > . 


2,997 60 


Qmncy, 


1,133 92 


Cohasset, . 


1,990 67 


Reading, . 


1,850 11 


Concord, . 


785 41 


Saugus, 


. 1,027 34 


Danvers, ^ 


. 1.967 97 


Wakefield, 


827 18 


Gloucester, 


526 18 


Waltham, 


. 1,454 30 


Hingham, 


. 1,258 18 


Weston, 


. 1,539 63 


Lexington, 


931 09 


Weymouth, 


. 1,873 06 


Lowell, 


386 58 


Woburn, . 


867 21 


Marlborough, i . 


. 2,486 28 


Worcester, i 


. 3,024 06 


Medford, . 


640 40 






Methuen, . 


1,135 05 




§93,659 68 



1 Received sprayer from State, town or city paying one-half the cost. 



Dover g^-psy moth fimd, S2,103 63 

Fall River Water Works 47 80 

Forest fire prevention, ......... 585 09 

Forestry, 141 72 

Pine Banks Park, 95 60 

Forest thinnings, 286 16 

Special North Shore fund, ........ 5,647 41 

Moth superintendents, etc., ........ 197 62 

Office, 3 19 

Automobiles, 33 43 

Supply store, .......... 4 10 

Travehng sprayers, 886 86 



Total amoimt disbursed through supply store, . . . §103,692 29 



FlXANCL\L SU^VIMARY OF MoTH WORK BY ToWNS. 

The following table shows the reimbursement, amount of 
supplies furnished and net amount received from this office by 
cities and towns for 1913, the required expenditure before 
receiving reimbursement from the State, the total net ex- 
penditure, the amount received for work on private property 
returned to this office, the amount paid in reimbursement, 
gross amount of supplies, and total net amount received from 
this office by cities and towns for 1914, and also the required 
expenditure for 1915. In the last two columns is shown the 
number of spraying outfits, both large and small, ov\med by 
each town or city. 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — 



Xo. 73. 



97 



o o s 



^ e<» CO ^ 




YING 

N Towns 

ITIES. 


Small. 


THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

^l<N^i i<Mi 1 1 1 1 1 1 


Spra 
Outfits i 

AND C 


6 




1915: 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$743 59 
401 72 
3,530 53 
225 43 
259 20 
5,000 00 
2,211 97 
981 31 
303 76 
5,000 00 
3,132 73 
115 27 
643 07 
217 96 
3,568 30 
345 60 
1,844 84 
5,000 00 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$2,993 00 

76 55 
1,540 29 

I, 152 80 

1,695 50 

II, 752 43 

1,775 81 
1,692 14 
519 33 

457 78 


Tools 
Supplied. 


O oo CO 00 oo 1 Ol CO 

^''.^o o e<ioc<it-'o 
(Mc^ ^ o «5a><r>_ oo 

lO t^OOO «OTj(^..i4 
r-T » 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$1,441 80 

55 25 
419 69 

337 84 

235 19 
11,752 43 

1,123 63 
1,201 56 
457 02 


Private 
Work. 


$1,122 01 

65 68 
368 81 

680 38 

428 31 
14,272 57 

221 30 
507 13 
460 11 

477 95 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$2,158 11 

263 46 
1,269 00 

1,723 64 

1,106 78 
30,167 55 

1,241 02 
1,816 05 
2 669 04 

1,520 40 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$716 31 
382 26 
3,297 49 
208 21 
249 31 
5,000 00 
1,385 80 
968 97 
271 59 
5,000 00 
3,057 72 
117 39 
614 49 
212 02 
3,495 80 
325 23 
1,543 15 
5,000 00 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$3,850 99 

112 08 
1,013 31 

679 02 

1,112 91 
9,849 89 

1,932 79 
1,835 14 
645 31 
1,535 76 

1,177 05 


Tools 
Supplied. 


1 $3,057 36 

43 80 
237 52 

603 61 

337 96 

584 29 
429 81 
118 28 
1,3 2,355 76 

1 1,684 75 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$1,393 63 

68 28 
775 79 

75 41 

774 95 
9,849 89 

1,348 50 
1,405 33 
527 13 

92 30 


Class. 


eoece^icoe'S'-icccoeo^cqeoeoece^coeci-i 


Cities and Towns. 


Bedford, . . . 

Bellingham, 

Belmont, . 

Berkley, . 

Berlin, 

Beverly, , 

Billerica, . 

Blackstone, 

Bolton, 

Boston, 

Bourne, 

Boxborough, 

Boxford, . 

Boylston, . 

Braintree, . 

Brewster, , 

Bridgewater, 

Brockton, . 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



99 



(" I I I I '-I I I <M I I I I (M I I I I I I 




2 O O M 

^ C ■& 2 

V3 -JZ ^ t 

.S J3 

8 1 1 i 

03 n « u 



2 .2 



tT S 



J 



OOOOOQQP 



Q Q 



Q Q 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



c 

z 

^ . 

c z £: 


1 

02 




Spba" 
Outfits u 

AND C: 


Large. 




1915. 


.he© 

OX"*' 


$3,354 20 
1,012 66 

848 20 

163 98 
1,456 14 
1,062 14 
2,847 19 

607 19 
5,000 00 
1,400 44 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
1,093 07 
5,000 00 
1,918 97 

353 78 
4.63S 56 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,336 97 

1,774 07 
401 39 
1,330 39 

412 62 


Tools 
Supplied. 


$849 75 

» 1,188 05 
202 35 
1 1,930 39 

141 22 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$487 22 

910 42 
199 04 

271 40 


Private 
Work. 


$807 48 
1,253 52 

274 81 
1,060 25 
466 25 

458 60 


Total Net 
Expcndi- 


$2,978 20 
1,495 23 

1,407 07 
2,109 09 
1,701 54 

773 26 


2^} . 
.s c © 

3 O h 

M 


$3,079 64 
1,008.01 

825 65 

171 65 
1,764 16 

945 66 
2,792 83 

501 86 
6,000 00 
1,631 10 
5,000 00 
4,341 80 
5,000 00 
1,059 05 
5,000 00 
1,880 97 

407 73 
4,196 02 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$99 96 

897 20 

874 02 
678 80 

684 34 
1 87 


CO <S 

Eh a 

X 


$3 20 
320 54 

140 24 

269 04 

2 12 50 
85 50 

1 87 


iml)urs('- 

llUMlt. 


$97 40 
570 00 

733 78 
309 72 

598 78 
_ 


1 

o 




2 
O 
Q 

z 
-< 

i 

O 


Dover, 

Dracut, 

Dudley, 

Dunstable, 

Duxbury, 

East Bridgewater, 

Easton, 

Essex, 

Everett, . 

Fairhaven, 

Fall River, 

Falmouth, 

Fitchburg, 

Foxborough, 

Framingham, , 

Franklin, . 

Freetown, . 

Gardner, . 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



C^^^l I IC^ICOI I INI I ICS! 



M OS o 



^ CO 



^ oo tn 



us CO 



O 00 



« eo 00 w CO 



I I c- I 1 , I I I g- I I i i" I , I I I I 



102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Spraying 
Outfits in Towns 
AND Cities. 


Small. 


1 |C<)I 1 |(M| 1 ICOl 1 1 1 1 C<) tH 


6 


,_,^^.-l|.-Cr-l| 1 |(M|COr-l<M.-l(N.-l 


1916. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,692 78 

3,548 58 
2,210 78 

672 99 

513 60 
2,765 93 
5,000 00 
1,021 31 
3,645 75 
5,000 00 
3,605 05 
91 19 
1,604 02 

493 03 
5,000 00 

602 52 
5,000 00 

525 74 


. 1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,376 21 

1 206 63 
1,427 47 

1,843 44 

1,862 86 
1,041 29 
193 29 
1,339 21 

2,417 25 


Tools 
Supplied. 


> $1,976 21 

294 73 

931 09 

1,700 38 
697 82 
386 58 
676 75 

667 44 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$940 

1.132 74 

1,098 57 

162 48 
343 47 

662 46 

1,849 81 


Private 
Work. 


$958 40 
534 98 

1,385 16 

1,656 41 
93 25 
4,598 60 
1,731 28 

554 55 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$2,258 02 

1,804 70 

2 5,131 48 

2,072 52 
821 09 
5,848 40 
1,219 57 
3,712 52 
2,357 01 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,659 29 
3,258 48 
2,196 02 
671 96 
464 75 
2,744 58 
5,000 00 
1,002 99 
3,585 22 
5,000 00 
3,425 04 

1,751 04 
477 62 

5,000 00 
557 11 

5,000 00 
507 20 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$501 43 

1,235 85 
1,703 37 

3,932 82 

3,127 66 
1,677 48 

1,744 79 

2,608 69 


Tools 
Supplied. 


*301 86 

779 22 
361 94 

2,461 24 

1 3,727 66 
1 1,964 62 

1 1,855 53 

626 92 


. Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$199 57 

456 63 
1,311 43 

1,723 83 

312 86 
489 26 
1,981 77 


Class. 


eo<M«>coe<5(M^coN»-i<Neoeoe<5i-ic<5.-ico 


Cities and Towns. 


Hudson, 

Hull 

Ipswich, 
Kingston, . 
Lakeville, 
Lancaster, . 
Lawrence, . 
Leicester, . 
Lenox, 
Leominster, 
Lexington, 
Leyden, 
Lincoln, 
Littleton, . 
LowelL . 
Lunenburg, 
Lynn, 
Lynnfield, , 



1915.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 103 




^ ^ 



.5 ^ 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



2: 

B. e- a 

o 


Small. 


1 |*H| 1 1 1 1 1041— tl^C^I 1 1 1 






1916. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$558 17 

5,000 00 
3,474 48 
1,836 92 
3,647 1 6 
3,365 53 
5,000 00 
164 95 
162 70 
635 69 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
465 54 
2,301 33 
3,876 10 
800 17 
393 09 
770 71 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
fiom 
State. 


- 

$0 40 

I,r„S0 63 

:5,il»3 31 
458 86 
(140 23 

2,603 59 
1,353 08 


Tools 
Supplied. 


«$18 50 

40 

2 92 15 

531 58 

4,789 55 
111 96 
• 775 57 

1,017 92 
448 73 


i a a 

s s 


- 

$1,049 05 

1,598 54 
346 90 

1,585 67 
904 35 


Private 
Work. 


$2,408 82 

785 28 

19,684 39 
189 45 
1,374 16 

981 59 
244 35 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,092 13 
3,419 96 

1,653 14 

12,986 61 
825 93 
2,093 66 

1,953 37 
1,542 54 


£-3 . 

.Sep 
3 © i; 

® x-^ 


$547 23 
5,000 00 
3,627 12 
1,736 82 
3,536 28 
3,110 46 
5,000 00 
169 27 
157 03 
(i()4 09 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
479 03 
2,229 00 
3,828 41 
765 03 
367 70 
738 19 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,911 61 

355 99 

1,951 90 

6,924 64 
242 29 
636 30 

3,622 83 
970 70 


Tools 
Sui)i)lied. 


1 $4,302 76 
2 87 80 

581 79 

9,849 28 
111 58 
538 20 

1,344 45 
« 1,492 33 


h 

<D 3 a 
«J g 

s s 


- 

$355 99 

1,370 11 

2,000 00 
130 71 
98 10 

2,278 38 
78 37 


c3 

o 


CO«<MCOC<)<Mi-lCOC«5CC'^i-ICOC>5e<IC<5COeO 


a: 

o * 

H 
a 

i? 
■< 

m 

M 

O 


Millis, 

Milton, 

Nahant, 

Nantucket, 

Natick, 

Need ham, . 

New Bedford, . 

New Braintree, . 

New Salem, 

Newbury, . 

Newburyport, . 

Nowton, 

Norfolk, . 

North Andover, 

North Attleborough, 

North Brookfield, . 

North Reading, 

Northborough, . 



1915.] 



FOLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



105 




106 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Spraying 
Outfits in Towns 
AND Cities. 


Small. 




Large. 


es»l IC^I»-l| Ir-lrH) 


1915. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$5,000 00 

1,153 50 
313 30 

3,007 58 
328 34 

5,000 00 
415 98 

2,171 19 

1,609 42 
869 73 
299 39 
366 93 

5,000 00 
590 16 
570 50 

2,777 34 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$170 08 
1.512 37 

285 66 

1,481 90 
376 55 
1,673 03 


Tools 
Supplied. 


2 $1,133 92 

47 4'i 
1,850 11 

1 608 57 

* 1,874 54 
156 93 
1 1,027 34 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$122 63 
32 28 

207 36 
219 62 
851 16 


Private 
Work. 


$966 33 

loU / / 

2,201 25 

1,135 91 
890 46 
193 10 

480 47 
90 50 
2,224 13 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$4,949 96 

3 487 73 
3,291 58 

3 57 25 

1,653 35 
596 16 
106 98 

1,379 22 
739 94 
3,991 11 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$5,000 00 

1,129 50 
365 10 

2,788 71 
411 04 

5,000 00 
383 62 

2,091 52 

1,563 59 
919 07 
288 25 
342 78 

5,000 00 
571 86 
520 32 

2,670 32 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$904 77 

23 81 
1,305 23 

313 72 
466 57 

1,203 13 
435 80 
2,409 35 


Tools 
Supplied. 


cooo ie> oo IMC5C3 

o'»H-* O 'coco -^0500 
50C0 ocoo 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$133 33 

313 72 
220 07 

898 91 
295 81 
1,798 32 


Class. 




Cities and Towns. 


Quincy, 
Randolph, 
Raynham, 
Reading, . 
Rehoboth, 
Revere'; 
Rochester, 
Rockland, . 
Rockport, . 
Rowley, . 
Royalston, 
Rutland, . 
Salem, 
Salisbury, . 
Sandwich, . 
Saugus, 



1915. 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



10 



O 00 

o o c 

C LI 



■«*.'«t<'Tttt^<M»-ic^OO-^O00i000 00»fl00C5OO 




CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 



§1 

i ^ . 

» 00 ffl 
OQ 

a- 8 

C C i> 

o o o 
H H ^ 



m m m m 



i ^ 5 3 

Ills 

ui m m ui 



3 S 



3 



lOS 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Spraying 
Outfits in Towns 
AND Cities. 


Small. 


^1 i-^^i 1 1 1 1 1 


Large. 




1915. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$499 77 

5,000 00 
789 90 
676 85 
1,628 20 
567 99 
169 23 
283 11 
507 46 
1,608 55 
4,766 51 
2,864 54 
5.000 00 
1,918 00 
1,024 81 
187 68 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1 62fi 86 
2,170 15 
2 207 51 
1,154 70 

2,632 18 
1,408 77 


Tools 
Supplied. 


$243 73 
1,018 45 
294 91 
552 84 

1,021 85 

4 827 18 
1,454 30 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1,151 70 
601 86 
1,610 33 

681 62 


Private 
Work. 


1741 7fl 
342 81 
668 14 
552 30 

728 73 
5,539 54 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1 «9 1 1 7 on 
1,797 53 

1 1,340 03 
1,148 77 

1,880129 
7,817 54 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$706 68 
5,000 00 
734 77 
645 83 
1,427 43 
546 91 
163 22 
269 96 
504 47 
1,503^98 
4,602140 
2,762 19 
5,000 00 
2,218 48 
979 44 
182 51^ 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1 69 
1,398 18 
532 40 
1,415 38 

2,365 90 

1,148 93 
- 


Tools 
Supplied. 


05 O »0 05 -rt 00 T-H 

' ' ^ 00 CO ' OO ' ' CT? ' OS ' ' ' 

Ci OS 00 <M <M 

<M (Tq 00 I>- 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$799 98 
337 55 
1,128 69 

737 49 
259 23 


Class. 


CO 1^ CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 


Cities and_Towns. 


Swansea, . 

Taunton, . 

Templeton, 

Tewksbury, 

Topsfield, 

Townsend, 

Truro, 

Tyngsborough, . 
Upton, 
Uxbridge, 
Wakefield, . 
Walpole, . 
Waltham, . 
Wareham, . 
Warren, . 
Warwick, . 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCUjVIENT — No. 73. 



109 




10 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Spraying 
Outfits in Towns 
AND Cities. 


Small. 


1 1 ^ 1 -H 1 


6 

I 


r-1 CO 1 1 


1915. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,737 45 

5,000 00 
5,000 00 
4,933 61 
5,000 00 
620 34 
1,048 39 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,228 30 

3,470 62 
1,512 03 


so o 
02 


CO — ' o 
CO 00 o 

•» <n 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$902 67 
2,776 85 


Private 
Work. 


$750 44 

1,344 69 
13,547 13 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$2,623 28 

8,515 !)cS 
10,195 53 


.S C (D 
3 O h 


$1,720 71 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
4,828 12 
5,000 00 
587 68 
1,020 00 


1913. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$326 99 
4,763 62 


Tools 
Supplied. 


$179 17 
1,418 76 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$147 82 
3,628 61 




CO 1-1 1-1 e<i 1-1 CO CO " 


o 
Eh 
o 

% 

as 
g 

6 


Winchendon. 

Winchester. 

Winthrop, . 

Woburn, 

Worcester, . 

Wrentham, 

Yarmouth, 



1915.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



Ill 



COXCLUSION. 

Each year heretofore the annual report of the State Forester 
has concluded with the following heading: "Summary of 
Recommendations." This is omitted this year, as we are not 
asking for any new legislation other than is covered in the 
general estimates that have been sent to the State Auditor. 

I am pleased to say that with the legislation of the last 
General Court, the general program outlined by this depart- 
ment for securing the fundamentals of a State forest policy, 
which has extended over a period of eight years, has been 
covered. 

We are, therefore, now in a position to exert our best energies 
in accomplishing results. Let us all have a part in this splendid 
work. 

Respectfully submitted, 



F. W. RAXE, 

State Forester. 



Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FOEESTEE 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

TWELFTH ANNUAL EEPOET, 
1915. 

F. W. RANE, State Forester. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTEK PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1916. 



STATt HUUbc. 



Appeoved by 
The State Boasd of Publication. 



3 



Ql[)t CommontDColtl) of illos0acl)us£tt0. 



To the General Court. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 409, section 5, 
Acts of 1904, it becomes my duty and pleasure to submit this, 
the annual report of the State Forester, for the past year. 

The usual hearty co-operation on the part of our citizens, as 
well as that of the General Court, has made the year's work 
very pleasant and agreeable to perform. 

Respectfully submitted. 



Dec. 20, 1915. 



F. W. RANE, 
State Forester, 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, , ........... 7 

Organization, . . . . . . . . .11 

Office work 22 

State Forester's travel, .......... 23 

Obituaries, ............ 24 

Relief for the unemployed, ......... 25 

Financial statement, . . . . . . • . . .35 

Private co-operative forestry work, . . . . . . .37 

Reforestation work, .......... 39 

Financial statement, ......... 42 

Nursery work, ........... 42 

Financial statement, ......... 46 

State forests, 47 

Forest taxation, ........... 49 

White pine blister rust, .......... 50 

Chestnut bark disease, .......... 52 

White pine weevil, ........... 53 

White pine aphid, ........... 53 

Exhibitions, 54 

Forestry. Moth work, .......... 56 

Co-operative moth- thinning operations, ....... 56 

State Fire Warden's report, ......... 63 

Financial statement, ......... 70 

Railroad fires, ........... 69 

Forest fire equipment, . . . .71 

Federal co-operation, .......... 77 

Brown-tail moth situation, ......... 77 

Use of burlap discarded, .......... 78 

Large high-power sprayers, ......... 79 

Small power sprayers, .......... 79 

Auto truck in State forestry work, ........ 80 

Parasite work, ........... 81 

Gypsy moths and cranberry bogs, ........ 84 

Special co-operative moth work, ........ 85 

Financial statements, . . . . . . . . 86 

Purchase and distribution of supplies, ....... 89 

Housing of equipment, .......... 92 

State highway work, .......... 93 

Suppression of gypsy and brown-tail moths: 

Financial statement, ......... 95 

Financial summary of moth work by towns, ...... 97 

Report on the taking of Mount Holyoke, . . . . . .113 

Meetings and addresses, .......... 122 

New legislation, ........... 128 

Recommendations, .......... 129 



©I)e Olotntncmroeattl) of illa06acl)ii0ett0. 



TWELFTH AX]S:UAL EEPORT OF THE STATE 

FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

The State Forester and his assistants have been extremely 
busy throughout the past season, not only in continuing the 
work reported upon in past years, but in embarking upon many 
new forestry enterprises. Our work has been very satisfactory 
in achie\'ing definite results, and there has been real co- 
operation on the part of our citizens, which augurs well for 
future good. 

Forestry work in the past has been looked upon by our peo- 
ple as dealing too much in futures, and we Americans have 
not been interested in long-time investments, but now that for- 
est fires, insects and diseases are being combated and con- 
trolled more and more, forestrj^ enterprises are being considered 
more favorably. They may be advantageously compared 
with life insurance policies. WTien land is purchased, planted 
and registered in accordance with the Massachusetts forest 
taxation law, the added growth each year becomes a com- 
mercially recognized dividend upon the investment. 

If for any reason a person finds it burdensome to continue 
pajTQg his insurance premiums he does not lose the invest- 
ment already made, and he is even allowed to borrow on it as 
collateral. It is just so vriih a white-pine plantation. It will 
be unnecessary to wait until the trees are large enough to be 
cut into lumber, — the owner can find a ready market for well- 
stocked plantations at any stage of their growth. ^Mien re- 
forestation is looked at in this light the long-time investment 
idea is overcome. 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The satisfactory working of our reforestation law is proved 
by the fact that each year finds more lands in readiness to be 
turned over to us than we can accept. When the large tracts 
now under consideration are once acquired by the Common- 
wealth for State forests, a fair portion of which is adapted for 
immediate planting, the fund available under this law will 
naturally be used for reforestation on these lands. 

The departmental activities during the year have been real 
forestry undertakings. In scanning this report the reader will 
find that practical operations and definite results have been the 
aim constantly in view. The organization of the work through- 
out the year has been more thorough and comprehensive. As 
the policy of a new and growing department becomes more 
stable, it is inevitable that each person assume more respon- 
sibility. Undoubtedly other plans for the readjusting of the 
department, thereby increasing its usefulness, which have for 
some little time been in the mind of the State Forester, would 
have been carried into effect but for the fact that the Com- 
mission on Economy and EjQficiency has had a deputy in the 
department for the past year, making a study of its activities 
and methods. It was thought best to await this report, thus 
avoiding complications. 

In addition to such lines of endeavor as forest thinning and 
management, forest fire work, reforestation and nursery work, 
inspection of locomotives, insect and disease work, there have 
been innumerable demands upon us for lectures, examinations, 
publications, meetings, exhibitions and experimental forestry 
work. We were also called upon to direct the expenditure of 
S100,0Q0 for work in aid of the unemployed during the winter 
and early spring. Large tracts of moth-infested woodlands 
have been operated by cutting, milling and selling the forest 
products, the expense of which was wholly met by the* owners. 
We have also assisted the State Forest Commission in search- 
ing out large tracts of waste lands in various sections of the 
State, making surveys, looking up owners, titles, etc. 

The slash law, which went into effect on Jan. 1, 1915, com- 
pelling all operators of woodlots to remove or burn the brush 
or slash for a distance of 40 feet from the railroad, highway or 
abutting woodland, has proved a step in the right direction, 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiEXT — Xo. 73. 



9 



and will undoubtedly be of great future value in providing fire 
lines. 

The moth work of the year has been strenuous and effective. 
Our appropriation was lessened by S25,000 as compared with 
the previous year. The fact that S100,000 was turned over to 
the department for winter work for the unemployed doubtless 
accounted for this curtailment. While the work done by the 
unemployed was far more eflficient than would have been 
thought possible, it was carried on at a season of the year when 
only certain kinds of work could be done. Work of a perma- 
nent nature was accomplished; hence our general conditions 
have been improved. On the other hand, our regular routine 
work of moth suppression, such as spraying, which could not be 
done until later in the season, suffered by this curtailment, and 
we found that careful planning was required to do the neces- 
sary summer work. 

The United States government, through the Bureau of 
Entomology, continues to be responsible for preventing the 
spread of the gJT)sy moth, and has its picket line encircling the 
infested belt. Thus far the government men have been able to 
intrench themselves against the moth invasion, and it is cer- 
tainly to be hoped that the insect can be held at bay, for once 
the government acknowledges defeat so much more territory 
will fall back upon the State to be handled. This department 
has continued to give the government assistance by doing 
more co-operative work in the border towns, thus helping to 
hold back the spread in those towns. 

Our organization, equipment and methods of combating the 
moths throughout the infested areas have been far more effec- 
tive than ever before. The Cape country is the section hardest 
hit at present. Instead of its being a scattered infestation, 
as it was a few years back, it has become general. This was 
inevitable, and it now devolves upon this section to cope with 
the problem by taking advantage of the experience gained in 
those sections earlier infested. 

It is absolutely necessary for the State to adhere to its pres- 
ent well-defined policies for moth suppression. Although the 
task is a mammoth one, nevertheless there can be no question 
but that results are being obtained, and if the policy of secur- 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ing eflBcient supervision and modern equipment in the towns 
and cities is encouraged, we believe it is only a matter of time 
when the destructive pests will be under control. 

The work of the parasites and diseases is as encouraging as 
ever; we refer to Dr. Howard's report elsewhere in this pub- 
lication for details regarding parasites. 

That the economic forestry methods, combined with ra- 
tional spraying and creosoting, are the practical solution of 
moth control is generally accepted at the present time. Our 
wide-awake division superintendents are enthusiastic over the 
results, and have taken so naturally to the handling of wood- 
lands for moth control that some of them are qualifying as 
expert forest operators. 

Forestry in general needs continued encouragement, and we 
feel that the General Court can ill afford to do aught else than 
to give it support through generous financial assistance until 
much of our waste lands are planted and our inferior wood- 
lands are restocked and properly managed for definite results. 
This work is bound to cost the State something, but any far- 
sighted statesman or economist can see the wisdom of such a 
policy. 

One of the difficult and perplexing problems that forestry 
work has met in eastern Massachusetts has been our inability 
to secure competent woodchoppers. With the present-day 
tendency of our towns and cities to pay all laborers the same 
wage per day, and with the hours of work reduced to an eight- 
hour day, it is no wonder that cordwood has become an ex- 
pensive commodity. Chopping has become a lost art, and the 
sooner we resort tp the practice of paying laborers by the cord 
or thousand feet, in order to obtain economic results, the better. 
Certainly a man who cuts one-half a cord a day is not worth 
as much as another who can put up two cords. It has been 
necessary, therefore, in a number of instances, to import labor 
into the town in order to make the work an economic success. 
This practice, however, is resulting in improving local stand- 
ards and putting a premium upon the employment of men upon 
their real merits. 

The State Forester has had reason to be proud of his or- 
ganization the past year, for besides the regular work, the 
expenditure of $100,000 in labor among the unemployed 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



during the winter and early spring were all supervised, with the 
bookkeeping this involved, in our office. This work was accom- 
plished at no extra expense of supervision to the State, and 
hence the funds all went directly for the purpose intended, — 
the really worthy unemployed. 

Many other activities are touched upon in this report than 
those mentioned in this introductory statement. It is hoped 
that the reader will catch some of the true inspiration of our work. 



There have been very few changes in the personnel of the 
staff during the year. 

We sustained a great loss in the sudden death of Mr. John 
Murdoch, Jr., A.M., one of the forestry assistants who had 
been connected with the department since 1911. He met his 
death last winter while superintending the removal of one of 
our portable camps at Randolph. He was a graduate of the 
Harvard Forestry School, and had spent several years in the 
west in the employ of the United States Forest Service. He 
was a man of keen intellect, and had become closely identified 
with our work. His untimely death was greatly deplored by 
all his colleagues, and it being the first accident befalling our 
staff it has had the effect of making the bond of fellowship 
among us closer than ever. 

Mr. Guy W. Lucas, B.Sc, who was employed in the moth 
department work, was promoted to the position left vacant 
through the death of Mr. Murdoch. 

Mr. Leroy F. Richardson, M.F., was connected with the de- 
partment for a few months, but resigned to take work elsewhere. 

The organization is at present as follows: — 



Organization. 



General Staff. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, 
C. O. Bailey, . 
Elizabeth Hubbard, . 
Elizabeth T. Harraqht, 



State Forester. 

Sebretary. 

Bookkeeper. 

Stenographer. 

Stenographer. 

Clerk. 

Office boy. 



Jennie D. Kenton, . 
Mabel R. Hamnett, . 
James H. Crowley, . 



General Forestry. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, 
H. O. Cook, M.F., . 
F. L. Haynes, B.F., . 



State Forester. 

Assistant forester in charge. 

Forest examiner. 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



J. R. Simmons, B.Sc, 
Harold Fat, M.F., 
Eben Smith, 
Dean Totv^-slet, 
J. L. Peabodt, . 
James Morris, . 
H. N. Butler, . 
H. H. Chase, 



Reforestation work. 
Assistant forester. 

Superintendent, Barnstable Nursery. 
Superintendent, Amherst Nursery. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 



F. W. Rank, B.Agr., M.Sc, 
Geo. a. Smith, . 
Paul D. Kneelaxd, M.F., 
Ray F. Westox, M.F., 
Gut W. Lucas, B.Sc, 
Francis V. Learotd, 



Staff, Moth Work. 

State Forester- 
Assistant (equipment. 
Assistant (woodlands, 
Assistant. 
Assistant. 
Supplies. 



accounts, etc.). 
products, etc.). 



District 

1. John W. Enwright, Medford. 

2. Saul Phillips, Beverly. 

3. John J. Fitzgerald, Haverhill. 

4. Wm. a. Hatch, Marlborough. 



Moth Men. 

5. Harry B. Ramsey, Worcester. 

6. C. W. Parkhurst, Foxborough. 

7. W. F. Holmes, East Braintree. 

8. J. A. Farley, Plymouth. 



F. W. R-VNE, B.Agr 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

JosEPHA L. Gallagher 
James E. Moloy, 
Miner E. Fents, . 



Staff, Forest Fire Pkeventign. 
M.Sc, 



State Forester. 
State Fire Warden. 
Secretary. 

Locomotive inspector. 
Locomotive inspector. 



District Forest Wardens. 

1. OscAB L. NoYES, Byfield. 3. John P. Crowe, Westborough. 

2. Jos. J. Shepherd, Pembroke. 4. Albert R. Ordway, Westfield. 



District 1. 
E. Gordon Bailey, Georgetown. 
John Chaplin, Sharon. 
J. Frank Hammond, Chelmsford. 
Caplis McCormick, Essex. 
John H. O'Donnell, Wakefield. 
Frederick R. Stont:, Sudburj'. 



District 3. 
A. M. Bennett, Pelliam. 
Michael E. Lyons, Westborough. 
F. H. Lombard, Warwick. 
George W. Sherman, Brimfield. 
James Maley, Princeton. 



District 2. 
Calvin Benson, Barnstable. 
M. J. Zilch, Rehoboth. 
Frank L. Buckingham, Plymouth. 
John H. Montle, Fall River. 
S. Matthews, Middleborough. 
Calvin C. Parker, Harwich. 
W. F. Raymond, Boumedale. 
Chas. F. Kimball, Hanson. 
W. I. Moody, Falmouth. 



District 4- 
Edward J. McInttre, Becket. 
N. C. Woodward, Shelbume Falls. 
George C. Miller, Holyoke. 
H. H. Fitzrot, Savoy. 
C. B. Knowlton, Ashfield. 
George Clifford, Williamstown. 
Robert Miller, Lenox. 
Clayton Bunt, Mount Washington. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



13 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by towns and cities.] 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


236, Rockland, . 


A. B. Reed, 


Abington, . 


C. F. Shaw, . 


7 


10-4, . 


Wm. H. Kingsley, . 


Acton, . 


J. O'Neil, . 


4 


2003-M, 


H, F. Taber, . 


Acushnet, . 


A. P. R. Gilmore, 


8 


2-0, Kippers, 


John Clancy, . 


Adams, 


John Clancy, 


5 


1431-M, 


E. M. Hitchcock, . 


Agawam, 


- 


- 


161-6, . 


Win. F. Milligan, . 


Alford, 


- 


- 


274-M, 


Jas. E. Feltham, 


Amesbury, . 


A. L. Stover, 


3 


541-M, 


A. F. Bardwell, 


Amherst, 


W. H. Smith, 


5 


212, . 


W. I. Morse, . 


Andover, 


J. H. Playdon, . 


3 


35, . . . 


W. H. Pierce, . 


Arlington, . 


Daniel M. Daley, 


1 


2-12, . 


J. T. Withington, . 


Ashbumham, . 


Chas. H. Pratt, . 


4 


8014, . 


Wm. S. Green, 


Ashby, 


Fred C. Allen, 


4 


3-5, . . 


Ralph Fredick, 


Ashfleld, . 


- 


- 


479-W, 


Horace Piper, 


Ashland, 


Theodore P. Hall, 


6 


6 or 48-J, . 


Frank P. Hall, 


Athol, . 


W. S. Penniman, . 


5 


34-4, . 


H. R. Packard, 


Attleboro, . 


W. E. S. Smith, . 


6 


5-12, . 


J. F. Searle, . 


Auburn, 


J. F. Searle, . 


5 


3259-M, 


J. W. McCarty, 


Avon, . 


W. W. Beals, 


7 


- 


- 


Ayer, . 


D. C. Smith, 


4 


- 


H. C. Bacon, . 


Barnstable, 


Robt. Cross, 


8 


83-4, . 




Barre, . 


G. R. Simonds, . 


5 


18, . . . 


P. B, McCormick, . 


Becket, 


- 


- 


- 


John I. Blake, . 


Bedford, 


W. A. Cutler, 


1 


10-2, . 


Jas. A. Peeso, . 


Belchertown, 


E. C. Howard, 


5 


8639-2, Milford, . 


L. F. Thayer, 


Bellingham, 


H. A. Whitney, . 


6 


409-W, 


John F. Leonard, 


Belmont, 


C. H. Houlahan, . 


1 


14-6, . 




Berkley, 


A. A. Briggs, 


6 


1367-M, 


Walter Cole, . 


Berlin, 


E. C. Ross, . 


4 


2-13, . 


Edson W. Hale, 


Bemardston, 


Edwin B. Hale, . 


5 


319-J, . 


Robt. Grant, . 


Beverly, 


J. B. Brown, 


2 


22-2, . 




Billerica, 


John W. Bostwick, 


1 


875-L-l, Woon- 

socket. 
12-2, . 


Thomas Reilly, 
I. E. Whitney, 


Blackstone, 
Blandford, . 


A. J. Gibbons, 


5 


9-14, . 


E. E. Hurlburt, 


Bolton, 


C. E. Mace, 


4 






Boston, 


Park and Recrea- 
tion Department. 


1 



14 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


103-13, 

11-2, West Acton, 


Emory A. Ellis, 
H. J. Livermore, 


Bourne, 
Boxborough, 


Edward D. Nick- 
C. E. Sherry, 


8 
4 


42-21, . 


Harry L. Cole, 


Boxford, 


C. Perley, . 


3 


4-4, . 


John N. Flagg, 


Boylston, . 


R. B. Smith, 


5 


433-R, 
- 


J. M. Cutting, . 
T. B. Tubman, 


Braintree, . 
Brewster, 


Clarence R. Bes- 
tick. 

David L. Harwood, 


7 
8 


2S1-3, . 


F. C. Worthen, 


Bridgewater, 


F. C. Worthen, . 


7 


18-2, . 


Geo. E. Hitchcock, . 


Brimfleld, . 


C. W. King, . 


5 


1041, . 


Harry L. Marston, . 


Brockton, . 


George C. Kane, 


7 


104-13, 


P. E. Gadaire, 


Brookfield, . 


J. H. Conant, 


5 


876, . 
52-8, . 


Geo. H. Johnson, . 
Gilbert E. Griswold, 


Brookline, . 
Buckland, . 


Ernest B. Dane, . 
- 


1 
- 


15-4, . 


Walter W, Skelton, . 


Burlington, 


W. W. Skelton, . 


1 


47-M, . 


F. C. Estes, . 


Canton, 


A. Hemenway, 


7 


- 


- 


Cambridge, 


J. F. Donnelly, . 


1 


76-M, Concord, . 


G. G. Wilkins, 


Carlisle, 


G. G. Wilkins, . 


1 


16-2, . 


H. F. Atwood, 


Carver, 


H. F. Atwood, . 


8 


14-12, . 


A. L. Veber, . . . 


Charlemont, 


- 


- 


42-2, . 


Edward A. Lamb, . 


Charlton, . 


J. D. Fellows, 


5 


28-3, . 


Geo. W. Ryder, 


Chatham, . 


Chas. R. Nicker- 


8 


1597-R, LoweU, . 


A. C. Perham, 


Chelmsford, 


M. A. Bean, . 


1 


- 


- 


Chelsea, 


J. A. O'Brien, 


1 


236-W, 


George Kom, . . . 


Cheshire, 


- 


- 


7-4, . . . 


Wm. E. Major, 


Chester, 


- 


- 


4, . . . 


Chas. A. Bisbee, 


Chesterfield, 


- 


- 


149-M, 


John E. Pomphret, . 


Chicopee, . 


John F. Sullivan, 


5 


- 


Robt. W. Vincent, . 


Chilmark, . 


A. S. Tilton, 


8 


352-24, 


D. W. Blanchard, . 


Clarksburg, 


Chas. E. Wemple, 


5 


312-W, 


A. J. Robinson, 


Clinton, 


John B. Connery, 


4 


260, . 


Wm. J. Brennock, . 


Cohasset, . 


George Young, 


7 


23-2, . 


Frank A. Walden, . 


Colrain, 


Edgar F. Copeland, 


5 


75-W, . 


Frank W. Holden, . 


Concord, 


H. P. Richardson, 


4 


15-2, . 


Edgar Jones, . 


Conway, 






8001, . 


Thos. A. Gabb, 


Cummington, 






42-12, . 


S. L. Ceasar, . 


Dalton, 








Thos. L. Thayer, . 


Dana, . 


T. L. Thayer, 


5 


295-W, 


M. H. Barry, . 


Danvers, 


T. E. Tinsley, 


2 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 15 



LdBT OP Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superesttendents — Con. 



Telephone 

NUMBEB. 




X 1^ W U \JL Vi/l Ujr • 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


14-3, Westport, . 


E. W. Reed, . 


Dartmouth, 


E. M. Munson, 


8 


373, . 


H. J. Harrigan, 


Dedham, 


J. T. Kennedy, . 


7 


273-14, Greenfield, 


Wm. L. Harris, 


Deerfield, . 


Wm. L. Harris, 


5 




Chas. E. Pierce, 


Dennis, 


H. H. Sears, 


8 


29-3, . 


Ralph Earle, . 


Dighton, 


F. C. Lane, . 


6 


11-4, . 


Wm. L. Church, 


Douglas, 


F. J. Libby, . 


5 


373-3, . 


John Breagy, . 


Dover, . 


H. L. MacKenzie,. 


6 


3353-2, 


Frank H. Gunther, 


Dracut, 


T. F. Carrick, 


1 


152-2, Webster, . 


Frank A. Putnam, . 


Dudley, 


Herbert J. Hill, . 


5 


5-11, Tyngsbor- 

ough. 
4-2, .. . 


Archie W. Swallow, 
Henry A. Fish, 


Dunstable, . 
Duxbury, . 


W. H. Savill, 
H. A. Fish, . 


4 

7 


4&-5, . 




E. Bridgewater, . 
E. Longmeadow, 


Frank H. Taylor, 


7 


24-3, . 


A. L. GUI, 


Eastham, . 


N. P. Clark, 


8 


2-11, . 


J. M. Dineen, 


Easthampton, . 






76, . . . 


Frederick Hanlon, . 


Easton, 


R. W. Melendy, . 


6 


241-2, . 


Manuel Swartz, 


Edgartown, 


John P. Fuller, . 


8 


165-25, 


Frank Bradford, 


Egremont, . 






17-11, . 


H. A. Coolbeth, 


Enfield, 


H. C. Moore, 


5 


_ 


C. H. Holmes, 


Erving, 


Charles H. Holmes, 


5 


- 


Otis 0. Story, . 


Essex, . 
Everett, 


0. 0. Story, 
P. 0. Sefton, 


2 


1686-Y, 


Chas. F. Benson, 


Fairhaven, . 


G. W. King, . 


8 


822-W, 


Wm. Stevenson, 


Fall River, . 


Wm. Stevenson, . 


6 


136-2, . 


H. H. Lawrence, 


Falmouth, . 


W. B. Bosworth, . 


8 


745, . 


P. S. Bunker, . 


Fitchburg, . 


Page S. Bxinker, . 


4 


9417-3, Hoosac 

Tunnel. 
15-5, . 


H. B. Brown, . 
E. A. White, . 


Florida, 
Foxborough, 


F. W. Richardson, 


_ 

6 


352-4, . 


B. P. Winch, . . . 


Framingham, 


N. I. Bowditch, . 


6 


66-12, . 


Edw. S. Cook, 


Franklin, . 


J. W. Stobbart, . 


6 


3-12, . 


Andrew Hathaway, 


Freetown, . 


G. M. Nichols, . 


6 


191-M, 


G. S. Hodgman, 


Gardner, 


T. W. Danforth, . 


5 




Leander B. Smalley, 


Gay Head, . 


J. W. Belain, 


8 




Thos. A. Watson, . 


Georgetown, 


C. J. Eaton, » 


3 




Lewis C. Munn, 


Gill, . 


Henry D. Clark, . 


5 


448-W, 


Herbert J. Worth, . 


Gloucester, 


H. J. Worth, 


2 


18-4, . 


John S. Mollison, 


Goshen, 







1 Deceased. 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Dumber* 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 

iNO. 


- 


R. E. Bennett, 


Gosnold, 


- 


- 


- 


Elmer E. Sibley, . 


Grafton, 


C. K. Despeau, . 


5 


6-4. .. . 


G. L. Murray, . 


Granby, 


Chas. N. Rust. . 


5 


12-11, . 


Harry A. Root, 


Granville, . 


- 


- 


327-W, 


D. W. Flynn, . . 


Great Barrins:- 


T. J. Kearin, 


5 




ton. 




439-M, 


J. W. Bragg, . 


Greenfield, . 


J. W. Bragg, . 


5 


33-24. Enfield, . 


Wm. H. Walker, . 


Greenwich, 


E. A. Sawtelle, . 


5 


71-5. . 


Chas. M, Raddin, . 


Groton, 


J. F. Bateman, 


4 


2939-M, 


Sidney E. Johnson, 


Groveland, . 


R. B. Larive, 


3 


651-33, 


Edw. P. West, . 


Hadley, 


Edw. P. West, 


5 


5-32, Bryantville, 


Geo. A. Estes, . 


Halifax, 


F. D. Lyon, . 


7 


128-M, 


Fred Berry, 


Hamilton, . 


E. G. Brewer, 


2 


5-14, . 


Edw. P. Lyons, 


Hampden, . 


- 


- 


17-F-2, 


Chas. F. Tucker, . 


Hancock, . 


- 


- 


51-5, Rockland, . 


Chas. E. Damon, . 


Hanover, 


L. Russell, . 


7 


12-23, Bryantville, 


Geo, T. Moore, 


Hanson, 


Geo. T. Moore, . 


7 


2-5, . 


Henry J. Breen, 


Hardwick, . 


Geo. J. Fay. . 


5 


46-3, . 


Benj. J. Priest, 


Harvard, 


G. C. Maynard, . 


4 


103-12. 


John Condon, . 


Harwich, 


Arthiu- F, Gaboon, 


8 


72-4. . . . 


Fred T. Bardwell, . 


Hatfield, 


Seth W. Kingsley, 


5 


4-2, . 


John B. Gordon, 


Haverhill, . 


M. J. Fitzgerald, . 


3 


6-7, Charlemont. 


Herbert A. Holden, 


Hawley, 


- 


- 


5-18. . 


S. G. Benson, . 


Heath, 


- 


- 


21305 or 500, 


Geo. Gushing, . 


Hingham, . 


T. L. Murphy, . 


7 


- 


A. N. Warren, . 


Hinsdale, . 


- 


- 


134-W, Randolph, 


Melvin L. Coulter, . 


Holbrook, . 


Bradford Parks. . 


7 


42-4, . 


Winfred H. Stearns, 


Holden, 


W. H. Stearns, . 


5 


5-21, Brimfield, . 


Oliver L. Howlett, . 


Holland, 


A. F. Blodgett, . 


5 


1-2, . 


W. A. CoUins, . 


Holliston, . 


Herbert E. Jones, 


6 


2468-M, 


C. J. Haley, . 


Holyoke, 


T. a. Bray, . 


5 


395-R, 


W. F. Durgin, , 


Hopedale, . 


W. F. Durgin, 


5 


Central, 


R. I. FraU, 


Hopkinton, 


W. A. MacMillan, 


5 


35-11, . 


W. L. LoveweU, 


Hubbardston, . 


Otto Rugg, . 


5 




Wm. L. Wolcott, 


Hudson, 


F. P. Hosmer, 


4 






Hull, . 


J. Knowles, . 


7 


4-11, . 


John J. Kirby, 


Huntington, 






163-M, . 


Arthur H. Walton, . 


Ipswich, 


J. A. Morey. . 


2 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 17 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 

NUMBEB. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 




15-3, . 


Arthur B. Holmes, . 


Kingston, . 


R. F. Randall, . 


8 


261-W, 


Nathan F. Washburn, . : 


Lakeville, 


N. F. Washburn, . 


7 


218-J, . 


Arthur W. Blood, . 


Lancaster, . 


L. R. Griswold, . 


4 


1295-24, 


King D. Keeler, 


Lanesborough, . 


Geo. H. Judi\4ne, 


5 


90, . 


Dennis Carey, 


Lawrence, . 


I. B. Kelly, . 


3 


66-3, . 


Jas. W. Bossidy, 


Lee, 


_ — 


~ 


37-5, . 


B. H. FogweU, 


Leicester, 


J. H. Woodhead, 


5 


135, . 


Oscar R. Hutchinson, 


Lenox, . 


T. Francis Mackey, 


5 


546, . 


Fred A. Russell, 


Leominster, 


D. E. Bassett, 


4 


9-44, Cooleyville, 


0. C. Marvell, . 


LeTerett, 


H. W. Field, 


5 


480, . 


Robert Watt, . 


Lexington, . 


A. P. Howe, . 


1 


289-11, Greenfield, 


Jacob Sauter, . 


Leyden, 


Wm. A. Campbell, 


5 


44-W, . 


John J. Kelliher, 


Lincoln, 


J. J. Kelliher, 


4 


17^, . 


A. E. Hopkins, 


Littleton, . 


A. E. Hopkins, 


4 


6375-J, 


Oscar C. Pomeroy, . 


Longmeadow, . 




- 


3400, . 


E. F. Saunders, 


Lowell, 


J. G. Gordon, 




1-12, . 


H. A. Munsing, 


Ludlow, 


Ashley N. Bucher, 


5 


20. . . . 


J. S. Gilchrest, 


Lunenburg, 


James S. Gilchrest, 


4 


1174, . 


Geo. A. Cornet, 


Lynn, . 


G. H. McPhetres, . 


2 


17-2, . 


Oscar E. Phillips, . 


Lynnfield, . 


L. H. Twiss, 


2 




Watson B. Gould, . 


Maiden, 


W. B. Gould, 


1 


319-W, 


Peter A. Sheahan, . 


Manchester, 


P. A. Sheahan, 


2 


281-W, 


Herbert E. King, 


Mansfield, . 


E. Jasper Fisher, . 


6 




John T. Adams, 


Marblehead, 


W. J. Stevens, 


2 


116, . 


Richard W. Clark, . 


Marion, 


J. Allenach, . 


8 


416 or 151-M, 


Edw. C. MLnehan, . 


Marlborough, 


M. E. Lyons, 


4 


43-3, . 


W. G. Ford, . 


Marshfield, . 


P. R. Livermore, . 


7 


31-2, Cotuit, 


Darius Coombs, 


Mashpee, 


W. F. Hammond, . 


8 


13-3, . 


Frank A. Tinkham, 


Mattapoisett, 


Webster Kinnej-, . 


; 8 


115-4 or 138-3, . 


Geo. H. Gutteredge, 


Maynard, . 


A. Coughlin, 


4 


106-4 


TT . Hi. r\ iTigaDury, 


meoxLoKi, 


i n T T Alien 


6 


53 or 138, . 


C. E. Bacon, . 


Medford, 


W. J. Gannon, 


\ 1 


61-2 or 61-3, 


Phineas McNutt, 


Medway, 


F. Hager, 


1 6 






Melrose, 


J. J.McCullough, . 


1 


188-M, 


F. M. Aldrich, 


; Mendon, 


F. M. Aldrich, . 




21-3, . 


Edgar P. Sargent, . 


1 Merrimac, . 


1 C. R. Ford, . 


1 3 


229 C. F. D., 


Wilbur M. Freeman, 


1 

Methuen, 


A. H. Wagland, . 


1 ' 



IS THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


232-W or 232-M, . 


W. H. Connor, 


Middleborough, 


Linam Chute, 


7 


1, pay station, 


G. E. Cook, 


Middlefield, 






63-23, . 


Oscar H. Sheldon, . 


Middleton, . 


B. T. McGlauflin, 


2 


65-3, . 


Elbert M. Crockett, 


Milford, 


P. F. Fitzgerald, . 


5 


30, . . . 


Harry L. Snelling, . 


Millbxiry, . 


E. F. Roach, 


5 


5-2, .. . 


Chas. LaCroix, 


Millis, . 


Everett Caldwell, . 


6 


322, . 


Nathaniel T. Kidder, 


Milton, 


N. T. Kidder, 


7 


7-22, Readsbor- 

ough. 
12-22, . 


Huel S. Tower, 
0. E. Bradway, 


Monroe, 
Monson, 


Robert S. Fay, 


5 


713-22, Greenfield, 


Frank B. Gillette, . 


Montague, . 


F. H. Gillette, 


5 


164-25, Great Har- 
rington. 
3-24, Russell, 


Jasper H. Bills, 
Andrew J. Hall, 


Monterey, 
Montgomery, 






17-21, Copoke, 
N. Y. 


Guy W. Patterson, . 


Mt. Washington, 
Nahant, 


T. Roland, 


2 


16-5, . 


Peter M. Hussey, 


Nantucket, 


C. C. Macy, 


g 


244-M, 


Bernard Darling, 


Natick, 


H. S. Hunnewell, 


6 


195-1, . 
_ 


H. Howard Upham, 
Chas. L. Baker, 


Needham, . 
New Ashford, 


E. E. Riley, . 


6 


2280, . 


Edw. F. Dahill, 


New Bedford, 


C. F. Lawton, 


g 


6-4, Gilbertville, . 


Frank A. Morse, 


New Braintree, . 


E. L. Havens, 


5 


13-6, Sheffield, . 


E. M. Stanton, 


New Marlbor- 
ough. 

New Salem, 






10, Cooleyville, . 


Sewell V.King, 


R. King, 


5 


173-5, . 


W. P. BaUey, . 


Newbury, 


Percy Oliver, 


3 


380, . 


Chas. P. Kelley, . 


Newburyport, 


C. P. Kelley, 


3 


30, South, . 


Walter B. Randlett, 


Newton, 


W. W. Colton, 


1 


41-5, Franklin, . 


Jas. T. Buckley, 


Norfolk, 


James T. Buckley, 


6 


265 or 205-W, 


H. J. Montgomery, . 


North Adams, 


John Martin, 


5 


1029-J, 


Wm. L. Smith, 


North Andover, 


Fred W. Phelan 


3 


317-2, . 
63-4, . 


Chas. F. Gehrung, . 
Oscar C. Hirbour, . 


North Attlebor- 
ough. 

North Brookfield, 


F. P. Toner, 

S. D. Colburn, . 


5 
5 


33-3 or 45, . 


Henry A. Upton, 


North Reading, . 


G. E. Eaton, 


. 1 


165 or 619-W, 


F.E.Chase, . 


Northampton, . 


Christopher Clarke,! 


5 


12-7, . 


Clarence E. Bailey, 


Northborough, . 


Lewis H. Smith, . 


5 


71-5 or 13-3, 


W. E. Burnap, 


Northbridge, 


A. F. Whitin, 


5 


2-3, . . . 


Fred W. Doane, 


Northfield, . 


F. W. Doane, 


5 


2911, . 


Geo. H. Storer, 


Norton, 


G. H. Storer, 


6 


27-3, . 


John Whalon, . 


Norwell, 


J. H. Sparrell, 


7 



' Deceased. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Supertntendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


n'o.' 




F. W. Talbot, . 


Norwood, . 


C. A. Bingham, . 


6 


119-4, . 


F. W. Chase, . 


Oak BluSs, 


P. P. Hurley, 


8 


17-5, . 


Chas. H. Trowbridge, 


Oakham, 


C. H. Trowbridge, 


5 


232-12, 


Wm. Walsh, 


Orange, 


F. M. Jennison, . 


5 


33-2» . 


James Boland, 


Orleans, 


A. Smith, 


8 


15, . . . 


D. A. Witter, . 


Otis, 






9-5, 


Clin D. Vickera, 


Oxford, 


C. G. Lamed, 


5 


53-3 or 53-12, 


James Summers, 


Palmer, 


C. H. Keith, 


5 


159-J, Cedar, 


Fred L. Dvirgin, 


Paxton, 


F. L. Durgin, 


5 


182-Y, 


Michael V. McCarthy, , 


Peabody, 


J. J. Callahan, 


2 


144-3, . 


Edw. E. Adriance, . 


Pelham, 


Marion E. Richard- 


5 


7-23, Bryantville, 


Jos. J. Shepherd, 


Pembroke, . 


son. 

Wm. C. Jones, 


7 


54-3 or 12-5, 


Geo. G. Tarbell, . 


Pepperell, . 


J. Tune, 


4 


Central, 


D wight T. Raymond, 


Peru, 






13-2, 


CJeo. P. Marsh, 


Petersham, . 


Daniel Broderick, 


5 


176-0, AtQOi, 


W. H. Cowlbeck, 


Fniiiipston, 


W. H. Cowlbeck, . 


5 


so4 or ooo-M, 


Chas. L, Klein, 


Pittsfield, 






33-22, Cumming- 
ton. 

^do-J, rsortn At- 

tleborough. 
264, 


Albert F. Dyer, 
R. P. Rhodes, . 
Ira C. Ward, . 


Plainfield, . 
Fiamyille, . 
Plymouth, . 


T 1- TTT TTTl- *J. 

John W. White, 
A. A. Raymond, . 


6 
8 


13-7, . 


David Lt, Bncknell, 


Plympton, , 


D. L. Bricknell, . 


8 


iy-4, (Jooieyviiie, 


A. W. Doubleday, 


Prescott, 


C. M. Pierce, 


5 


13-4, . 


F. W. Bryant, . 


Princeton, . 


F. A. Skinner, 


5 


49-11, . 


J. H. Bamett, . 


Proyincetown, . 


J. M. Burch, 


8 


1, Quincy, . 


Faxon T. Billings, . 


Quincy, 


A. J. Stewart, 


7 


35-4, . 


Richard F. Forrest, 


Randolph, . 


Charles Cole, 


7 


1284-R, 


John V. Festing, 


Baynham, . 


G. M. Leach, 


6 


518-W, 


H. E. Mclntire, 


Beading, 


H. M. Donegan, . 


^ 


11-12, . 


BenJ. F. Monroe, 


Behoboth, . 


R. E. Anderson, . 


6 






Bevere, 


G. P. Babson, 


2 


8-2, .. . 


Timothy B. Salmon, 


Bichmond, . 






12-5, North Ro- 
chester. 
55-X, . 


Daniel E. Hartley, . 
John H. Burke, 


Bochester, . 
Bockland, . 


John N. Morse, . 
F. H. Shaw, . 


8 
7 


28^, . 


John C. Martin, 


Bockport, . 


F. A. Babcock, . 


2 


21-6, Charlemont, 


Merritt A. Peck, 


Bo we. 






3-13, . 


Daniel O'Brien, 


Bowley, 


L. R. Bishop, 


3 


279-2, Athol, 


Levins G. Forbes, . 


Boyalston, . 


P. F. Richards, . 


5 



20 ' THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 

iNO. 








Bussell, 


- 


- 


13-3, . 




Henry Converse, 


Rutland, 
Salem, . 


H. E. Wheeler, . 
Warren P. Hale, . 


5 


123-21, Newbury- 

port. 
202-12, Winsted, 

Conn. 
43-2, Sagamore, . 


Jas. H. Pike, . 
Arthur L. Strickland, 
Jerome R. Hoi way. 


Salisbury, . 
Sandisfleld, 
Sandwich, . 


H. C. Rich, . 
- 

B. F. Dennison, . 


3 
- 

8 


115, . 




Chas. L. Davis, 


Saugus, 


T. E.Berrett, 


2 


4-16, , 




Clinton Tilton, 


Savoy, . 


- 


- 


129-3, . 




E. R. Seaverns, 


Scituate, 


Lester D. Hobson, 


7 


399-L-5, 

tucket. 
185-3, . 


Paw- 


John L. Baker, 
Warren C. Morse, 


Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


C.W.Thompson, . 
J. J. Geissler, 


6 
6 


26, 




Arthur H. Tuttle, . 


Sheffield, 






130-2, . 




Chas. S. Dole, 


Shelbume, , 


Charles S. Dale, . 


5 


11-M, . 




Milo F. Campbell, . 


Sherbom, . 


J. P. Dowse, 


6 


16-21, . 




A. A. Adams, . 


Shirley, 


A. A. Adams, 


4 


48, 




E. A. Logan, . 


Shrewsbury, 


Robert C. Clapp, 


5 


2-14, Cooleyville, 


Nathan J. Hunting, 


Shutesbury, 


E. Colfax Johnson, 


5 


2632-M, 
River. 


Fall 


Wm. F. Griffiths, . 
- 


Somerset, . 
Somerville, . 


C. Riley, 

A. B. Pritchard, . 


6 
1 


3164-W, 




Louis H. Lamb, 


South Hadley, . 


C. R. Frye, . 


5 


151-23, 




C. S. Olds, 


Southampton, . 


C. S. Olds, • . 


5 


13, Marlborough, 


Harry Burnett, 


Southborough, . 


H. Burnett, 


5 


11. . 




Aimee Langevin, 


Southbridge, 


A. Langevin, 


5 


8-2, . 




B. M. Hastings, 


Southwick, 


- 


- 


77-4, . 




A. F. Hewlett, 


Spencer, 


G. Ramer, . 


■ 5 






Chas. S. Taylor, 


Springfield, 


J. Alden Davis, . 


5 


5-12, . 




J. T. Wilder, . 


Sterling, 


J. H. Kilburn, 


4 






Geo. Schneyer, 


Stockbridge, 


Brown Caldwell, . 


5 


176-3, . 




Albert J. Smith, 


Stoneham, . 


G. M. Jefts, . 


1 


121-3, . 




Fred H. Pye, . 


Stoughton, 


W. P. Kennedy, . 


7 


166-21, Maynard, 


Wm TT Porter 


Stow, 


xi. VY . xienicK, 


A 

% 


6-1, . 




C.M.Clark, . 


Sturbridge, 


C. M. Clark, 


5 


5-4. . 




S.W.Hall, 


Sudbury, 


W. E. Baldwin, . 


4 


46. South Deer- 
field. 
58-32, Millbury, . 


A. C. Warner, . 
Ransom H. Richardson, . 


Sunderland, 
Sutton, 


Richard Graves, . 
R. H. Richardson, 


5 
5 


1911-J, 




Everett P. Mudge, . 


Swampscott, 


E. P. Mudge, 


2 


468-W. 




Thos. L. Mason, 


Swansea, 


A. E. Arnold, 


6 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 21 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telkphone 
Number. 


Forest Warden, 


Town or City. 


Loc3.1 Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


1-W or 320, . 


Fred A. Leonard, 


Taunton, 


L. W. Hodgkins, . 


6 


30 or 26-5, . 


C. A. Fletcher, 


Templeton, 


J. B. Wheeler, 


5 


4249-J, Lowell, . 


Harris M. Briggs, 


Tewksbury, 


H. M. Briggs, 




161-4 or 102-3, 


Jiilmer O. Ohadwick, 


Tisbury, 


TT TXT HC^T 11 — 

i±. W. McLellan, . 


8 


269-14, Winsted, . 


C. L. Vining, . 


Tolland, 






8038, , 


Chas. W. Floyd, 


Topsneld, . 


TXT T7«l J 

C. W. Floyd, 


2 


37-2 or 51-2, 


F. J. Piper, 


Townsend, . 


G. E. King, . 


4 




Walter F. Rich, 


Truro, . 


J. H. Atwood, 




1, Tyngsborough, 


Otis L. Wright, 


Tyngsborough, . 


O. J. Allgrove, 




3-6. . 


Chfford R. Canon, . 


Tyringham, 






17-4 or 4-2, . 


Chas. H. Marshall, . 


Upton, 


G. H. Evans, 


5 


51-5, . 


Lewis F. Rawson, . 


Uzbridge, . 


Willard Holbrook, 


5 


58 or 455-M, 


W. E. Cade, 


Walcenela, . 


W. W. Whittredge, 


^ 




W. W. Eager, . 


Wales, . 


M. C. Royce, 


5 


107-2, , 


Jas. J. Hennessey, . 


Walpole, 


George Kingsbury, 


6 


6, . . . 


Geo. L. Johnson, 


Waltham, . 


W. M. Ryan, 


1 


117-13, 


Joseph Dupre, 


Ware, . 


F. Zeissig, 


5 


45-23 and 8004-14, 


Dalbert C. Keyes, . 


Wareham, . 


J. J. Walsh, . 


8 




Timothy M. GoUins, 


Warren, 


A. A. Warriner, 


5 


73-3, Orange, 


C. A. Williams, 


Warwick, 


Chas. E. Stone, . 


5 


12-4, . 


Lester G. Heath, 


Washington, 






116, Newton 


John C. Ford, . 


Watertown, 


J. C. Ford, . 


1 


North. 






31-3, . 


Howard C. Haynes, 


Wayland, 


D. J. Graham, 


4 


101-R, 


Ernest L. Wallis, 


Webster, 


C. Klebart, . 


5 


9 or 359-M, . 


John P. Doyle, 


Wellesley, 


F. M. Abbott, 


6 




John Holbrook, 


Wellfleet, 


E. S. Jacobs, 


8 


74-32, Orange, 


Lewis B. Bowen, 


Wendell, 


G. E. Mills, . 


5 


74, Hamilton, 


J. D. Barnes, . 


Wenham, 


J. E. Kavanaugh, 


2 


73-3, . 


Fred E. Clark, 


W. Boylston, 


R. K. Parker, 


5 


4137, . 


Warren P. Laughton, 


W. Bridgewater, 


0. Belmore, . 


7 


114-3, North 


John H. Webb, 


W. Brookfield, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


5 


Brookfield. 




5-2 and 5-6, 


Louis H. Flook, 


West Newbury, . 


Frank D. Bailey, . 


3 


2067-W, 


Dana S. Moore, 


W. Springfield, . 


Geo. W. Hayden, 


5 


8016, . 


Benj. P. Bissell, 


W. Stockbridge, . 






92-a, . 


Wm. J. Rotch, 


West Tisbury, . 


H. W. Athearn, . 


8 


74-2, . 


Geo. E. Walker, 


Westborough, . 


Geo. Hayden, ♦ . 


5 


111-Y or 111-W, . 


T. H. Mahoney, 


Westfield, . 









22 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


44-11. . 


Harry L. Nesmith, . 


Westford, . 


H. L. Nesmith, . 


1 


148-14, 


Clayton A. Bartlett, 


Westhampton, , 


- 


- 


1-3. .. . 


Windsor F. Neal, 


Westminster, 


G. A. Sargent, 


5 


37, Waltham, or 

lOa^— ixL* 

14-21, . 


Benj. R. Parker, . 


Weston, 


E. P. Ripley, 


4 


Frank Whalon, 


Westport, . 


H. A. Sanford, . 


8 


123-M, Dedham, 


Elmer E. Smith, 


Westwood, . 


Martin Sorenson, . 


6 


154-W. 


E. S. Wright, . 


Weymouth, 


C. L. Merritt, 


7 


39-14, South 
349-W, 


J. H. Pease, . 


Whately, 


Rylan C. Howes, . 


5 


Clarence A. Randall, 


Whitman, . 


C. A. Randall, . 


7 


1-4, .. . 


Henry I. Edson, 


Wilbraham, 


F. B. Metcalf, 


5 


8011-2, 


John L. Brown, 


Williamsbtirg, 


- 


- 


34-W, . 


Wm. H. Davies, 


Williamstown, . 


Wm. Davies, 


5 


28-2, . 


Oliver McGrane, 


Wilmington, 


0. McGrane, 


1 


29 or 190, . 


Arlon D. Bailey, 


Winchendon, 


G. W. Drury, 


5 


123-2 or 39-W, . 


David H. DeCourcy, 


Winchester, 


S. S. Symmes, 


1 


201-12, 


Amos S. Ferry, 


Windsor, 
Winthrop, . 


M. F. Smith, Jr., . 


2 


110, . 


Frank E. Tracy, 


Wobiirn, 


H. B. Mackay, . 


1 


3064-M, Park, . 


Arthur V. Parker, . 


Worcester, . 


H. J. Neale, . 


5 


10-22, . 


Chas. A. Kilbourn, . 


Worthington, 






23-5, . 


Geo. H. E. Mayshaw, 


Wrentham, . 


W. Gilmore, . 


6 


53-33, Barnstable, 


Jos. W. Hamblin, . 


Yarmouth, . 


C. R. Bassett, 


8 





Office Work. 

Perhaps it would not be out of place to say a few words 
here about the work of our office as it touches the general 
public. 

Much time and conscientious work are spent in giving advice 
to any one who seeks it in regard to forest planting, thinning, 
forest insects and tree diseases. 

Hundreds of insects are brought to this office for identifica- 
tion during the year, and information concerning their habits 
given and remedial measures recommended. Town officials 
are always welcome, and consultations in regard to local prob- 
lems, local superintendents and their w^ork, forest wardens and 
other matters are readily granted. The explanation of the 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 23 



various complicated laws under which we work — forest taxa- 
tion law, reforestation, gypsy-moth suppression, forest fire 
prevention — is often necessary, and is courteously and fully 
made. 

We receive throughout the year many hundreds of applica- 
tions for work, and although our work does not enable us to em- 
ploy directly many persons, we often place them in towns or 
cities, with contractors in private thinning jobs, or on the 
North Shore. 

The adjusting of town accounts by the bookkeeper is an 
important part of our work, and the office is always glad of an 
opportunity to compare our accounts with those of town 
treasurers, selectmen or local superintendents. 

We are always glad to recommend literature to those desiring 
information regarding forestry matters, or we send , such pub- 
lications as we have free of charge. 

We send out many circular letters of information to our divi- 
sion superintendents, forest wardens and town officials. We 
look up all complaints of individuals in regard to work that is. 
poorly done by town officials or contractors, and inspect work 
done by contractors, if desired. 

State Forester^s Travel. 

The activities of the State Forester during the year are 
probably far greater than most people realize. Besides the 
regular routine of his office, which necessarily demands con- 
stant attention, the forester has to travel from one end of the 
State to the other many times during the year. 

Travel by automobile is the most satisfactory way, as it en- 
ables one to visit even remote and comparatively inaccessible 
places that a few years ago would have been difficult to see. 
It has not been uncommon for the forester to travel from 
100 to 200 miles a day with his division men, and meanwhile 
examine the work in progress in many towns and cities. Travel 
by automobile alone approximated 15,000 miles during the year. 

But few trips have been outside the State this year. The 
principal one was to attend the meeting of the Association of 
Eastern Foresters, which was held at Mont Alto, Pa., at the 
Pennsylvania Forestry Academy. The State of Pennsylvania 
has over 1,000,000 acres set aside as State forests, and these 



24 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



forests are superintended and managed by the graduates of 
their own forest academy. Each graduate is required to devote 
three years following his graduation to the State's employ, for 
which he is paid a definite amount. 

Each of these State forests has its particular problem to 
solve, and a comparison of results due to local markets, ship- 
ping facilities, etc., proved interesting. Visits like this are edu- 
cational, as they offer splendid comparisons of undertakings in 
forestry under radically different conditions. Practical opera- 
tions and methods pursued were discussed by the various 
foresters present. 

Last February the State Forester was invited to take part 
in the dedication of the new forestry building at the Ohio State 
University at Columbus, O., at which time he gave an address 
on the subject, "Evolution of American Forestry." This is 
published elsewhere in the report. 

Trips to Keene, N. H., and Peterboro, N. H., where forestry 
was discussed before good-sized audiences, were made during 
the year. 

Obituaries. 
Governors Guild and Rollins, 

The State Forester bespeaks the privilege of calling to the 
attention of those who are lovers of trees and forests the great 
loss to Massachusetts, and New England in general, by the 
hand of death during the present year, of two of our Ex- 
Governors who have been closely identified with forestry 
development. These men were Governor Curtis Guild of 
Massachusetts and Governor Frank W. Rollins of New Hamp- 
shire. Due to his connection with the New Hampshire College, 
the writer was closely identified with the latter when he was 
Governor of New Hampshire. He was appointed to his present 
position in 1906 by Governor Guild, through whose personal 
interest the Massachusetts work was so rapidly advanced. 

Governor Guild was elected president of the American 
Forestry Association, which office he held for two terms. 
Governor Rollins was president of the Society for the Protection 
of New Hampshire Forests from its inception, I believe, until 
his death. He was also chairman of the forestry committee of 
the Boston Chamber of Commerce for a number of years. 



Removing wild cherry trees along the highway, Marshfield. These trees are stripped annu- 
ally by the tent caterpillars and should be replaced by some trees that are better adapted 
to roadside planting. 




A country roadside in Hingham where the food of the gj'p^y aiid brown-tail moths has been 
cut out. The remaining trees being evergreen need no future treatment, and hence this 
thinning is a great saving to the town. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



25 



Both Governors were powerful factors in aiding in the enact- 
ing by Congress of the Weeks bill, which has enabled us to 
establish national reserves in the White Mountains ' and in the 
southern Appalachian INIountains. 

Truly these men may properly be designated as the forestry 
and conservation Governors of their respective States of Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire. 

The writer considers it was indeed a privilege and inspiration 
to have been associated with these men, who were not only 
lovers of forestry and nature but of their fellow men, and 
examples of the true statesmen of our beloved country. 

Relief for the Unemployed. 
The late winter months of 1914 found many thousands of 
Massachusetts citizens without employment, and as the sea- 
son advanced conditions did not improve, and later grew 
worse. Responsibility for this unfortunate condition was as- 
cribed to many causes that need not be discussed here. By 
the time the Legislature convened in January the situation 
had become so acute as to arouse to action many philanthropic 
citizens and societies, and Governor Walsh, in opening his 
inaugural address to the Legislature, referred to the gravity of 
the situation in these words: "Unemployment, with its in- 
evitable concomitants of suffering and crime, has risen above 
the normal level. First of all, I earnestly ask your immediate 
action to solve, as far as a solution is within our power, the 
pressing problem of the unemployed." In response to this 
urgent appeal of His Excellency for remedial legislation the 
committee of agriculture promptly reported the following re- 
solve, which was with the utmost expedition passed by both 
branches of the General Court, and was approved by the Gov- 
ernor on Feb. 9, 1915: — 

Resolved, That the state forester be directed to provide emplojnnent 
for needy persons deemed by him to be worthy thereof, preference being 
given to residents of the commonwealth and to persons who have others 
dependent upon them for support. The moneys authorized to be spent 
under the provisions of this resolve shall be spent upon the improvement 
and protection of forests and in any other public work which may in the 
opinion of the state forester be proper. There shall be allowed and paid 



26 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



out of the treasury of the commonwealth for this purpose the sum of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, together with any unexpended balances 
of the amounts appropriated to be used under the provisions of chapter 
seven hundred and fifty-nine of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and 
thirteen and chapter five hundred and ninety-six of the acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and fourteen. For the purpose of carrying out the 
provisions of this resolve, the state forester may appoint his duly accred- 
ited agents as special police oflacers to serve for such period as may be 
determined by him and subject to removal by him. Such officers shall 
serve without pay, except their regular compensation as agents or em- 
ployees of the state forester, and shall receive no fees for services or return 
of crimmal process. They shall have, throughout the conunonwealth, the 
powers of constables and pohce officers to arrest and detain any person 
violating the law of the commonwealth, but they shall not have power 
to serve any process in civil cases. The civil service laws and the rules 
and regulations made thereunder shall not apply to this resolve or to 
any action taken hereunder. 

It is believed that this is the first instance where a State has 
endeavored by legislation to solve an economic problem of this 
character. 

The nature of the work with which this department is 
charged, such as moth suppression, forest fire prevention and 
the various branches of forestry endeavor, enabled the depart- 
ment to begin operations immediately, and several hundred 
men were given employment in moth-suppression and forestry 
work. While the resolve gave to the State Forester the au- 
thority to appoint special police officers as a safeguard against 
possible trouble of any nature, he did not exercise this right, 
the organization of the field force of the department being 
sufficient to make such a course unnecessary. In fact, the 
knowledge and efficiency of the State Forester's agents and 
assistants, together with the plan of co-operation entered into 
between the officials of cities and towns and the department, 
made it possible to apply practically the entire appropriation 
to labor, without any overhead charges. 

In the discharge of the duty imposed upon him by the re- 
solve the State Forester not only endeavored to carry into 
effect the real spirit , and purpose of the Legislature, — the 
employment of needy persons, — but applied the funds to the 
promotion of such branches of the forest service of the Com- 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



27 



monwealth as would in his opinion be of the greatest and most 
permanent benefit to the State. The work accomplished, both 
in amount and quality, far exceeded his expectations. Co- 
operating with the Massachusetts committee to promote work, 
arrangements were made with the local committees in most of 
the cities and towns insuring the employment of those needy 
persons most worthy to become beneficiaries under the legis- 
lation, and in a majority of the cities and towns it was 
left with the overseers of the poor to determine those who 
should be selected for work, as in the discharge of their 
duties as officials they were enabled to have a much more 
intimate knowledge of local conditions than could any one 
else. 

It was the aim of the State Forester to distribute the funds 
as equitably as possible among the various cities and towns, 
and in those cities and towns where there was insufficient moth 
and forestry work to be done to meet the demands of the un- 
employed situation men were transferred to other cities and 
towns. This plan was followed in the case of Clinton, Wey- 
mouth, Natick, Framingham, Quincy and many other places, 
and worked out perfectly satisfactorily. 

The work carried on under this special legislation had pro- 
gressed but a few weeks when its value as a relief measure 
obtained general recognition, and the Governor in a special 
message to the Legislature earnestly recommended that an 
extra appropriation of S50,000 be made available for the use of 
the State Forester, in order that the work might be continued 
until such time in the spring as the demand for labor in agri- 
cultural and other outdoor pursuits would result in reducing 
the tension of the unemployed problem. The text of the mes- 
sage is as follows: — 

I have received from the State Forester a report of the doings of his 
department in connection with the expenditure of the special appropria- 
tion of $50,000 entrusted to him by chapter 2 of the resolves of the present 
year. He states that the appropriation, supplemented by certain sums 
received from municipalities and private citizens in payment for work 
done, has enabled him to give work to some 1,200 persons who otherwise 
would have been without employment, and that their services have been 
satisfactory beyond his expectation. 



28 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The appropriation will be exhausted, at the present rate of expenditure, 
in about three weeks, while the end of the need for special provisions for 
relief of unemplojTuent is not yet in sight. 

I recommend, therefore, that an additional appropriation of $50,000 
be placed at the State Forester's disposal, to be expended by him in pro- 
viding emplojTnent for needy persons in accordance with the terms of 
the original resolve. 

The Legislature, acting promptly on the suggestion con- 
tained in the message, passed a resolve authorizing the ex- 
penditure of $50,000, said sum to be in addition to any amounts 
previously authorized, and this resolve was approved by the 
Governor March 19, 1915. After several conferences with 
representatives of the committee on the unemployed, appointed 
by the Governor, the State Forester induced many woodland 
owners to undertake forest-thinning operations, which resulted 
in the vast improvement of between 1,000 and 2,000 acres of 
forest land, the cost of such work being divided between the 
owner and the State. The activity of the division moth super- 
intendents in arousing the interest of property owners in this 
character of work was very commendable, and much appre- 
ciated by the State Forester. The araount of money received 
from private individuals was about $15,000, and this allowed 
the continuance of the relief of the unemployed several weeks 
longer than w^ould otherwise have been possible. 

The State Forester desires to express his grateful apprecia- 
tion of the cordial spirit of co-operation shown by the various 
cities and towns, w^hich w^as manifested in many ways. Many 
towTis and cities, and in some instances individuals, furnished 
without cost the transportation of men to and from work 
where long distances made such transportation necessary. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



Statement showing Aggregate Number of Men employed Each 
Week and Cost of Pay Rolls. 



Week ending — 



Number of 
Men. 



Amount of 
Pay Rolls. 



Feb. 13, . 

18, . 

25, . 

Mar. 4, . 

11, . 

18, . 

25, . 
Apr. 1, 

8, . 

15, . 

22, . 

29, . 
May 6, . 

14, . 

21, . 

28, . 
June 3, 

10, . 
17, . 
24, . 

July 2, . 

9, . 

16, . 

23, . 

30, . 
Aug. 7, . 

14, . 

21, . 

28, . 

Sept. 4, . 

11. . 
16, . 

Oct. 23, . 

30, . 

Nov. 6, . 

13, . 

20, . 

27, . 
Miscellaneous, 



101 


$477 10 


553 


3,110 70 


1,254 


6,605 90 


1,422 


10,181 05 


1,356 


10,102 20 


1,297 


9,263 39 


1,220 


9,081 62 


1,313 


9,587 02 


1,348 


8,470 06 


1,432 


10,745 63 


1,315 


9,379 32 


1,114 
961 


8,406 30 


5,241 61 


317 


2,346 43 


264 


2,052 99 


209 


1,434 71 


153 


1,027 55 


100 


783 20 


104 


822 00 


67 


482 20 




43 00 


22 


148 70 


6 


73 00 


3 


42 00 


13 


240 10 


1 


15 00 


10 


151 74 


8 


102 80 


4 


76 00 


2 


18 40 


2 


13 40 


12 


41 80 


11 


129 30 


5 


37 40 


3 


29 80 


19 


179 90 


48 


415 25 


73 


513 75 




22 22 




$111,912 54 



30 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail. 





Maximum Number 1 
of Men employed. 1 


Number of Miles of 1 
Roadside cleared. 1 


Number of Acres of 
Woodland thinned. 


Acres of Brush 

burned. 


Brushing and Plant- 1 
ing (Acres). 1 


Cords of Wood cut. 1 


Work. 


Amount expended. 


Acton, 


8 


3 




5 






Gypsy moth, . 




$333 08 


Amesbury, .... 


3 


2 










Gypsy moth, . 




128 40 


Amherst, .... 


9 












Fire work, 




299 20 


Andover 


28 


7 


8 








Gypsy moth, . 




2,536 36 


Ashburnham, 


6 


5 










Gypsy moth, . 




515 90 


Whitney lot, . 


9 




- 


- 


65 




Reforestation, . 




456 37 


Athol 


27 










_ 


Fire work. 




300 00 


Attleboro, .... 


20 












Gypsy moth, . 




999 00 


Brochu lot, 










25 




Reforestation, . 




347 38 


Auburn 


7 


10 






~ 




Fire work. 




100 00 


Ayer, 


5 








2 




Gypsy moth, . 




223 35 


Barnstable, .... 
Bedford 


22 
4 


15 
4H 




8 




12 


Gypsy moth 

creosoting. 
Gypsy moth, . 


and 


2,065 41 
344 93 


Belchertown, 


10 












Fire work. 




192 40 


±>erlin, ..... 


20 


3 


2 








Gypsy moth, . 




193 53 


Billerica 


5 


10 




10 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 




494 70 


Bolton 


22 


7 










Gypsy moth, . 




592 87 


Boston (tuberculosis hospi- 
tal). 

Bourne, .... 
Boxborough, 


10 
7 
7 


7 










Gypsy moth, . 

Gypsy moth 

creosoting. 
Gypsy moth, . 


and 


625 50 
503 00 
342 47 


Boxford, , • . 


5 


6 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 




432 85 


Boylston, .... 


6 


%o 








25 


Gypsy moth, . 




178 80 


Braintree, .... 


20 




60 






200 


Gypsy moth, . 




781 30 


Bridgewater, 


6 




5 




3 




Gypsy moth, . 




267 05 


Brockton, .... 


100 


2 


12 






75 


Gypsy moth, . 




1,812 50 


Burlington, .... 


3 


5 










Gypsy moth, . 




208 10 


Carlisle, .... 


2 


6 




10 






Gypsy moth, . 




191 20 


Carver, .... 
Chelmsford, 


12 
5 


4^ 
7 


55 


15 




127 

25H 


Gypsy moth 

creosoting. 
Gypsy moth, . 


and 


980 05 
393 85 


Chester, .... 


4 












Fire work. 




201 00 


Chicopee, .... 


30 












Fire work. 




1,043 20 


Dan vers 


6 


6 










Gypsy moth, . 




467 20 


I^racut, 


7 


8 




8 






Gypsy moth, . 




517 50 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 31 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail — Con. 





Maximum Number 1 
of Men employed. | 


Number of Miles of 
Roadside cleared. 1 


Number of Acres of | 
Woodland thinned. | 


Acres of Brush 1 
burned. 1 


Brushing and Plant- 1 
ing (Acres). | 


Cords of Wood cut. 


Work. 


Amount expended. 


Dudley, .... 


6 


10 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Fire work, 




$200 00 


Duxbury, .... 


5 




_ 


_ 


_ 


10 


Gypsy moth, . 




157 00 


Easthampton, 


27 












Fire work. 




288 20 


Falmouth, .... 
Fall River, .... 
Fitchburg, .... 


7 

32 
30 


_ 

20 


3 
- 


_ 
- 


_ 
- 


_ 
- 


Gypsy moth, creosot- 
ing and inspection. 
Gypsy moth, fire 
lines, road building. 
Gypsy moth, . 


654 40 
4,466 90 
2,105 90 


Forest fire work, > 














Fire work, 




923 40 


Framingham, 


20 


_ 


30 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 




1,745 20 


Gardner, .... 


8 












Fire work. 




200 00 


Greenwood lot. 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


85 


_ 


Reforestation, . 




454 80 


Georgetown, 


5 


IH 


7 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 




476 00 


Gloucester, .... 


10 


_ 


19 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 




485 60 


Grafton 


10 












Fire work. 




480 35 


Great Barrington, 


11 


3 




- 


- 


- 


Fire work. 




250 00 


Greenfield, .... 


7 


10 


2 








Fire work. 




540 80 


Groton, .... 


10 


9 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 




752 40 


Groveland, .... 


5 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 




377 20 


Hadley 

Halifax 


8 
2 


10 










Fire work and 2 acres 

roadside planted. 
Fire work. 


306 65 
108 50 


Hamilton, .... 


10 




20 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 




1,018 48 


Hanover, .... 


5 


10 










Gypsy moth, . 




161 20 


Hanson, .... 


5 


\% 








10 


Gypsy moth, . 




176 35 


Harvard, .... 


6 












Gypsy moth, . 




164 05 


Haverhill, .... 


8 


7M 










Gypsy moth, . 




1,047 40 


Hingham, .... 


10 




25 






50 


Gypsy moth, . 




382 75 


Holyoke, .... 
Water board, . 


22 








50 


:| 


Reforestation, . 




980 00 


Hopkinton, .... 


9 








40 




Reforestation, . 




952 19 


Hubbardston, 
Morgan lot. 


5 






40 




;| 


Reforestation, . 




326 60 


Hudson, 

Ipswich 


20 
4 


10 

6^ 


70 




10 




Reforestation 

gypsy moth. 
Gypsy moth, . 


and 


1,591 91 
259 80 



> Telephone and fire lines. 



32 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail — Con. 





Maximum Number 
of Men employed. 


Number of Miles of 
Roadside cleared. 


1 Number of Acres of 
1 Woodland thinned. 


Acres of Brush 

burned. 


Brushing and Plant- 
ing (Acres). 


Cords of Wood cut. 


Work. 


Amount expended. 


Kingston 

Holmes lot, 






2 


- 


OO 

15 


:l 


Reforestation 
gypsy moth. 


and 


$933 84 


Lancaster 

Blood lot 


9 








1 1\ 


1 

J 


Reforestation, 




1,718 33 


Leicester 


o 
o 












Fire work, 




191 60 


Leominster 


Q 













^ypsy motn. 




568 30 


Lexington, .... 





4 










Gypsy moth. 




511 17 


Lowell, .... 


22 


o 






1 on 




147>t 


ijypsy motn, 




1,784 50 


Ludlow, .... 


g 


11 










Fire work. 




OOfi OA 

236 oO 


Lunenburg, . . 


in 


y 










Gypsy moth, 




344 75 


Lynn 


9n 




Ann 








Gypsy moth, 




1,801 20 


Lynnfield, .... 














Gypsy moth. 




400 40 


Marblehead, 


Q 

o 


/• 












Gypsy moth. 




224 00 


Marlborough, 
Brown lot. 


40 


in 




100 


6 

70 


-J 


Reforestation 
gypsy moth, 


and 


3,455 28 


Marshfield, .... 


c 
o 


6 










Gypsy moth. 




148 40 


Mashpee, .... 


in 




111/ 
66X2 






34 


Gypsy moth. 




821 58 


Methuen, .... 


•7 


4 










Gypsy moth. 




661 60 


Middleborough, . 












100 


Gypsy moth. 




834 10 


Middleborough, . 


4 












Forest fire. 




146 00 


Middleton 


3 












Gypsy moth. 




259 60 


Milford 


13 












Fire work. 




349 00 


Millbury 


7 












Fire work. 




100 00 


Monson 


8 












Fire work. 




204 80 


Montague 


12 












Fire work, 




149 60 


Mount Washington, 


5 












Fire work. 




295 20 


Natick 


50 




80 








Gypsy moth. 




2,350 80 


Needham 


20 




35 








Gypsy moth. 




1,150 80 


New Bedford, 


28 












Gypsy moth. 




1,883 20 


Newbury, .... 


5 




25 


25 






Gypsy moth. 




561 20 


Newburyport, 


10 


4 










Gypsy moth. 




1,036 00 


North Andover, . 


5 


4^ 










Gypsy moth. 




646 20 


North Attleborough, . 


26 












Gypsy moth. 




1,253 90 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 33 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail — Con. 





Maximum Number 
of Men employed. 


Number of Miles of 
Roadside cleared. 


Number of Acres of 
Woodland thinned. 


Acres of Brush 

burned. 


Brushing and Plant- 
ing (Acres). 


Cords of Wood cut. 


Work. 


Amount expended. 


North Brookfield, 
North Reading, . 


11 
3 


3 


- 


8 


- 


- 


Fire work and refor- 
estation. 
Gypsy moth, . 


S411 55 
344 80 


North Shore work (Beverly, 

Essex and Manchester) . 
Northborough, 


82 
22 


8M 
10 


25 
- 


- 


- 
- 


- 

170 


Gypsy moth, . 
Gypsy moth, . 


5,525 40 
1,304 90 


Norwell, .... 


5 




- 


- 


- 


20 


Gypsy moth, . 


64 10 


Norwood, .... 


25 


- 


60 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


1,703 80 


Orange, .... 


28 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fire work. 


599 20 


Oxford 


8 


12 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fire work. 


294 40 


Palmer, .... 


10 


13 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fire work. 


400 00 


Peabody, .... 


10 




24M 








Gypsy moth, . 


861 90 


Pembroke 


11 




15 


- 


_ 


23 


Gypsy moth, . 


420 20 


Pepperell, .... 


10 




- 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


1,038 10 


Pittsfield, .... 


18 












Fire work, 


307 20 


Plymouth, .... 


20 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth , . 


1,607 80 


Plympton, .... 


10 


2H 




- 


- 


46H 


Gypsy moth, . 


981 50 


Princeton 


7 


3M 


- 


- 


- 


f5 


Gypsy moth, . 


434 40 


Reading 


2 


9 


- 


35 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


678 80 


Rehoboth 


6 












Fire work. 


110 00 


Rockport 


3 


4 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


247 40 


Salem, , . . . . 


10 




18 




- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


852 00 


Salisbury 


4 


2 


6 


3 






Gypsy moth, . 


373 60 


Sandwich, .... 
Saugus, .... 


5 
6 




2 
12 


6 






Creosoting and gypsy 

moth. 
Gypsy moth, . 


422 20 
523 20 


Scituate 


5 


2 










Gypsy moth, . 


199 81 


Sheffield 


5 












Fire work. 


176 40 


Shelburne Falls, . 


2 












Fire work, 


69 60 


Shrewsbury, 


9 










45 


Gypsy moth, . 


389 20 


Spencer, .... 


8 


9 










Reforestation, . 


995 46 


Springfield, .... 


31 












Fire work, 


817 60 


Sterling, .... 


16 


14 










Gypsy moth, . 


1,440 43 


Stoughton 


20 




12 






261^ 


Gypsy moth, . 


401 20 


Stow, 


6 


1 










Gypsy moth, . 


156 65 



34 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail — Con. 





Maximum Number 
of Men employed. 


Number of Miles of 
Roadside cleared. 


Number of Acres of 
Woodland thinned. 


Acres of Brush 

burned. 


Brushing and Plant- 
ing (Acres). 


Cords of Wood cut. 


Work. 


Amount expended. 


Sudbury, .... 


5 




1 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


$143 65 


Sutton, .... 


8 


9 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Fire work, 


349 00 


Swampscott, 


4 


- 


20 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


288 80 


Taunton 


24 












Gypsy moth, . 


999 65 


Templeton, .... 


9 












Fire work. 


200 00 


Tewksbury 


5 


3 


- 


15 


- 


64H 


Gypsy moth, . 


552 62 


Tolland, .... 


5 












Fire work, 


134 40 


Topsfield 


3 


H 


8 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


250 60 


Townsend 


8 


5 


- 


- 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


291 10 


Truro 


2 










i 


Gypsy moth, . 
Burning brush 


16 00 


Tyngsborough, 


5 


6 


- 


15 


- 


- 


Gypsy moth, . 


774 05 


Uxbridge, .... 


12 


6 




- 


- 


- 


Fire work, i 


190 50 


Wales 


9 


27 


5 








Fire work, 


294 80 


Walpole 


20 


- 


80 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 


2,482 90 


Wareham, .... 
Warren, .... 


5 
8 


- 
20 


_ 
- 


- 
- 


_ 
- 


- 

- 


Creosoting and gypsy 

moth. 
Fire work, 


431 20 
150 00 


Warwick, .... 


14 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


Fire work, 


301 85 


Way land, .... 


16 


1 


25 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth, . 


966 04 


Webster, .... 


36 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 




250 00 


Wenham, .... 


5 


_ 


15 


_ 


_ 


_ 


Gypsy moth. 


393 80 


West Bridgewater, 


5 


1 


- 


- 


- 


20 


Gypsy moth 


196 20 


West Newbury, . 


5 


072 










Gypsy moth, . 


367 45 


Westborough, 


5 


2 








8 


Gypsy moth. 


140 20 


Highway 

Tower 


10 
5 


12 








:| 


Fire work. 


713 05 


Westfield 


11 


12 










X IXC WWIJV, . . 


327 00 


Westford, .... 


5 


3 




10 






Gypsy moth, . 


381 90 


Westminster, 


5 


3K 








37 


Gypsy moth, . 


549 80 


Fenno lot, 










120 




Gypsy moth, . 


418 60 


Westwood, .... 


20 




50 








Gypsy moth, . 


1,183 50 


Weymouth, 


35 




60 






200 


Gypsy moth, . 


1,504 20 


Williamstown, 


6 












Fire work, 


249 60 


Wilmington, 


2 


6 




20 




35 1 


Gypsy moth, . 


715 70 



» One mile fire line, 12 miles telephone line. 



1916.1 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — Xo. 73. 



35 



Table showing Work done by Unemployed in Detail — Con. 





umbor 
)loyod. 


[ilea of 
eared. 


cres of 
binned. 


h 

urned. 


Plant- 


d cut. 1 




1 

a 




aximum N 
of Men em{ 


umbor of M 
Roadside cl 


umber of A 
Woodland tl 


cres of Brus 
b 


rushing and 
ing (Acres). 


ords of Wooi 


Work. 


mount expci 










< 




O 




< 


Winchendon, 


20 


22 










Gypsy moth, . ] 




















$1,191 75 


State forest, 










75 




Reforestation, . J 




Winchester 


7 












Gypsy moth, . 


36 30 




112 


2yi 


53 






170 


Gypsy moth, . 


3.009 00 



Summary. 

Total number of miles of roadside cleared, 
Total number of acres of woodland thinned, . 
Total number of acres of brush bwrned, . 
Total number of acres brushed and planted, . 
Total number of cords of wood cut, .... 



582%o 
1,4895^ 

613H 

569 
1,958 



Fund for Relief of the Unemployed. 
Appropriation February 9, .... $25,000 00 
Balance from 1913 and 1914 (chapter 127, 

Resolves of 1915), 24,547 55 

Appropriation of March 19 (chapter 2, 

Resolves of 1915), 50,000 00 



Contrihvlions to November 30. 



Attleboro, 

Barnstable, . 

Belchertown, 

Beverly, 

Braintree, 

Brockton, 

Carver, 

Chicopee, 

Dedham, 

Easthampton, 

FaU River, . 

Framingham, 

Georgetown, 

Grafton, 

Greenfield, . 

Hadley, 

Hamilton, 

Haverhill, 



$500 00 

52 00 
150 00 

30 50 
390 50 
500 00 
109 84 
400 00 
300 00 
250 00 
1,500 00 
239 00 

67 20 
200 00 
100 00 
150 00 
144 00 

81 00 



),547 55 



Amounts carried forward, .... $5,164 04 $99,547 55 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Amounts brought forward, .... $5,164 04 $99,547 55 

Hingham, 50 00 

Hudson, 670 00 

Kingston, 43 22 

Lowell, 328 75 

Lynnfield, 58 50 

Mashpee, 56 90 

Marlborough, 20 00 

Prendergast Camp, Mattapan, ... 79 80 

Middleborough, 39 75 

Natick, 578 50 

Needham, 162 00 

New Bedford, 333 90 

Newbur>', 139 29 

North Attleborough, 620 98 

North Shore Conmiittee, 2,386 52 

Non\-ood, 271 89 

Orange, 100 00 

Palmer, 100 00 

Pembroke, 83 60 

Plymouth, 27 34 

Plympton, 57 50 

Shrewsbury, 30 20 

Spencer, 207 62 

Stoughton, 11 50 

Sudbury, 9 75 

Sutton, 150 00 

Taunton, 840 50 

Tewksbury, 104 75 

Topsfield, 2 50 

Wales, 150 00 

Walpole, 1,256 77 

Wareham, 15 00 

Warwick, 150 00 

Wenham, . 100 00 

Wilmmgton, 35 00 

14,436 07 

$113,983 62 

Expenditures. 

Pay roll, $111,912 54 

Supphes, 1,106 00 

I^ent, 10 00 

Stationery and postage, 50 03 

Sundries, 70 35 

113,148 92 

Balance returned to treasury, S834 70 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



37 



Private Co-operative Forestry Work. 

Every year we receive numerous requests for advice on the 
treatment of existing woodlands and the reforestation of cut- 
over and waste lands from private owners. Nearly all such 
inquirers are advised to have these lands examined by one of 
the foresters from this office, in order that the advice may be 
given after a personal inspection of the property. Nearly every 
piece of woodland has characteristics peculiar to itself, and any 
form of general advice given through correspondence or in the 
office is at best unsatisfactory. During the past two years 
applications for examinations lying within the area heavily 
infested by the gypsy moth have been referred to Mr. Kneeland, 
forester for the moth department, and a compilation of the exam- 
inations made by him or his assistants will be found in another 
section of this report. Forty-five examinations, covering about 
4,500 acres, have been made during the past year by the fores- 
try branch of the State Forester's office. 

On occasions we have gone further than simply giving advice, 
and actually superintended the work which we advised the 
owner to do. Owing to the fact that Mr. Haynes, who has in 
the past been doing most of this work, has been engaged by the 
State Forest Commission in making investigations and surveys 
for them during the greater part of the year, we have done less 
than usual x)f this operating work. Several tracts on which 
work was commenced last fall, and which were mentioned in 
the report of last year, were finished during the winter or 
spring. These tracts belonged to St. Augustine's Farm, Fox- 
borough; Alfred Mellor, Cummington; Mrs. W. P. Crocker, 
Foxborough; Boylston Manufacturing Company, Holden; W. 
B. Cross, Brockton and Hanson; B. I. Gilman, Wrentham. 
The work on these lands consisted chiefly of thinning and brush 
clearing, and covered a total area of around 500 acres. During 
this winter we are brush clearing and thinning on a tract of 40 
acres belonging to Mr. F. C. Haskins in Norwell. 



38 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Examinations. 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Problem. 


Oliver Ames, .... 


North Easton, . 


ou 


v^nesmux Diignt. 


Ueo. M. D&k.eT, .... 


Concord, . . 




Estimate. 


W. A. iJalch, .... 


Dorchester, 




Insect dam age. 


xjawara xSeli, .... 


Southampton, . 




i^nestnut uiignt. 


C. S. Bird, ..... 


Walpole, 




Thinnings. 


C. B. Bliss, ..... 


Warren, 




i^nestnut ougnt. 


Consumptives' Hospital, Boston, 


Boston, . 


ou 


Thinning. 


Murray Brown, .... 


Acton, 


lU 


Thinning and planting. 


Mr. Brewer, ..... 


Harvard, . . 


inn 

lUU 


i^nesxnux uiignt. 


A. C. Burrage, .... 


Halifax, 


20 


Planting. 


M. A. UnamDerlain, 


Asniana, 


50 


Planting. 


xJ. £. \_/Onnoiiy, .... 


Methuen, . . 


A 


Planting. 


Howard Constable, . 


Kingston, . 




Planting and thinning. 


XI. j>i. v_yuxi6r, .... 


Holliston, . . 


inn 


Taxation. 


Danvers State Hospital, 


Danvers, 


ouu 


Thinning and planting. 


j-j. 1. jL/avis, ..... 


jj.oiu.en, . . 


BR 
oO 


Estimate. 


I^. A. Z^onaliue, .... 


Methuen, 





Tree diseases. 


L/. o. ijyer, ..... 


Ipswich, 




Tree diseases. 


Lr. xl. rLiilis, ..... 


Barre, 


1,000 


Chestnut blight and planting. 


r . U. xlaskms, .... 


Norwell, 


77 


Thinning and planting. 


IX, o. xiuxcninson, ... 


Aliualeton, 


13 


Planting. 


XJ* XJLcLctlllgo, .... 


Orange, . 


on 
oU 


Planting. 


Wntpr 'Rnnrrl 


Holyoke, . . 


1 K(\ 


Planting. 


J. F. Johnson, .... 


Dana, 


69 


Planting. 


Xj. u. jvenuaii, .... 


•pr_i J__ 

xioicien, . 




Estimate. 


Grace Lawrence, .... 


westiora, . . 


10 


Estimate. 


Theo Manning, .... 


Paxton, 


60 


Thinning. 


jxici^rupuiiLaii vvdtcr i^oara., . , 


S outhb or ough , . 


50 


Thinning. 


Mrs. Mund, ... . . 


MllllS, . 


25 


Thinning and planting. 


Harry Graves, .... 


Palmer, 


50 


Chestnut blight. 


W. V. Baldwin 


Wilbraham, 


60 


Planting. 


A. J. Peters, 


Dover, 


80 


Moth thinning. 


Pratt Brothers, .... 


Belchertown, 


110 


Taxation. 


W. E. Putnam, .... 


Danvers, . 


eo 


Moth thinning. 


E. H. Sears, 


Way land, . 


-1 


Chestnut blight. 


Grazia Shaw, .... 


Northbridge, 


15 


Thinning. 


J. S. Sills 


Shelbxime, 


100 


Thinning and planting. 



1 Single ornamental trees. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 39 



List of Forest Examinations — Con. 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Problem. 


W. D. Sohier 

Highway Commission, 

H. P. Tobey, . . . . 

Water Board 

E. W. White 

G. F. Whitney 

Town of Williamstown, 

C. G. Wood, 


Esses, 
Westford, . 
Wareham, . 
West Springfield, 
Savoy, 
Natick, 

Concord, . 


10 

300 
300 
31 
4 
25 
35 


Moth thinning. 
Chestnut blight. 
Taxation. 

Thinning and planting. 

Planting. 

Tree diseases. 

Thinning. 

Moth thinning. 




1 Single ornamental trees. 



Reforestation Work. 
Because of the creation of the State Forest Commission, with 
its power and appropriation to purchase waste land in large 
areas, it was thought best to discontinue temporarily the policy 
of purchasing lands under the terms of the reforestation law. 
We say temporarily because we believe that the 125 plantations 
set out under the terms of the reforestation law and scattered 
in dozens of towns over the Commonwealth have an educational 
value that a few State forests, no matter how extensive, can 
never have, and that it would be a mistake to permanently 
discontinue this policy. Our area of new plantations, therefore, 
is not as large as it would otherwise have been, and is confined 
to lands that were deeded to us free of cost, with the privilege 
of redemption on the part of the owner. We purchased- one 
cut-over lot on Savoy Mountain, principally because one of our 
fire watch to'wers is located upon it, and its ownership by this 
department is desirable. The following table gives the details 
of the new lots planted, which total 540 acres. It is fair to 
state that parts of the Johnson and the Smith lots were set out 
in 1914, so that the area of new planting is actually around 400 
acres, as compared with 500 last year. 



40 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



New Work, 1915. 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Planting 
(Number 
of Trees). 


Brush- 
ing 
(Acres). 


Length 
of Fire 
Lines 
(Rods). 


Lessie Morgan, 
Helena Johnson, . 
Irving Smith, 
Irving Smith, 
Allen Hastings, . 
Philander Holmes, 
Marcus Browne, . 
Addie Browne, 
Chris Hansen, 
D. W. GaskiU, . 


Hubbardston, 
North Adams, 
Ashburnham, 
Ashburnham, 
Orange, . 

West Brookfield, . 
Marlborough, . 
Marlborough, . 
Marlborough, . 
Upton, . 


45 
100 
160 
40 
11 
46 
33 
45 

60 


35,000 
25,000 
60,000 
33,000 
11,000 
45,000 
30,000 
45,000 

35,000 


30 
- 

33 
45 


- 
10 

356 


Totals 




540 


319,000 


108 


366 





In addition to the new planting it is necessary each year to 
do what we call maintenance work. Brush must be cut where 
it is choking the growing pines; blanks in the stands caused by 
natural death must be filled up; and plantations burned by fire 
must be replaced. Last winter the Legislature appropriated 
8100,000 for the relief of the unemployed, and $6,000 was 
turned over to the forestry branch for use in our State planta- 
tions. This additional sum made it possible to do work which 
we otherwise could not have afforded to carry out. As the 
appropriation was used during the winter season the only work 
carried out was brushing, and that only on such lots as were 
near enough to town for the men to go back and forth to work. 
Lots in Gardner, Ashburnham, Marlborough, Lancaster, Kings- 
ton, Attleboro and Spencer were cleared by the use of money 
from this fund. The total area of the lots on which mainte- 
nance work was done amounted to 1,200 acres, 600 of which 
were brush-cleared. Lots in Yarmouth, Dennis, Attleboro and 
Oakham which had been burned over were replanted, and a 
total of 325,000 trees were used in replanting burned lots or 
filling in plantations. The following table gives the detail data 
of the maintenance work: — 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 41 



Maintenance Work, 1915. 



Lot 

lNO> 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres ) • 


Filling in 
(Number of 
Trees). 


Brushing 
(Acres). 


Length of 
Fire Lines 
(Rods). 


1 


Westminster, ..... 


40 


9,000 


40 




2 




40 




25 




14 




30 




15 




79 


Gardner, 


79 


60,000 






104 




13 


1.500 






105 


Groton, ...... 


5 


500 






84 




83 


30,000 




- 


70 


Norwell, ...... 


11 


3,000 


11 




42 




108 




100 


- 


113 


Medfield 


28 


6,500 


8 




55 


Dennis, ...... 


20 


23,000 


20 




62 


Yarmouth, ..... 


21 


22,500 






63 
66 


Lancaster, . . . . , 


74 
9 


5,000 


74 
9 




40 
9 


Ashburnham , 

Ashburnham, ..... 


14 

66 


7,500 


35 




20 


Paxton, 


55 


4,000 


50 


- 


44 


Holden, 


50 




40 




12 


Spencer, ...... 


23 




23 




45 


Brookfield 


37 


10,000 


37 




48 


Kingston, ..... 


14 


3,000 


10 




16 


Westminster, ..... 


25 






105 


11 

80 


Spencer, .... 
Oakham, . . . . 


45 
55 


20,000 




148 


92 


Spencer, 


80 


40,000 


- 


- 


109 


Spencer, 


40 


18,000 


10 




69 


Attleboro, 


24 


25,000 


24 




51 


Hopkinton 


109 


25,000 


35 




49 




40 


12,000 


30 




31 




20 


10,000 








Totals, 


1,247 


325,500 


606 


253 



42 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Purchase and Planting of Forest Lands. 



Appropriation for 1915, 



$10,000 00 



Expenditures: — 
Purchase of land, 
Seedlings, .... 
Tools and equipment, 

Labor, 

Traveling expenses, . 
Teaming, express, freight, etc., 
Stationery and postage, . 



$230 00 
100 00 
276 10 

8,792 11 
219 09 
382 20 



50 



$10,000 00 



Nursery Work. 



The close of the season finds us in an excellent position, with 
a larger amount of stock on hand than ever before. This is 
fortunate, because the demand promises to be greater next 
spring than in any previous year. 

Our first nursery at Amherst was established in 1905 for the 
purpose of raising stock to be sold at cost to private land- 
owners. As forest planting-stock must be two years old at least, 
to be salable, no stock was sold from this nursery until 1907, 
when a small amount was available. This policy was continued 
in 1908, but in the legislative session of that year the reforesta- 
tion law, so called, which provided for the taking over and 
planting of large amounts of waste land, was enacted, so that 
our entire output was consumed in this work, and we discon- 
tinued the sale of stock. In 1912 the Legislature passed an 
act requiring the State Forester to supply the other State 
departments and institutions with forest planting-stock free of 
charge. The demand from this source was unexpectedly large, 
exceeding our own, and we have not yet been able to meet it 
fully. In 1914 the Legislature created a State Forest Commis- 
sion, with power to purchase large tracts of waste lands. When 
this commission carries out the terms of this act it will have 
acquired, during the next four years, nearly 20,000 acres of 
waste land, most of which will need to be reforested. To plant 
this area will require not less than 15,000,000 transplants in 
addition to the 1,000,000 or more per year needed for the 
present work. As our present output is about 1,000,000 trans- 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



43 



plants per year, the possibilities of increasing this output are 
giving us considerable concern. As the demands upon our 
nurseries have grown, and as they have been increased in size, 
we have naturally had to spend more money in their develop- 
ment and maintenance, so that while in 1912 our nursery ac- 
count was about 85,000, in the past year it was about 810,000. 
This money comes from an appropriation of 820,000 made for 
the general expenses of the forestry branch of the State Fores- 
ter's office, covering salaries of assistants, clerk hire, traveling 
expenses, office expenses and printing, as well as nursery work. 
Where such a considerable proportion of this money is devoted 
to nursery work we are obliged to curtail on other lines, since 
the remaining half of the appropriation has to be devoted to 
purely administrative duties in overseeing reforestation work, 
nursery work, State forest resers-^ations and the private co- 
operative work. Under the present circumstances it is not 
possible to make any scientific investigations of tree gro\\i:h, 
surveys of forest conditions, or investigations of markets, — 
matters which it is the province of a State forest department to 
seek information about and to publish for the benefit of the 
people. It is urged, therefore, that the appropriation for the 
nursery and general expenses of the forestry branch, which is 
now 820,000, be substantially increased. 

The Barnstable nursery has passed through the second year 
of its existence, and the entire 6 acres are under cultivation. 
Next spring it will yield results in the form of more than a 
million two-year seedlings ready to transplant, and half a 
million transplants which can be used in field planting if 
necessary. We took out of this nursery 75,000 transplants for 
planting during the spring. 

The Amherst nursery has been our chief source of supply, as 
in the past. We have taken out 900,000 seedlings and trans- 
plants for field planting this year. The tables show in detail 
where this stock was used. Our inventory shows that we have 
on hand 360,000 four-year transplants, 290,000 three-year trans- 
plants, and upwards of 2,000,000 two-year seedlings. We do 
not attempt to coimt the one-year-olds. 

During the winter we tore down three unsightly shanties 
which were used for living quarters for men and storehouses. 



44 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



and replaced them by a small one and a half story cottage house. 
The lower floor contains a workshop, storeroom and superin- 
tendent's office, while the upper contains living quarters for the 
crew. Our own men did all the work of erecting the building. 

The Amherst nursery serves as a general headquarters of our 
planting as well as nursery work, so that we were in need of an 
adequate building to serve as storehouse and workshop. 

Owing to the fact that we were short of two-year seedling 
stock this last spring, no attempt was made to extend the 
nursery at the Bridge water State Farm. The stock already 
there is doing finely, and with an abundance of seedling material 
next spring we plan to put in at least a million transplants. 
The great advantage of this nursery is the fact that the labor 
outside of the supervision costs us nothing. 



Stock shipped OuTsmE the Department. 



CONSIGXEE. 


Species. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Nursery, 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


White pine, , 


4-year transplants, 


45,000 


Amherst. 


Metropolitan Park Commission, , 


White pine, . 


2-year seedlings, . 


100,000 


Amherst. 


Gardner Insane Colony, 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants. 


15,000 


Amherst. 


Worcester Insane Colony, 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


5,000 


Amherst. 


Templeton Colony, 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


10.000 


Amherst. 


Fish and Game Commission, 


Red pine, . 


3-year transplants, 


7,000 


Barnstable. 


Harbor and Land Commission, 


Locust, 


5-year transplants. 


12,500 


Sandwich. 


Wachusett Mountain Commission, 


WTiite pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


20,000 


Amherst. 


Rutland Prison Camp, . 


White pine, . 


3-year transplants. 


20,000 


Amherst. 


New Bedford Water Board, i . 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


10,000 


Amherst. 


New Bedford Water Board, i . 


White pine, . 


3-year transplants, 


50,000 


Amherst. 


Uxbridge Water Board, > 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


7,000 


Amherst. 


Lowell ParkDepartment, i 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants. 


500 


Amherst. 


Waltham Water Board, i 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


1,500 


Amherst. 


Waltham Water Board, » . . 


Red pine, . 


4-year transplants, 


500 


Amherst. 


Waltham Water Board, > . 


Spruce, 


4-year transplants. 


500 


Amherst. 


Moth department, i ... 


White pine, . 


4-year transplants. 


30,000 


Amherst. 


Moth department, » . 


White pine, . 


3-year transplants. 


5,000 


Barnstable. 


Moth department, i . 


Red pine, . 


3-year transplants. 


3,000 


Barnstable. 


Moth department, ' . 


Spruce, 


3-year transplants, 


1,000 


Barnstable. 








343,500 





I Trees purchased. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 45 



Stock shipped for Planting on Reforestation Lands and State 

Forests. 



Nursery. 


Species. 


1 

Class. 


Number. 




White pine. 


4-year transplants, . 


350,000 


Amherst, 


White pine. 


3-year transplants, . 


174,000 




Red pine, . 


4-year transplants, . 


42,000 


Amherst, 


Red piae. 


3-year transplants, . 


25,000 


Bridgewater, .... 


White pine, 


4-year transplants, . 


13,500 




White pine. 


3-year transplants. 


30,000 


Barnstable, 


Red pine, . 


3-year transplants, . 


25,000 


Barnstable, 


Spruce, . . : 


3-year transplants, . 


3,000 




White ash. 


3-year transplants, . 


1,500 


Hopkinton, 


White pine. 


5-year transplants, . 


25,000 


Total 






689,000 



Three-year seedlings white pine purchased for field planting, 30,000 

Two-year seedlings white pine purchased for nursery planting, .... 200,000 

Two-year seedlings red pine purchased for niirsery planting, 50,000 

Total number purchased, 280,000 



Inventory of Stock, State Forest Nurseries. 
Barnstable. 



Species. 


4-Year 
Transplants. 


3-Year 
Transplants. 


2-Year 
Seedlings. 


1-Year 
Seedlings 
(Beds). 






215,000 


200,000 


.200 








750,000 


150 






100,000 


50,000 


25 






35,000 


50,000 


45 


Norway spruce 


50,000 


30,000 


50,000 




Eiu-opean larch, .... 






60,000 










44,000 




White spruce, 






40,000 




Arbor vitae, 






15,000 




Red spruce, 






15,000 










30,000 




Western yellow pine 






4,000 




White ash 






50,000 












5 


Totals, 


50,000 


380,000 


1,358,000 


425 



46 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Inventory of Stock, State Forest Nurseries — Con. 
Bridgewater State Farm. 



Species. 


4-Year 
Transplants. 


3- Year 
Transplants. 


2- Year 
Seedlings. 


1-Year 
Seedlings 
(Beds). 


White pine, 


115,000 








Hopkinton. 


Norway spruce 

White pine, 


25,000 
25,000 








50,000 








Amherst. 


White pine, 

Scotch pine 

Red pine 

Norway spruce, . . . , . 

Eviropean larch, 

Austrian pine, 

Hemlock, 

Arbor vitse, 

White ash, 

Totals, 

Grand totals 


207,000 

120,000 
33,000 


202,000 

19,000 
49.000 
9,000 

3,500 
5,750 


1,796,000 
104.000 
90,000 

40.000 


67 

41 
18 

35 
3 


360,000 


288.250 


2.030,000 


164 


575,000 


668,250 


3,388,000 1 589 



State Forester's Expenses. 
Appropriation for 1915, 



Expenditures: — 
Salaries of assistants, 
Traveling expenses, . 
Stationery and postage, 
Printing, .... 
Maps, photographs, books, etc 
Equipment, tools, etc.. 
Sundries, including teaming, 

Amounts carried forward, 



S4,722 90 
3,181 11 
612 06 
565 77 
312 21 
506 77 
93 24 



$20,000 00 



$9,994 06 $20,000 00 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



Am€unts brought forward, .... $9,994 06 $20,000 00 



Nursery account: — 

Pay roU, 6,798 81 

Travel, 24 28 

Equipment, 1,217 50 

Seeds and seedlings, 1,298 81 

Express, freight and teaming, .... 583 14 

Sundries, 83 31 

19,999 91 



Balance returned to treasury, $0 09 



State Forests. 

Acts of 1914, chapter 720, provided for the creation of a 
State Forest Comraission of three men, of whom the State 
Forester is one, to acquire, as the act states, "by purchase or 
otherwise woodland or land suitable for timber cultivation 
wdthin the commonwealth at a price not to average more than 
five dollars per acre." Section 3 of this act goes on to say that 
State forests acquired under this act shall be under the control 
and management of the State Forester, and that he shall pub- 
lish in his annual report an account of all money invested in 
each forest and the income and expense thereof. For this 
reason we include in this report an account of the manage- 
ment of the Otter River State forest in Winchendon, Royalston 
and Templeton. This forest is the only one which to date has 
been purchased and title passed by the State Forest Commis- 
sion, so that it is the only one as yet under the management 
of the State Forester's department. For the activities of the 
Forest Commission in the investigation, survey and purchase 
of this and other proposed State forests you are referred to their 
annual report which is published as a separate public document. 

The Otter River State forest, containing 1,700 acres, is 
located in the southwest corner of Winchendon, and runs over 
into adjoining portions of Royalston and Templeton. It lies 
on both sides of the Fitchburg railroad, commencing at a 
point about 1 mile west of Baldw^inville and continuing for 
about 2 miles. The Otter River flowing northwesterly, and the 
Miller River flowing southerly, join in the center of the forest, 
and the united streams continue westerly as the Miller River. 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The electric-car line between Winchendon and Baldwinville 
passes through the eastern section of the forest, and fair coun- 
try roads make all sections accessible. This forest could not be 
situated in a more favorable position as regards markets for 
lumber. Winchendon village is one of the leading wood-using 
centers of the State, and lies 4 miles away, while Baldwinville, 
also an important wood-using center, is only 2 miles away. 

The land is for the most part flat and the soil light, but 
not sandy. The areas purchased were largely cut-over lands 
or abandoned pastures. Except in portions near the railroad 
which have been burned, there is an immense amount of 
volunteer pine reproduction on this forest. Conditions for 
artificial planting are excellent. 

One of the problems in the management of this tract is that 
of fire protection, owing to the fact that the railroad passes 
through it. Natural conditions help in this protection, because 
Miller River parallels the track for part of the distance and 
makes an ejEficient fire stop on one side. During the summer 
we constructed fire lines on both sides of the railroad and for 
some distance along the electric road. 

At the time of the spring planting season the process of pur- 
chasing the land was going on so that it was not possible to do 
very much in the reforestation line, but about 70 acres were set 
to small pines. During the winter we will clear the brush and 
will be prepared to reforest 200 to 300 acres in the spring. 

When one of the properties, called the Goodnow Farm, was 
acquired there w^as taken with it the farmhouse and barn. 
Our men have painted and made minor repairs on the house, 
so that it now makes an excellent headquarters camp for the 
men. An acre of land has been plowed up and will be used as 
a transplant nursery from which stock can be taken for future 
planting on State forest land. Seedlings for transplanting will 
be provided from our Amherst or Barnstable nurseries. 

The following table is a financial summary of the money 
expended in the purchase and the development of the Otter 
River State forest during the past year. The first four accounts 
are incident to the acquiring of the land, and the money ex- 
pended in this work was spent under the jurisdiction of the 
Forest Commission; the remaining five items are incident to 
the management of the property, and the money was spent 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



49 



under the jurisdiction of the State Forester. Practically all the 
funds came from the appropriation of the Forest Commission 
except in the items entitled brush cutting and planting, which 
were taken from the unemployed fund. 



Account, 


Land. 


Labor. 


Teanaing 

and 
Express. 


Supplies. 


Travel 

and 
Board. 


Total. 


Cost of land 


$7,871 34 




- 






$7,871 34 


Purchase expense, 






- 




$412 35 


412 35 


Title examination, 




$160 20 > 








160 20 


Survey and setting bounds. 


- 


676 12 


$88 59 


$172 09 


184 54 


1,121 34 


Fire lines, 




1,023 05 


12 78 


9 00 


19 50 


1,064 28 


Planting 




235 10 


23 00 






258 10 


Brush cutting, .... 




278 20 




8 31 




286 51 


Headquarters 




441 22 


4 00 


248 00 




693 22 


Nursery, 




8 25 




1 35 




9 60 














$11,876 94 



» This amount is incomplete, as all the bills have not been paid. 
» Trees; 65,000 supplied from the State forest nursery without cost. 



Forest Taxation. 
The forest taxation law, passed in 1914, has not had the 
wide use which we believe it should have. To date not more 
than a dozen woodland owners are known to have registered 
their land. 

We believe that there are three reasons why this law is not 
made use of more fully. 

The first is that, on account of the length of the law and the 
difficulty of understanding its provisions, owners hesitate to 
take advantage of it. The law, however, is more simple than 
it appears, and this is especially true of the sections dealing with 
young woodland, erroneously called "plantation'' in the law. 
In the long run it is "plantation" which should be registered 
and which will benefit most materially under the terms of the 
law. Owners wishing to register such land will leave out of 
consideration section 7 on the commutation tax, and they will 
find the taxation law easy to understand. 

The second hindrance to a fuller use of the forest taxation 
law lies in many c^ses in the opposition of local assessors who, 



50 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



not comprehending it, see in it only a scheme for evading 
taxes. They place obstacles in the path of the would-be reg- 
ister of land by forcing appeals to the State Forester or Tax 
Commissioner, by not making the necessary valuations, and in 
other ways delaying the game, so that the owner who might 
have his land classified becomes discouraged and gives up the 
attempt. 

The third and most general reason why landowners do not 
seek to register their land is because under the present system 
woodland is habitually underv^alued, and the o\\Tiers are not 
forced by economic necessity to seek relief. This condition, 
however, is bound to change as years go on, for the percentage 
of valuation of woodlots is constantly rising, and when it ap- 
proaches somewhere near full value the owner will be obliged, as 
a financial necessit^^ to cut his timber or to seek relief in reg- 
istering his land under the law. We would give the owners of 
young timber, sprout land or plantation a hint that it will be 
greatly to their advantage to register their land now when it 
can be classified as plantation, and not to wait ten years or 
more when the land must be classified as woodlot. 

White Pine Blister Rust. 
This is a fungous disease which attacks the trunks of small 
pines and the smooth bark branches of larger trees, gradually 
girdling them and causing the» death of small trees and the 
severe injury of the larger ones. The disease, like other rust 
fungi, has two hosts, — the five-needled pines and the currant 
and gooseberry family (Rihes). The spores of the plant which 
are produced on the pines cannot infect other pines, but must 
first find lodgment on the leaf of a currant, where a different 
form of spore results which in turn can infect the pines. 
The damage to currant bushes caused by this disease is very 
small. 

This disease is a native of Europe, and has been brought into 
this country in importations of foreign nursery stock made prior 
to 1912, when a complete embargo on the importation of white 
pine from Europe was put into effect. 

The attention of plant pathologists was first directed to the 
disease in 1910, and this department immediately became in- 



1916.] 



PUBLIC D(X:U]\iENT — No. 73. 



51 



terested, because during the previous year we had imported 
about half a million white pine transplants from Germany 
which we had set out in State plantations. Dr. Perley Spauld- 
ing, of the Federal Bureau of Plant Industry, came on and 
looked over some of the plantations. No signs of the blister 
rust were seen, but this fact was not necessarily reassuring, 
because a pine may have the disease several years before show- 
ing signs of it. As a matter of precaution, he advised that we 
look our plantations over for wild currant, and pull up all that 
we found. Consequently, a couple of our most intelligent 
laborers were instructed in this work, and during the summer 
went over all our plantations where the German-grown white 
pines had been set, and searched for wild currants. 

In 1912 the State Nursery Inspector, Dr. Fernald, took up 
the work of investigating the status of the disease, which by 
that time had been found fully developed on several imported 
pines in Hamilton and Ipswich. We gave to his department a 
list of all our plantations containing imported nursery stock, 
and maps to show their location. As a result of his investiga- 
tion infected trees were found and tagged on a plantation in 
Westminster. We also found a few trees on a plantation in 
Spencer. These trees were afterwards pulled up and burned. 
On these two lots in every case the infected trees were im- 
ported stock, which had the disease when they were planted. 
There is no evidence as yet to show that the disease has spread 
from these pines to currants and hence back to native pines. 
The State Nursery Inspector has during the past fall found the 
disease on currant bushes in the Housatonic valley region, and 
this is a more serious phase, for it indicates that the blister 
rust has spread from the original infected pines to the currant, 
and teleutospores produced on this plant are ready to spread 
to native pines, if they have not already done so. 

Every effort should be made to keep watch on those areas 
known to have the disease present, both to watch its effect and 
to prevent the spread. Further light is needed on the status 
of the blister rust in Europe, for w^hile some published authori- 
ties call it a dangerous enemy to the white pine, others pass 
over it in an indifferent manner. It is well to recall that the 
white pine is not peculiar in being subject to this disease, for 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



there are other forms of blister rust, and practically every 
species of pine that grows is subject to some one of them. 

We are often asked if this disease may not prove as dis- 
astrous as the chestnut blight, and we feel safe in saying no. 
There is this important difference; while the chestnut disease 
spreads from tree to tree the blister rust must go from pine to 
currant and currant to pine, and this fact limits its spread. It 
is a disease primarily of the nursery and young plantation, and 
not of the wild woodland. 

Chestnut Bark Disease. 

No especial investigation of the spread or present status of 
the chestnut blight has been made during the past year. 
Owners of chestnut woodland have appealed to our depart- 
ment for advice as to treatment, and we have made many 
examinations of infested woodlands. These are listed under 
woodlot examinations in another section of this report. 

The bark disease is now to be found in every section where 
chestnut grows. The past summer, with its abundant rainfall, 
was extremely favorable to the development and spread of 
a fungous disease similar to the chestnut blight. The extent 
of it will be apparent next summer. 

As a sidelight upon the spread of this disease, the following, 
upon conditions at Mount Holyoke, is interesting: — 

In September, 1912, Mr. Cook of this department made an examination 
of the property of the Mount Holyoke Company, and in his report made 
the following statement: — 

I estimate that about 5 per cent, of the chestnuts are at this time dead or dying 
from this disease, and if it continues to increase at the same rate in the next two 
or three years as it has in the past year few trees will remain uninfected at the 
end of that time. 

Three years afterward (November, 1915) Mr. Haynes of this 
department examined the same property, and reported that 
more than 90 per cent, of the trees are infected with the 
blight and 75 per cent, are dead or nearly so, — 5 to 90 per 
cent, in three years, or an increase of 1,800 per cent. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



53 



White Pixe Weevil {Pi^sodes strobi, Peck). 

The white pine wee\Tl is doubtless the worst enemy of young 
white pine in this State. It is a somewhat elongate, brownish 
snout beetle, 4 to 5 millimeters in length. The winter is 
passed in the adult stage. The beetles come out of their winter 
quarters and fly early in May, and, after feeding for a few days 
on the bark of the Ii\'ing white pine terminal shoots, deposit 
their eggs in punctures in the bark of the shoot of the pre\'ious 
year's growth, placing one or two eggs in a pit or cavity in 
the inner bark made by the beak of the mother beetle. The 
small white grubs (lar\'ae) which hatch out are responsible for 
the damage which then occurs. They eat their way down- 
ward, killing the leader or main shoot of the tree. The white 
pine shows remarkable recuperative ability against weevil 
attack. TMien the main leader of a young tree has been 
killed one of the lateral branches gradually assumes an up- 
right position and takes its place. Sometimes this branch is 
in turn kiUed, and many cases are known where for the second 
time a lateral shoot has become the leader and developed into 
a comparatively straight bole. 

The best remedy against this pest is to cut and burn the 
affected shoots before the grubs have developed into adults, 
bored their way out and departed. Some experiments in 
spra^-ing have been conducted by the Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station, and their opinion is that, if the trees are 
sprayed during the few days devoted by the mother beetle 
to feeding, and previous to depositing the eggs, some damage 
may be avoided. The combination recommended is com- 
mercial lime and sulphur, 1 to 8. 

An excellent treatise on this pest is by Dr. A. D. Hopkins, 
United States Department of Agriculture, Circular Xo. 90. 

White Pine Aphid or !Mealet-bug (Chermes pinicoriicis, 

Fitch). 

The pine aphid is one of the many species of plant lice, and 
appears on the smooth bark of young trees where it sucks the 
sap. The aphid is easily recognized in the form of patches of 
flocculent downy matter, concealing minute insects which 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



emerge in large numbers and travel actively over the bark for 
a time. When newly hatched the insect itself is so small as 
to be nearly invisible to the naked eye, and in the early part 
of May they are more abundant than at any other time. 
Traveling soon ceases, and they attach themselves to the tender 
bark of young twigs. They increase rapidly in size, assume a 
dark reddish brown color, and the secretion from the body 
commences and soon hides them from view. Maturity is 
reached about the last of May, and the wingless females de- 
posit eggs for another brood. There are several broods during 
the summer, and the winter appears to be passed, at least in 
some years, by the females as adults, which emerge during 
the latter part of March and begin to feed. They deposit 
eggs early in April. 

The presence of large numbers reduces the vitality of a tree 
and apparently leads to a sickly condition, but no great per- 
manent damage as a rule results. The insect was first noticed 
by Dr. Fitch as early as 1856. 

The best measure to be taken against its damage in the 
event that it becomes very abundant on valuable trees is to 
spray with kerosene emulsion. The formula is as follows: 
i pound of laundry soap, 1 gallon of water. Boil, and then 
add 2 gallons of kerosene. In spraying dilute with 15 parts 
of water. 

Exhibitions. 

When the citizens in any section of the Commonwealth meet 
together for the purpose of considering ways and means of 
progress and the promotion of eflSciency they usually install 
exhibits showing the results achieved under the best methods 
of the present time. These exhibits cover a wide range of 
subjects, including all forms of agriculture and the processes of 
good local government. The State Forester is often requested 
to exhibit at these gatherings. There is a large amount of 
educational work to be done from year to year by means of 
lectures, supplemented by the use of lantern slides and moving 
pictures. In some cases the State Forester has caused to be 
installed exhibits in picture form showing the practices of 
forestry, and actual specimens of seedlings and transplants 
from the State's nurseries. Several granges throughout the 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 55 

State have during the past year requested and received speci- 
mens of forest trees to exhibit to their members, and a large 
number of inquiries by mail has followed in the wake of these 
gatherings. 

Two exhibitions where the State Forester has placed assist- 
ants in charge for several days are worthy of especial note. 
At Barnstable, where one of our nurseries is located, an exhibit 
was installed during the week of the Barnstable County 
Fair in September. Transplant beds were made on the grounds, 
and in a tent close by pictures showing the different lines of 
forest work were arranged in their respective groups. A large 
number of people visited the Barnstable State nursery during 
the week of the fair. 

During the week of the Exhibition on City Planning, held 
at the State House November 12 to 20, the State Forester 
was requested to co-operate. A report of the exhibit was later 
requested by the committee, and a copy is herewith given : — 

The State department of forestry, while not directly connected with 
the development of Boston, was requested to install an exhibit for the 
purpose of encouraging the planting of shade trees and the reclamation 
of waste areas of land. As the State Forester, F. W. Rane, pointed out in 
his address at the 3 o'clock afternoon gathering on November 18, any 
city might well own and control its own city forest, derive an income 
from it and contribute greatly to the health and pleasure of its citizens. 
Such a system has long been in force abroad, and has met with universal 
success. To this extent forestry is in harmony with all forms of city wel- 
fare. This address was illustrated with moving pictures and lantern 
sUdes. 

The State Forester's exhibit, in charge of J. R. Simmons, assistant 
forester, consisted of three groups. The whole life history of gypsy and 
brown-tail moths was shown by the use of mounted specimens, supple- 
mented by pictures showing the past and present conditions and the 
radical treatment of these pests as promoted by this department. 

A table was devoted to showing the leading species of forest trees, from 
seedlings to four-year transplants. AU of these were actual specimens 
taken from the State nurseries. 

The relation of forests to rainfall was demonstrated by the use of two 
moimtains in miniature made from sand, one barren and the other forested. 
Water poured upon these mounds through a large sprinkler demonstrated 
in a vivid way the effect of erosion. 

As a background to these exhibits, a large number of pictures represent- 
ing the different phases of the department's work was shown. Five large 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



frames of photographs were arranged to show the construction and use 
of a model forest fire tower. Other pictures demonstrated the reforesta- 
tion of waste land and the results of reforestation at the end of from forty 
to fifty years. Posters urging the co-operation of all citizens, bulletins 
and printed matter from the State Forester's office were placed in con- 
spicuous places to catch the eye and arouse a train of thought in the mind 
of the observer. 

The objects of forestry are many, and the plans for the future of every 
great city should include not only systematic planting and care of its 
street trees, but a municipal forest as well. 

Forestry. — Moth Work. 

This past year forestry practice as applied to the moth work 
has become firmly established, and has been worked out with 
enthusiasm and success by all branches of the department, and 
over all the infested area. Most of the district and local moth 
superintendents have advocated and carried on moth thinnings 
with success and satisfaction. The work of the foresters in the 
moth department, instead of being mainly that of organizing 
and experimenting, as it was at the start, has become largely 
concerned in the management of thinning operations and the 
utilization of their product. 

Examinations, — During the past year 43 formal examina- 
tions of woodland w^ere made for owners who desired advice as 
to the handling of the moths in their tracts. Most of these 
examinations were followed by written reports. They covered 
a total of 3,706 acres, and the lands examined were situated in 
35 different towns or cities. Besides these, a large number of 
informal examinations were made where merely advice was 
given and no records kept. This year a list of infested wood- 
land throughout the State was made up as previously, but no 
letters or circulars were sent to the owners, as it was thought 
that by this time most of them were sufliciently informed 
about moth thinnings. 

Co-operative Moth-thinning Operations. 
During the year 22 moth-thinning operations were carried 
on in co-operation with owners of woodland. In these opera- 
tions the owners paid all of the actual expenses of doing the 
work, and received all the returns from the products cut and 




Chestnut poles and moth thinning in Dover. 



1916.] 



FOLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



57 



sold. This department, however, had complete management 
and superA'ision of the work. These operations have been 
carried on under the best forestry practices, and have not only 
aided in the solution of individual moth problems, but have 
served as an example to be followed by other owners on their 
own initiative. Much of the wood and lumber cut vrould have 
gone to waste, and worse than that, the land on which it stood 
would have gone unused, if this department had not aided. 
Wherever cuttings were made, proper measures for the regenera- 
tion of the woodland were taken. These operations have shown 
that the moths in the woodland do not present a hopeless 
problem, but may result in better forests in this State in the 
future than would have come had not these pests come upon us. 
Most of these operations will yield a financial profit to the 
owners as well as an improved woodland. 

CJO-OPERATIVE MOTH-THTNNING OPERATIONS, 1915. 



Name of Owxeb. 



Location. 



Area 
(Acres). 



Character of Operation. 



Constance L. Abbott, 

G. M. Angier, . 
Geo. H. Barton, 

Florence Cxishman, . 
Abbie G. Da\-is, 
Arthur D. Delano, . 
Levi H. Greenwood, 
Haverhill Water Works, 
Chaa. W. Hubbard, . 

Ellerton James, 

C. H. Jones, 

H. A. Lamb, . 
W. S. Leland, . 
New Bedford Water Works 

Nichols Heirs, . 
Sarah E. Pratt, . 
Wm. E. Putnam, 

Quittacus Syndicate, 
Sagamore Beach, 

Dr. H. O. Spaulding, 
Nathaniel Stevens, . 

Arthur Winslow, 

Total, . 



, Haverhill, 
' Marion, . 
Stow, 

Harvard, 

North Andover, 

Piochester, 

Ph-mouth, 
i Haverhill, 
I Auburndale, . 

' Randolph, 

I 

' Weston, . 
i Milton. , 

Middleborough, 
; Middleborough, 

Rochester, 

Haverhill, 
, Sudbur>', 

Danvers, 

I 

' Rochester, 
Boum^ , . 

Hingham, 
North Andover, 

Middleborough, 



40 

30 
20 

30 
25 
40 
20 
50 
150 

50 

60 
15 



400 



50 



Portable mill. 
I Cord wood. 

, Cord wood, ties and logs 
and spraying. 

Cord wood, mostly birch, 
, Cordwood and logs. 
: Cordwood and logs. 
; Cordwood and spraying. 

Portable mill and planting. 

Portable mill, spraj-ing and 
planting. 
; Cordwood and chestnut 
posts. 

Cordwood and logs. 

Cordwood and logs. 

Cordwood and spraying. 

Planting. 

Portable mill and spraying. 
Portable mill and planting. 
Portable miU. 

Cordwood and logs to sta- 
tionary^ mill and planting. 

Cordwood and spraj-ing. 

Cordwood, spraynng and 
planting. 

Cordwood, logs and piling. 

Portable mill, spraying and 
planting. 

Cordwood, logs and spraying. 



1.4So 



On these co-operative operations 870,438.33 was spent during 
the past year. All of this sum was advanced by the various 
owners, and spent under our direction and super\dsion. Over 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



90 per cent, of this amount is for labor, and does not include 
certain compensating costs, as shipping, freight, etc., which are 
deducted from the receipts when the material is sold. The 
chief advantage of this expense is that although it was used in 
combating the moth pests, it will all come back in the sale of 
the 2,796,438 feet of lumber and 12,295 cords of wood that 
were cut. Probably the average value of the lumber would be 
about SI 8 a thousand feet, making its value a little over $50,- 
000. At only $2 a cord the total receipts will exceed the 
expenditures by $5,000, and $3 would be nearer the average 
price obtained for the cordwood. The expense of the operations 
includes not only the cost of cutting the wood and lumber, but 
also the cost of burning the brush and of considerable spraying 
and planting. Thus it can be seen that this moth-thinning 
work pays for itself. 

In an annual report there is not space enough to go into 
details about individual operations, but much of interest might 
be written. Accurate cost data of most of the operations have 
been kept, and it is hoped that some time a bulletin may be 
published which will particularize much of the practical and 
scientific information which has been gathered. 

Utilization, 

The most important developments in the moth-thinning work 
during the past year have been along the lines of the utilization 
and sale of the forest products cut. A large amount of data as 
well as of practical experience along these lines has been 
obtained. It was darly seen that it would be fruitless to cut 
infested and dying oak trees unless the product could be sold 
for at least what it cost to cut it. The wood might better rot 
on the stump than have it rot on the ground after money has 
been spent to cut it. At first, when only small amounts were 
cut, a ready market was found, but as the volume of the work 
has increased, it has become increasingly difficult to dispose of 
the product. Almost anybody will consent to carry on sl resist- 
ant thinning now if he can be assured that he can sell the 
product at a fair price. Thus it has developed that the scope 
and usefulness of the thinning work are limited only by the 
utilization of the products. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



59 



Cordwood, lumber, piling and logs for special uses are the 
main products of the moth thinnings. Oak is the chief species 
cut, so oak utilization is the main problem. The best and 
finest of all these materials find a ready market at good prices. 
However, most of the product of the thinnings is not the best. 
Most of our infested woodland is of smaller sprout growth, and 
much of it is already dead or badly injured by the moths. The 
diflBculty of the situation has been further increased by the poor 
business conditions of the past year. The efforts at utilization 
have, however, been very successful, although only a start has 
been made. The four main lines of endeavor have been (1) • 
investigation, (2) education, (3) substitution and (4) new 
markets. 

An attempt has been made to find out all the principal oak 
users of this section of the country, to study their needs, to 
find out what and how much they use, and to get their individ- 
ual ideas. This has resulted in some very useful data, and 
given us a thorough understanding of the situation from the 
consumer's point of view. 

Education has been necessary both for the consumer and the 
producer. The consumer has often not known just what our 
native wood lumber is, and how adaptable it is to his uses. 
Many of the producers have been woefully ignorant as to the 
needs of the consumer, and have lost much thereby. In fact, 
the situation has come to such a pass that in many sections of 
the eastern part of the State the ordinary lumbermen will not 
handle oak at all. They buy a woodlot, cut off the pine, but 
leave the oak to rot or for cordwood, because they say that 
they cannot dispose of it as lumber. If these men were only 
better informed about the oak market and uses they could easily 
dispose of much of their oak at a greater profit than the pine. 

There is a great need of education along these lines for the 
dealers in and consumers of cordwood. In certain sections, 
notably the metropolitan district, it is impossible to sell cord- 
wood unless the wood is practically all cleft, and also it is 
becoming very hard to sell oak wood of any kind. This is 
because of a prejudice of the dealers partly inspired in them 
by a like prejudice in the consuming public, which wrongly 
requires large maple wood. Those who know, as the farmer who 



CO 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



has burned wood all his life, will tell you that small wood mixed 
with the large cleft wood makes a better fire and is more 
economical to burn than big wood alone. Any one can easily 
demonstrate this to his own satisfaction if he will try the 
experiment. This prejudice, makes the price of wood higher and 
the demand smaller; also it causes a large waste of the smaller, 
poorer wood. The reason why it is hard to sell oak wood now is 
because the dealer will tell you that his customer would rather 
have the fast-burning maple and birch, or even pine. The con- 
sumer should know that the real hardwoods, as oak and hickory, 
have more fuel value, burn much longer with less sparks, and 
are really much more economical than the maple or birch. In 
localities where the inhabitants know the real value of wood as 
a fuel the oak commands a higher price than the maple. We 
believe that there is a great chance to educate the public and 
the dealers along these lines, and thus market much wood which 
is now going to waste. 

Much valuable work has been done along the line of substi- 
tuting our native oak for oak or other woods which were ob- 
tained from outside the State. One large railroad which 
formerly bought al of its car stock in the central and southern 
States is now buying it right here in Massachusetts. Several 
others — large consumers — have been shown the adaptability 
o ' our native lumber to their purposes, and are buying it here 
when they can get it. This substitution of native products for 
those grown outside the State can be carried on to a much 
larger extent if the producer will only take the trouble to study 
his markets. 

Several new markets have been developed for oak products 
and old ones extended. No car stock had been produced in 
recent years in certain sections of the State until this depart- 
ment started sawing it out on its co-operative operations. 
That is just one example out of many. There is a necessity for 
further investigation and experiment along this line, which may 
yield good results. 

A bulletin on oak utilization in Massachusetts is now in 
preparation, and when published it is hoped that it will result 
m the bringing of the producer and consumer together, and the 
profitable utilization of much that is now practically going to 
waste. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



61 



Co-operative Utilization. 

In all the moth-thinning operations undertaken in co-opera- 
tion with the owners, this department, as well as managing the 
operation itself, has taken charge of the utilization and sale of 
the products cut. It has been mainly because of this that we 
have been able to get a true insight into the problems of 
utilization as a whole. The chief trouble with the mass of 
publications which have been issued concerning utilization is 
that they are impractical, because the writer has merely investi- 
gated and tabulated figures and data, instead of trying to sell 
the goods he writes about so glibly. It is one thing to write 
the fact that the chair manufacturers are the largest single 
users of oak in the State, and yet an entirely different thing to 
cut some oak and sell it to these chair manufacturers at a good 
price, or to determine whether this certain lot contains material 
suitable to be disposed of as chair stock to the best advantage. 

It is by giving practical aid and advice to the owners of 
woodland that this department is co-operating along utilization 
lines. We are actually selling the products for the owners, or, 
after examination of the growing stand and thorough investiga- 
tion of local conditions of labor transportation and market, 
giving them really expert advice. 

Some very effective work has been accomplished in disposing 
of small lots of material. For instance, a certain owner has a 
few large oak trees which need to be cut. There is not enough 
lumber in them to pay anybody to bother with it, and all that 
can be done, under ordinary methods, with these large oaks is 
to laboriously split them up into cordwood, which will not be 
worth the cost of chopping it. In a number of such cases this 
department has been able to arrange to get these oaks sawed 
up into lumber and sell it along w^ith other lumber from other 
lots, making a total large enough for some one to bother with. 
The lumber has given the owner a profit for his trees instead of 
a loss, as would have resulted if cordwood had been the product. 
"VMierever a portable mill has been at work on one of the co- 
operative operations we have been able to have small owners 
near by haul in their few oak logs and dispose of the product 
along with the rest, thus effecting a saving to them. There is 
a large opportunity for further efforts along this line. 



62 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



On the co-operative operations which this department has 
managed, over $100,000 worth of products has been cut. Most 
of these products have been sold or are under contract of sale, 
the sale being due to the efforts of this department. Some have 
been sold directly to the consumer, and some through the 
regular dealer or middleman. It has been the policy to sell 
through usual channels where possible, so as not to compete or 
cut prices. Eight or 10 cars of lumber and cordwood are now 
being shipped each week from these various operations, and the 
various matters of shipment, billing and collection are handled 
through this office. 

Finally it should be said that the co-operative utilization and ' 
marketing of forest products comprise a field which is opening 
up new possibilities of usefulness for this department, and if 
followed out will bring good results to the forest owners of the 
State. 

The Lumber Market. 
The market for native lumber is beginning to pick up. 
During the past year the business depression and the large stock 
of cut lumber unsold resulted in low prices. In certain kinds 
the prices dropped almost 25 per cent., while even the staples, 
as box boards, suffered a dollar or two reduction per thousand. 
However, the prosperity now coming has quickened the demand, 
and many kinds have nearly reached their previous prices. 
The amount of material actually being shipped to the war zone 
from this State is probably small, although a certain amount 
for cases, wheels, trucks, boxes, boats and perhaps a little 
dimension lumber is finding its way into export. In general 
it can be said that except for temporary depressions there will 
always be a good market for local lumber products, even of the 
poorer quality. This is the reason why forestry in the Com- 
monwealth will prove a good investment. 

Cordwood Situation, 
Enough has been said in other portions of this report to show 
that the cordwood situation is serious. Due to cuttings on 
account of the gypsy moths, largely advocated by this depart- 
ment, there is now an overproduction. The wholesale price 
has dropped from $0.50 to $1.50 on a cord in many places, 




Taking out the hardwoods that are the natural food of the moths. The remaining pines will 
aid in reseeding the ground. 




All moth food trees have been taken out, leaving largely a white pine stand which will need no 
further expense from moth suppression. The possibilities of future values are greatly 
enhanced also. New Bedford waterworks property at Middleborough. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 73. 



63 



although as usual the retail price has not taken a corresponding 
reduction, and the dealers are reaping the benefits. It is 
necessary that the large production keep up, else the trees will 
be killed and the wood go to waste. We believe that a con- 
siderable portion of this increased production could be taken 
care of if the retail price could be reduced. If the dealers are 
unwilling to do this it may be necessary to devise some 
method of seUing direct to the consumer at a lower price. If 
something is not done the farmers and forest owners will lose 
thousands of dollars that they can ill afford. 

This department is now experimenting on new methods of 
cordwood utilization which may enable us to use up large 
amounts at a profit. Before long we hope to be able to an- 
nounce success along these lines. 

The State Fire Warden's Report. 
Mr. F. W. Rane, State Fcxrester. 

Sir: — In compliance with your request, and in accord with the pro- 
visions of chapter 722, section 2, Acts of 1911, I beg to submit the follow- 
ing report of the work accomplished by this branch of the department 
this year: — 

With the exception of the severe drought that occurred during the 
months of March and April the season has been a very favorable one. 
During the month of March the reports from the Weather Bureau show 
.06 of an inch of rainfall, estabUshing a record for drjTiess in the history 
of the Weather Bureau back to 1885. During this period our records 
show 2,393 fires with a loss of §107,995. It is very unfortimate that a 
drought should have occurred at this season of the year, as vegetation 
not having started, it made ideal conditions for forest fires. This drought 
lasted forty-six days, and reports from our observ^ation stations show 
from 300 to 600 fires per week, a large percentage being confined to the 
eastern part of the State. 

During the months of June and July we were able to discontinue the 
use of eleven of our stations, thereby allowing us to apply more of our 
appropriation in construction work, also to use many of our observers 
in this line of work. 

The same arrangement of districts has been maintained as during the 
past two years, district No. 1 including Essex, Norfolk and Middlesex 
counties, No. 2, Barnstable, Bristol and Plymouth counties. No. 3, 
Worcester County and west to the Connecticut River, and No. 4, Berk- 
shire Countj^ and east to the Connecticut River. 

Two changes have been made in the personnel of this branch of the de- 
partment. Mr. Miner E. Fenn, formerly assistant in this office, was 



64 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



made locomotive inspector, and was succeeded in the office by Miss 
Josepha L. Gallagher, who was transferred from the moth department. 

We have erected six steel towers as follows: through the courtesy of 
Mr. S. B. Pearmain, owner of Nobscot Hill in Sudburj^, we were allowed 
to lease the top of this hill for a term of years, and have erected a 40-foot 
steel tower with a 10-foot room. This is an important station, as it 
covers a large amount of forest area that has been more or less subject 
to forest fires. The towns of Sudbury, Weston, Wayland and Framing- 
ham each contr buted SlOO towards this tower. 

The 30-foot tower in Westborough has been replaced by a 60-foot 
tower, thus allowing a better outlook and covering this territory much 
better than with the former tower. The town of Westborough con- 
tributed $100, and Upton and Grafton S75 each, towards this tower. 

A new 40-foot tower was erected on Barden's HiU in Middleborough, 
the town of ^Middleborough contributing S150 and Carver SlOO towards 
this tower. 

As the 60-foot tower erected last year on Copecut Hill in Fall River 
covers territory formerly partially protected by Richmond BLill tower in 
Dighton, I found it ad\dsable to move the 30-foot Richmond Hill tower 
to Great IMeadow Hill in Rehoboth, adding 16 feet to the height of it, 
thereby better protecting the forest area in Taunton, Attleboro and 
Norton. Taunton, Attleboro and Rehoboth each contributed $100 to- 
wards this tower, and Norton SoO. 

Through the courtesy of ]Mr. Charles Robinson of Pro^ddence, R. I., 
we were allowed to lease the top of Wigwam Hill in IMendon, and have 
erected a tower there similar to the others. Aside from the area covered 
in Massachusetts from this tower, we also cover some of the most valuable 
woodland in the State of Rhode Island. This tower also covers a portion 
of the so-called ''Douglas Woods." 

A new 30-foot tower with stairs was erected on Berlin Mountain in 
Wniiamstown. This is a co-operative tower, being maintained jointly by 
New York, VeiTQont and IMassachusetts. This covers the west side of the 
Greylock Range and valuable timber land in the adjoining towns, as 
well as a large amount of forested area hi Vermont and New York. The 
residents of Wilhamstown have subscribed $150 for the stairs of this 
tower. 

A 40-foot tower was erected on Lenox ^Mountain in the town of Lenox. 
This covers a large portion of the so-called Whitney Reserve, as well as 
valuable holdings in the adjoining towns. The residents of the towns of 
Richmond, Lenox and Pittsfield have subscribed $200 in payment of the 
stairs of this tower. 

A co-operative 30-foot steel tower with stairs was erected on Mount 
Everett. This tower is maintaiaed jointlj^ by Connecticut, New York 
and Massachusetts, and covers a large amount of forest area iu the three 
States. The town of Great Barrington contributed S150 in pajTuent of 
the stairs of this tower. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



65 



These new towers all have a 10-foot square room at the top, equipped 
with our sliding map-table and long-distance telephone connection. 

This construction work has been done entirely by our district forest 
wardens and observers. We maintained our own camping outfit, thereby 
lessening the expense of construction very materially. 

Since our fire season closed our men have been constructing telephone 
lines. A new Une is being constructed from Seaside to Monk's Hill in 
the town of Kingston, a distance of about 2 miles, where we shall locate a 
30-foot tower this coming year, probably doing away with the Plymouth 
tower as a permanent station. We are also constructing 3 miles of tele- 
phone hne to Lair's Hill in the town of Tolland, where we shall put the 
30-foot tower now in use on Becket Mountain, adding 20 feet to its 
height, thus making a 50-foot tower. I also desire to locate a 40-foot 
tower on Holcomb's Hill in Chester, which will complete our observation 
tower system in the Berkshire district. A new tower should also be estab- 
hshed on Watatic Mountain in the town of Ashby, which will cover the 
recently purchased State reservation in the town of Winchendon, a large 
portion of forest lands in Ashburnham, Ashby, Townsend and Fitchburg, 
as well as valuable woodlands in New Hampshire. A portion of the main- 
tenance of this tower would be paid by New Hampsliire. 

Owing to our discontinuing the use of the Blue Hill observation station 
it is necessary that a station be located on Prospect Hill in Hingham, 
which will protect the east side of the Blue Hills Reservation. The 
tower on Moose Hill in Sharon protects the west side. 

The new slash law which became effective January 1 is giving general 
satisfaction. Owing to the many stationary sawmills, wood-using in- 
dustries and 221 portable sawmills in operation during the year it is 
necessary that the law be strictly enforced. As the operation of it is 
entirely in the hands of the forest wardens it has been a difficult problem 
to have it enforced in every instance, as I would desire. In many cases 
I find that, owing to local conditions and possibly some personal reasons, 
some wardens have desired to place the responsibihty of carrying out this 
law upon this department, and while we would be glad to assume it, our 
authority is simply in an advisory capacity. Our district wardens have, 
however, visited many towns and seen that the law was properly adhered 
to. I feel confident that in the coming year we shall experience very 
little trouble in enforcing this law thi'oughout the State. 

The permit law, which has been in operation for the past few years, has 
also given general satisfaction, 24,507 permits being issued. We have had 
some trouble in prosecuting violators of this law, owing to the law being 
amended two years ago, and many judges holding that while the towns 
accepted the act in the first instance, they never have accepted it as 
amended, and for this reason many cases have been thrown out of court. 

Reports received from forest wardens show that 65 parties were pros- 
ecuted for violating this law, 18 of whom were convicted, 30 were allowed 
to settle by paying the expense of extinguishing, and 17 were discharged. 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



As there are less than 20 towns that have never accepted this act, it seems 
that it would be advisable to recommend to the General Court that the 
law be further amended, making it apply to every town in the Common- 
wealth. This would not only do away with any question that might 
arise in enforcing it, but would make the law general throughout the 
State. 



Fires reported from Observation Stations. 





1914. 


1916. 




- 


213 




133 


128 


Becket Mountain, Becket, 


63 


46 


Berlin Mountain, Williamstown, 


- 


56 




236 


- 




203 


280 




68 


167 




54 


114 




33 


453 


Cran Pond HiU, Ashfield, 


2 


24 




- 


3 




386 


530 




94 


36 




105 


101 


Hart Hill, Wakefield, 


174 


263 




35 


31 






13 




47 


59 




130 


104 




96 


272 


Mount Tom, Easthampton, 


135 


72 


Nobscot Hill, Framingham 




98 




116 


102 




302 


276 




14 


42 


Steerage Rock, Brimfield, 


90 


86 


Tower Mountain, Savoy, . . . . . 


11 


13 




485 


598 


Totals, 


3,013 


4.180 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 67 



Forest Fires of 1915. 



Months. 


Number. 


Acres. 


Cost to 
extinguish. 


Damage. 


1914. 


S 


1,229 


S29 00 


- 


1915. 












37 


121 


204 00 


$33 00 


March, 


1,630 


16,877 


16,909 00 


47,792 00 




763 


21,640 


12,889 00 


60,203 00 




283 


7,047 


4,227 00 


23,440 00 




119 


684 


1,306 00 


8,150 00 


July 


16 


56 


130 00 


10 00 




6 


10 


27 00 


18 00 




19 


14 


98 00 


25 00 




47 


191 


262 00 


142 00 




79 


520 


702 00 


1,260 00 


Totals 


3,008 


48,389 


$36,783 00 


$141,073 00 



Types of Laxd burned Over (Acres). 





1914. 


1915. 


Timber, 


3,001 


3,817 


Second growth, 


9,016 


6,749 




7.943 


9,107 


Brush, 


11,645 


14,681 


Grass 


3,510 


8,128 




4,860 


5,907 


Totals, 


38,975 


48,389 




Types of Classified Damages. 




1914. 


1915. 




$50,697 00 


$73,782 00 


Lumber, logs, cordwood 


14,427 00 


23,541 00 


Buildings, bogs, etc, ......... 


3,530 00 


31,904 00 




331 00 


1,936 00 




26.404 00 


9.907 00 


Totals 


$95,389 00 


$141,073 00 



6S THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Comparative Damages by Forest Fires for the Past Six Years. 



Year. 


Number 
of Fires. 


Acreage 
burned. 


Cost 
to extin- 
guish. 


Damage. 


Average 
Acreage 
per Fire. 


Average 
Damage 
per Fire. 


1910, . 




1,385 


42,221 


$23,475 


$205,383 


30.46 


$148 29 


1911, . 




2,356 


99,693 


47,093 


537.749 


39.31 


226 24 


1912, . 




1,851 


22,072 


20,219 


80,834 


11.92 


43 67 


1913, . 




2,688 


53,826 


35,456 


178,357 


20.02 


66 35 


1914, . 




3,181 


38,975 


48,750 


95,389 


12.25 


29 98 


1915, . 




3,008 


48,389 


36,783 


141,073 


16.08 


46 90 



Classified Causes of Forest Fires for the Past Four Years. 





1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Causes. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Unknown, 


649 


31.1 


650 


24.2 


1,174 


37.0 


1,134 


37.7 


Railroad 


640 


34.6 


913 


34.0 


830 


26.0 


777 


25.8 


Burning brush, 


93 


5.0 


148 


5.5 


196 


6.2 


439 


14.5 


Hunters, smokers, . 


223 


12.0 


386 


14.3 


520 


16.4 


5 


.1 


Steam sawmills. 


8 


A 


6 


.2 


3 


.1 


129 


4.2 


Children, .... 


79 


4.3 


109 


4.1 


140 


4.4 


161 


5.3 


Miscellaneous, . 


159 


8.6 


476 


17.7 


318 


9.9 


363 


12.4 


Totals, 


1,851 


100.0 


2,688 


100.0 


3,181 


100.0 


3,008 


100. 



Precipitation in Inches for the Years 1911, 1912, 1913, 1914 and 
1915, with December of Previous Year. 



Months. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


Normal. 


December, 


3.24 


2.59 


5.73 


3.66 


4.56 


3.74 


January, 


3.07 


3.87 


3.21 


4.30 


7.38 


4.12 


February, 


3.20 


2.24 


3.77 


3.52 


4.30 


3.97 


March, . . 


3.27 


5.26 


5.32 


4.20 


.06 


4.34 


April, 


2.86 


4.05 


4.73 


5.51 


2.44 


3.46 


May, 


.89 


4.03 


2.85 


2.95 


2.01 


3.37 


June, 


4.76 


.53 


3.20 


1.75 


1.43 


3.07 


July 


4.55 


4.16 


2.00 


3.38 


9.52 


3.65 


August, 


6.70 


3.85 


3.30 


4.59 


4.83 


3.70 


September, .... 


3.36 


1.71 


2.77 


.45 


.74 


4.36 


October, . . . 


3.01 


1.52 


7.62 


2.03 


3.11 


4.13 


November, .... 


5.71 


3.45 


2.70 


3.06 


2.47 


3.96 


Totals 


44.62 


37.26 


47.20 


39.40 


42.85 


45.87 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



69 



Railroad Fires. 

Our railroad fire reports show 777 railroad fires, as follows: Boston 
& Albany, 156; Boston & Maine, 261; Central Vermont, 58; and New 
York, New Haven & Hartford, 302, burning over 7,543 acres, vdth. a cost 
for extinguishing of $7,782 and a damage of $32,624. Owing to the severe 
drought during the spring this damage exceeds that of former years, while 
the number of fires remains practically the same. 

The reports received from our locomotive inspectors show 901 inspec- 
tions made of front-end screens and ash pans, with the following results: — 

Boston & Albany, 101 locomotives inspected, 25 of which were defective; 
Boston & Maine, 321 inspected, of which 39 were defective; New York, 
New Haven & Hartford, 479 inspected, of which 87 were defective. In 
nearly all instances these were but minor defects and were promptly 
repaired. 

The following reports from Mr. Ryder of the Boston & Maine, and Mr. 
Chas. B. Rood of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, show work 
accompHshed by these roads during the year: — 

Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: In accordance with your request for a statement of our work during 
the past season, we beg to submit the following: — 

With the passing of February the ground was left frozen and dry without a 
vestige of snow, and March was ushered in with severe winds which continued dur- 
ing that month. When a fire started in the grass, the wind was so strong that 
much larger areas than usual were burned over before help could be summoned, 
and consequently our troubles were increased. During that month we had re- 
ports of 1,024 fires on the whole system, a larger number than any previous March 
of which we have record. It came upon us so suddenly that our patrol cars v^^ere 
not in readiness, and undoubtedly the number of reports of fires was increased on 
that account; but in April, May and June the number of fires was materially de- 
creased compared with the same months during 1914 and 1913, which was un- 
doubtedly due in large measure to the fact that our patrol cars were in working 
order. The weather during the months of July, August, September, October and 
November was such that very few fires were reported. In July, for instance, we 
had only 7 reports of fires on the system; in August, onlj'' 13; in September, only 19; 
in October, only 20; and in November, only 78, and this was quite dififerent from 
previous years. 

Regardless of the weather conditions, it is our belief that owners of property 
along our lines are taking greater interest in fire prevention, and are endeavoring 
at least to do a little to keep inflammable material from their property; then, 
again, the prompt service rendered by the lookout men in discovering fires and 
summoning help is of immense value. 

We have added seven patrol cars to those already in service, and hope to have 
our patrol service in good working order, to start in March 1 next, if necessary, to 
follow trains. We feel confident that this method of watching for fires is the very 
best, and if nothing goes wrong we hope to show a material increase in good results 
next year. 

In addition to our regular weekly inspections of spark arresters and ash pans 
on our locomotives since March 1, 1915, we have requested special inspections of 
564 locomotives reported as setting fires, and of this number only a few were dis- 
covered with defects which might prove troublesome. In this connection permit 
me to state that our motive power department is very particular to report even 
minor defects in inspections of these devices. 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Since the 1st of last March we have secured five permissions of owners of land 
adjoining our property in Massachusetts to clear back a strip of land as large as 
possible along our right-of-way fence, and in addition we have been taking care of 
property for which we had permission to clear up since the department was or- 
ganized in 1912. We are sure that the law which took effect Jan. 1, 1915, making 
operators clear the brush from the right of way for a distance of 40 feet, is showing 
good results; often the operators do more than clear it just this distance. 

We believe that all our employees are more alert than ever before in the interest 
of fire prevention. We hope that you have noticed, in your travel on our lines in 
Massachusetts, an improvement in the condition of things around our buildings. 

Of course the test of our work is best shown in a dry season, but notwithstanding 
weather conditions last summer, we believe our efforts are showing good results in 
the reduction of fires from sparks from locomotives. 

Yours truly, 

E. A. Ryder, 

Commissioner. 



Boston, Mass., Dec. 20, 1915. 

Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Complying with your request of even date, I give you below the 
amount paid out for cleaning up our right of way and outside of right of way for 
fire protection, from Jan. 1 to Nov. 11, 1915, between the following points: — 

Miles. 

Buzzards Bay to Brewster, . . . ■ . . . . . .35.06 

Yarmouth to Hyannis, . . . . . . . . . 3 . 36 

Harwich to Chatham, . . . . . . . . . .7.08 

Tremont to Fairhaven, . . . . . . . . .19.97 

Middleborough to Myricks, . , . . . ... . .7.32 

Middleborough to Plymouth, . . .. . . . . .15.85 

All of the above sections have been cleared, with the exception of three or four 
places on the Tremont to Fairhaven branch, at a cost of $4,749.90 for a total mileage 
of 88.64. 

You understand that we have burned over all of our right of way with section 
men, and if you will look up your reports you will find that from Jan. 1 to Nov. 1, 
1915, fires in Barnstable County were very few, and the damage slight. 

Yours truly, 

C. B. Rood, 
General Fire Claim Agent. 

Appropriation for Prevention of Forest Fires. 

Appropriation for 1915, $28,000 00 

Receipts: — 

For equipment from towns and cities, . . 896 02 

For fire towers: — 

Attleboro, 100 00 

Carver, 150 00 

Framingham, . 100 00 

Grafton, 75 00 

Great Barrington, 150 00 

Middleborough, 150 00 



Amount carried forward, .... $29,621 02 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



Amount brought forward, .... $29,621 02 

For fire towers — Con. 

Norton, 50 00 

Rehoboth, 100 00 

Sudbury, 100 00 

Taunton, 100 00 

Upton, 75 00 

Wayland, 100 00 

Westborough, 100 00 

Weston, 100 00 

Westport, . 150 00 

Boston & Maine Railroad, 3 35 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad 

Company, 4 10 

Rebate on freight, 18 

Samuel Cabot, Inc., 18 00 

Ford Motor Company, 50 00 

New England Telephone and Telegraph Com- 
pany, 3 42 

M. E. Lyons, 12 00 

$30,587 07 

Expenditures: — 

Pay roU, $15,686 40 

Traveling expenses, . . . . . . 5,242 56 

Stationery and postage, 178 01 

Printmg, 725 64 

Equipment and suppUes, 2,110 36 

Construction, 4,492 07 

Freight, express and teaming, .... 602 28 

Telephone, 1,440 78 

Sundries, 107 87 

30,585 97 



Balance returned to treasury, $1 10 



Reimbursement for fire-fighting apparatus to towns, . . $1,806 11 

Forest-fire Equipment. 
Under an act of the Legislature, passed in the spring of 1910 and 
amended in 1914, appropriating $5,000 annually for forest-fire protection, 
towns with a valuation of $1,750,000 or less are entitled to 50 per cent, 
reimbursement on all forest-fire equipment they desire to purchase not 
exceeding $500, no town being allowed an amount exceeding $250. All 
forest-fire equipment purchased under this act is approved by this depart- 
ment, and placed under the supervision of the town forest warden, subject 
to inspection at all times by the State Fire Warden or the district forest 
wardens. 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



We have at the present time 162 towns that come within the provisions 
of this act. Of these, 43 have purchased equipment this year, being re- 
imbursed $1,806.11. This equipment consists of extinguishers, pumps, 
shovels, rakes, wire brooms, wagons and motor trucks. Many towns, 
seeing the importance of getting to a fire promptly and extinguishing it in 
its incipiency, are purchasing motor-drawn vehicles equipped with ex- 
tinguishers, pumps, etc., for this purpose. These are giving general 
satisfaction, and have been a great saving to many towns in not only 
reducing the fire loss, but have also reduced the expense of extinguishing 
fires very materially. 

As there is an unexpended balance in this appropriation some years, 
it seems advisable that we ask the next General Court to amend this law, 
allowing the use of the balance for the purchase of forest-fire trucks 
equipped for handfing large forest fires, and located with our district 
forest wardens, as we have many instances each year where we are caUed 
upon to assist in extinguishing forest fires, and at the present time we 
have no equipment whatever for this purpose. A portion of it could also 
be used to good advantage in protecting our State reservations by pur- 
chasing equipment for use on them and by making necessary fire lines. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement Act. 



Towns. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


i 
w 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


to 


Shovels. 


Wire brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Acushnet, . 




10 


18 








4 


1 








21, 3 


$250 00 


Ashburnham, 






8 




















25 00 


Ashby, 






48 








2 


2 




6 






154 70 


Ashfield, . 






33 




















99 00 


Ashland, 




24 


10 








12 


8 




6 


24 




85 78 


Auburn, 






83 




















249 00 


Avon, . 




10 










12 












9 90 


Becket, 




14 


16 










2 






24 




79 50 


Bedford, 




14 


24 




















249 67 


Belchertown, 






46 










1 








H 


211 87 


Bellingham, 




22 


23 








6 






8 




11 


124 12 


Berkley, 




36 


24 




















162 00 


Berlin, 


2 


10 


38 






1 


12 




3 


12 




11 


. 241 45 


Blandford, . 


6 


1 


16 








3 


3 






12 




83 17 


Bolton, 




14 


33 








6 






6 






126 65 


Boxborough, 


1 


12 


30 






2 






3 


4 


3 


11 


182 80 


Boxford, 


























45 60 



1 One-horse. » Two-horse. « Motor truck. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 73 



Intentory of Equipment purchased under the RETArRURSEAiENT 

Act — Continued. 



TO-WNS. 


i 


s 

d 


i 

.2 

"5 
a 


s 

o 


i 

2 


O 

s 

■§ 


i 


5 

a 

a 


to 
a> 

c3 


m 
1 

CO 


g 

2 


s 

1 


Reimburse- 

mont. 


Boylston, 


- 


- 


66 


- 


- 




24 


- 


- 


28 


- 


- 


$243 61 


Brimfield, . 


- 


10 


36 




















119 25 


Btirlington, 






20 




















100 00 


Carlisle, 


2 


15 


19 


- 


2 


- 


6 


- 


1 


6 


12 


1* 


250 00 


Charlton, 


- 


- 


77 


- 


- 


- 


40 


- 


- 


60 


- 


- 


250 00 


Chatham, 


2 


15 


11 


- 


2 


3 


4 


- 


3 


5 


- 


1» 


152 98 


Chester, 


- 


37 


15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


12 


1» 


156 97 


Chesterfield, 


























75 00 


Cummington, 


























102 12 


Dana, . 






6 


- 




- 


- 


- 








1» 


250 00 


Dighton, 


5 


8 


26 




1 








5 


2 


30 


2i 


242 89 


Douglas, 


- 


75 


50 




















180 25 


Dunstable, . 


2 


25 


10 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


3 


6 


6 


1> 


110 69 


East Longmeadow, 


2 


- 


18 


- 


2 


- 


12 


1 


- 


4 


- 


U 


153 96 


Edgartown, 


2 




10 


- 


2 


3 


4 


- 


3 


5 


- 


1» 


152 17 


Enfield, 


- 


20 


27 




















85 87 


Erving, 
Essex, . 


- 
- 


- 
24 


25 
12 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


86 52 
37 80 


Florida, 






8 




















26 00 


Freetown. . 


_ 


24 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


72 


- 


- 


167 48 


Georgetown, 


- 


54 


54 












6 


12 


- 


- 


196 48 


Gill. . 


- 


5 


20 




















65 00 


Goshen, 


- 


12 


58 




















244 05 


Granby, 


- 


12 


12 




















39 90 


Granville, . , 


- 




22 


















2» 


203 50 


Greenwich, . 


- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


60 45 


Groveland, . 




6 


12 












3 


12 






51 05 


Hadley, 


























75 00 


Halifax, 




12 


64 








12 






18 




1» 


241 91 


Hampden, . 






24 








24 




6 


6 


6 




1 89 06 


Hancock, 




9 












2 






6 




14 37 


Hanson, 




6 


24 








6 






5 




2«,« 


250 00 


Harvard, 


2 


7 


29 




2 


3 






3 


12 




1» 


250 00 



» One-horse. » Two-horse. » Motor truck. 



74 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Towns. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


Hoes. 


Lanterns, 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


Rakes. 


Shovels. 


Wire brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Harwich, 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


$48 50 


Holbrook, . 


- 


12 


21 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


24 


- 


124 25 


Holland. . 


- 


- 


8 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


25 00 


Hubbardston, 


- 


- 


52 


- 


- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


175 75 


Kingston, . 


- 


- 


24 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2» 


108 00 


Lanesborough, . 


2 


5 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


3 


6 


6 


48 


H 


97 25 


Leverett, 


2 


20 


16 


8 


2 


4 


- 


2 


4 


8 


- 


21 


160 17 


Littleton, 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


34 87 


Leyden, 


16 


10 


10 


17 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


8 


- 


- 


31 55 


Lunenburg, 


2 


36 


10 


- 


2 


3 


4 


- 


3 


29 


- 


1 1 


160 37 


Lynnfield, . 


- 


35 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


6 


21 


249 95 


Mashpee, 


6 


24 


25 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


- 


12 


- 


11 


157 12 


Mendon, 


- 


24 


21 
















42 


11 


173 97 


Merrimac, . 






15 




















75 00 


Middleton, . 


- 


12 


16 


6 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


157 69 


Millis, . 






8 




















242 00 


Monterey, . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 


- 


- 


12 


- 


15 25 


New Ashford, 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


4 


- 


18 25 


New Braintree, . 






37 




















120 97 


New Salem, 


- 


55 


20 




















100 50 


Newbury, . 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


8 


_ 


_ 


12 


_ 


55 90 


Norfolk, . 


























99 00 


North Reading, . 
























11 


248 43 


Northborough, , 


























102 37 


Norwell, 


6 




32 








12 






12 




1 1 


250 00 


Oakham, 




12 


31 




1 


1 


6 




3 


3 




11 


226 97 


Otis, 




5 


10 




















62 50 


Paxton, 


3 




28 


12 










_ 


6 






105 87 


Pelham, 






19 










5 










84 12 


Pembroke, . 






31 








60 










1« 


250 00 


Petersham, . 


2 


10 


36 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 




11 


248 05 


Phillipston, 




36 


38 










1 










130 15 


Plainfield, . 


























82150 



1 One-horse. 



» Two-horse. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 75 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Towns. 


Axes. 1 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


Hoes. 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 




Shovels. 


Wire brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Plainville, . 


2 


10 


22 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


18 


11 


$225 


00 


Plympton, . 
















12 


- 








20 


93 


Prescott, 




100 


10 




















58 


03 


Princeton, . 




32 


80 




















249 


20 


Raynham, . 


3 


46 


30 




6 


3 


12 




9 


15 




3' 


222 


23 


Rehoboth, . 




10 


48 


















li 


250 


00 


Richmond, . 




15 


31 








4 




- 


12 






109 


20 


Rochester, , 




24 


60 












- 


30 






205 


37 


Royalston, . 


3 


20 


32 


30 


2 


2 


12 




- 


42 




2i 


250 


GO 


Russell, 




7 


39 


















1 1 


220 


25 


Rutland, 




12 


18 








6 




- 






J, 


250 


00 


Salisbury, , 


3 




27 




6 




24 




- 


6 






140 


87 


Sandwich, . 


22 


12 


36 






2 






- 


24 




11 


245 


60 


Shelburne, . 






50 












12 


6 






186 


87 


Shirley, 




48 


36 




















139 


50 


Shutesbury, 




28 


25 








23 




- 


6 






101 


25 


Southampton, 
















1 


- 




12 




8 


75 


Southwick, . 




12 


26 


















11 


101 


50 


Sterling, 






25 












- 




18 


1 i 


241 


12 


Stow, . 






42 












- 


18 






131 


31 


Sturbridge, . 




11 


35 




















116 


45 


Sudbury, 


- 




40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 


00 


Sutton, 




50 


50 


24 










32 


24 






188 


46 


Tewksbury, 


2 




24 




2 








- 


30 




1« 


174 


00 


Tolland, 
















4 


- 




4 




18 


26 


Townsend, . 






46 












- 








250 


00 


Tyngsborough, , 




220 


20 










54 


12 


24 


36 




250 


00 


Tyringham, 


2 


10 


30 




2 




10 




2 


3 






144 


80 


Upton, 






30 
















12 




235 


28 


Wales, . 


2 




40 


12 


2 


2 


2 






6 






241 


99 


Warwick, 




6 


10 




















154 


35 


Washington, 






15 


3 


1 




10 






8 






105 


32 


Wendell, 




38 


27 




2 




12 






18 






163 


24 



1 One-horse. 



» Two-horse. 



» Motor truck. 



76 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment puechased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Concluded. 



TOWKS. 

1 


i Cans. 


1 
1 


i 

1— < 


B 

a 

h 

J 


1 


Pails. 


s. 
g 

3 


S 

1 


1 

1 


Wire broomB. 


S 

1 


Reimburflo- 

mont. 


Weet Boylston, . 


- 


- 


107 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


$250 00 


WeetBridgewater, 
























1> 


250 00 


West Brookfield, . 




12 


37 




















121 75 


West Xewbiiry, . 




8 


13 


- 


- 


- 




3 


- 


- 


18 


- 


87 12 


Westhampton, 


























48 00 


Westminster, 




77 


48 


OA 






24 






OA 

in. 






244 09 


Wilbraham, 




27 


32 








23 




12 


6 






118 38 


Wilmington, 




12 


40 




1 






18 




34 






187 38 


Windsor, 






40 




















200 00 


Worthington, 


2 


15 


10 






3 








5 




1» 


86 01 


Wrentham, . 




12 


30 






4 












1» 


250 00 


Totals, . 


108 


1.72S 


2,361 


li2 


50 


42 


475 


158 


144 


775 


401 


61 


$18,818 67 



1 One-horse. 



Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement duren-g Year 1915. 



Ashby, 


$39 00 


Leyden, . 


S9 20 


Ashland, . 


7 87 


Littleton, . 


34 87 


Belchertown, 


36 00 


Mashpee, . 


32 32 


Bellingham, 


1 20 


Mendon, . 


3 75 


Blandford, 


23 37 


Middleton, 


108 19 


Bolton, 


19 50 


Monterey, 


15 25 


Brimfield, 


19 50 


New Ash ford, . 


V 18 25 


Carlisle, . 


2 28 


Oakham, . 


4 00 


Chester, . 


59 95 


Plainfield, 


82 50 


Cummington, 


37 62 


Prescott, . 


9 87 


Dana, 


231 25 


Richmond, 


23 oa 


Dighton, . 


125 10 


Roj-alston, 


104 90 


Douglas, . 


5 25 


SaUsbury, 


102 00 


Dvinstable, 


4 55 


Shutesbury, 


13 75 


Enfield. . 


84 37 


Southampton, . 


8 75 


Georgetown, 


2 40 


Tjringham, 


32 50 


Granville, 


73 50 


Wales, 


5 22 


HampKien, 


50 06 


Washington, 


18 40 


Hancock, . 


14 37 


West Bridgewater, 


49 88 


Harwich, . 


40 00 


West Newbury, 


18 37 


Holbrook, 


55 25 






Kingston, 


108 00 


Total, 


. Sl,806 11 


Lanesborough, . 


70 75 







1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 77 



Federal Co-opera.tion. 

The co-operative work carried on between this State and the Federal 
department has been very satisfactory. We were allowed $2,500 from 
the Weeks law fund for the protection of the watersheds within the State. 
This was expended in pajrment of the observers throughout the State, 
covering a period of ten weeks. I anticipate that this appropriation will 
be increased next year, owing to the cost of maintaining the co-operative 
observation towers estabhshed along the State boundary lines. 

Each forest warden was furnished with a supply of cloth fire-warning 
notices, giving extracts from the forest-fire laws. These were posted in 
conspicuous places in each town, 10,000 copies being used through- 
out the State. 

In conclusion I desire to say that the loyalty and enthusiastic co-opera- 
tion of all the employees of this branch of the department during the past 
season is heartily appreciated. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. Q. HUTCHINS, 

State Fire Warden. 

The Brown-tail Moth Situation. 

The brown-tail moths have been far less in evidence through- 
out the State the past year than during any year since they 
became a pest here. No one condition is to be held responsible 
for this state of affairs, probably, but a fortunate combination 
of occurrences. The fungous disease of the brown-tail larva 
has been one of the very effective agents in lessening the 
numbers of this insect. This disease has recurred each year 
in nature, and where it appears sweeps the moths off almost 
to annihilation. During two seasons we were able to produce 
the disease artificially in the laboratory, and thereafter it was 
methodically placed in every badly infested section of the 
State with pronounced success. The two years succeeding, 
however, we were unable, for some unaccountable reason, to 
reproduce our previous results, although at greater pains and 
expense. These same seasons, however, we found the disease 
reproducing itself in nature and equally effective. 

Undoubtedly, the imported parasites have very materially 
aided the situation in destroying a goodly percentage of these 
insects. 

Late summer and early fall spraying have been practiced 



7S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



with very beneficial results in some of our worst infested di- 
visions. 

During the past summer the flight of the brown-tails was 
so slight as to be scarcely noticed in many cities and towns, — 
a great contrast to the flight of previous years, when it was 
almost an imitation of a snowstorm in summer, so thick were 
they about the electric lights. It is altogether too early for us 
to prophesy as to the future of this moth pest, but let us hope 
that whatever the cause of the reduction in numbers is, it 
will continue its good work. 

The splendid results of moth-forestry work about our inland 
lakes and streams, where the white oaks in particular were 
thinned out and then the remaining trees sprayed, have been 
the means of making the cottages, heretofore deserted owing 
to this irritating insect, again habitable. 

Use of Buklap discarded. 

Burlapping trees for the gypsy moth, which a few years ago 
was in common use, such quantities being used that it was 
purchased by the carload, has practically been discarded as an 
economic method in moth control. A bale or two constituted 
our entire purchase the past season. The burlap bands over 
trees were never intended to furnish anything other than a 
place for the larvae, or worms, to crawl under as a protection. 
Taking advantage of this natural habit these bands were so 
attached that they could be turned up and the insects de- 
stroyed. While the burlap was not in itself very expensive, 
the w^ork of inspecting during the season was burdensome. 
The bands were sometimes put on and then never turned, in 
which case they protected rather than hindered the develop- 
ment of the insects. 

It was found that the same amount of expense put into 
spraying with arsenate of lead was more effective and more 
sure of results. 

Burlap may still be used effectively in a newly infested sec- 
tion like the western part of the State, but even here tanglefoot 
would perhaps be better. For the badly infested section of the 
State, however, it is not advised, and has been discarded gen- 
erally as being impracticable. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC D(XUMENT — No. 73. 



79 



Large High-power Sprayers. 

The gigantic undertaking under the direction of this office, 
which involves the saving of the foKage on hundreds of miles 
of streets, public thoroughfares, parks, woodlands and estates 
throughout eastern Massachusetts, requires not only modern 
high-power sprayers of the latest design, but thorough and 
eflScient planning to accomplish results. The spraying season 
lasts but about six weeks, and rainy weather, poor spraying 
material, broken-down machinery, labor troubles and drought 
or lack of water are a few of the difficulties that it may be 
necessary to surmount during any spraying season. 

A few years ago most of the spraying equipment was made 
of cast-iron construction, but now the more important bear- 
ings and parts are made of metals guaranteed to withstand 
wear. 

Towns and cities with tall and handsome shade trees that 
they care to preserve need, by all means, to own one or more 
modern high-power sprayers. 

The large high-power sprayer originally perfected and 
brought into use by the State Forester's department is the 
standard machine still in use. 

This department continues to build its own machines of this 
character, although they are assembled for us at a price less 
than it cost us when it was done by our own mechanics. 
The State does not sell these machines; they are simply used 
in our co-operative work with towns and cities under the moth 
law. 

Small Power Sprayers. 

Several makes of small power sprayers are on the market 
at the present time which are proving very valuable for cer- 
tain kinds of spraying. It is a mistake, however, to entertain 
the idea for a moment that these small machines can perform 
the function of the modern high-power sprayer. 

A few years ago there were but two units in spraying, — the 
large sprayer and the hand-pump barrel outfit. The latter 
was used by the local moth superintendent as an auxiliary in 
his work, and where it was impossible to meet the demands for 
spraying on estates and in badly infested places with the 



80 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



large machine, a crew of two or three men with a barrel pump 
could be put to work independently. As a matter of fact, many 
towns depended entirely upon this type of spraying alone. 

The question of efficient labor and the scarcity of it began 
to make spraying by hand expensive; also farmers and fruit 
growers even found hand spraying too laborious and expensive 
a proposition, and they are gradually turning to the small- 
power outfits which are very popular and practical. A IJ to 
2 horse-power machine saves the manual labor of pumping. 
Much time is saved, as the engine does not stop for rest. These 
machines are easily transported, economical of the spraying 
solution, within the means of any average farmer or fruit 
grower, economical of labor, and can be used even in spraying 
the larger trees by climbing. They throw a very fine mist 
spray from which satisfactory results are obtained. A farmer 
can spray his fruit trees independently and at the psychological 
moment if he has one of these outfits. 

These same sprayers are being used more or less also by towns 
and cities. Many moth superintendents do practically all of 
the private work in their towns, and while their larger machines 
are busy spraying, a great amount of work that is self-support- 
ing, so-called rush orders, can be attended to by these small 
auxiliaries. 

A small 4 horse-power sprayer was placed upon the market 
last year that has apparent merit, particularly where the trees 
are not tall, as in many Cape Cod towns. This machine is 
modeled after the high-power State machine, and from last 
year's experience with it, is to be recommended. 

The Auto Truck in State Forestry Work. 
This department built an auto-truck sprayer for use in the 
North Shore moth work, and it has been in constant demand 
since. The first cost seemed great, but the fact that with this 
machine a large portion of the highways have been sprayed 
over the North Shore, thereby saving the expense of many 
more horse-drawn machines, makes it at once apparent that the 
final cost is not excessive. This power machine saves a great 
amount of time over a horse-drawn sprayer in that when 
once emptied it can quickly be replenished from the water 



A pastvire at Chelmsford that should be reforested. 




A young plantation of white pine on similar land as above, at Royalston. Ideal white 

pine land. 



I 



I 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — No. 73. 



81 



supply. The saving is not only one of horse hire, but of labor, 
as the same number of men can cover a far greater territory 
with the truck. It is believed that our State highways could 
be handled more economically and with more satisfactory 
results were we to provide auto-truck spraying outfits for the work. 

These sprayers are so constructed that the tank and pump- 
which are made in one piece can be detached and then the 
truck may be used as a regular auto truck. We use our 
present truck throughout the remainder of the year for every 
kind of work. It has occurred to the writer that with a little 
further adaptation these same trucks may be used for an 
auxiliary forest-fire equipment. It has been thought that 
eventually we may have an auto truck in each district 
of the State where it could be used for spraying during the 
season, and then as a forest-fire reserve equipment for the 
remainder of the year. This extra equipment is just the thing 
needed in many rural sections, particularly when the local 
apparatus is not very pretentious. This equipment could 
cover territory with a large radius, and would prove very 
effective. 

Besides the State Forester's auto-truck sprayer outfit, 
similar equipment has been purchased by the State Water and 
Sewerage Board and the town of Canton; also the United 
States Department of Agriculture is building an outfit for the 
Bureau of Entomology for use in New England on the moth 
work. 

Parasite Work. 
The following report was kindly furnished by Dr. L. O. 
Howard, chief of the Bureau of Entomology, upon request 
for a comprehensive statement of the present condition of this 
work. His correspondence is published in full, as it gives just 
the information desired. 

Washington, D. C, Dec. 1, 1915. 

Dear Professor Pane : — In accordance with \'our request and with 
my annual custom I am writing j-ou concerning the condition of the 
parasites of the g\'psy moth and brown-tail moth which have been im- 
ported into New England by this Bureau in co-operation -vsith the State 
of Massachusetts and other official organizations and individuals in foreign 
countries and at home. 



82 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The statement which is enclosed, and which I trust you will have 
printed in quotation marks, has been drawn up by Mr. A. F. Burgess of 
this Bureau, in charge of our work against the gypsy moth and brown-tail 
moth. It will be noted in the opening paragraph that during the year no 
parasites have been introduced from abroad. This has been largely due to 
war conditions in Europe. So soon as matters become settled over there it is 
my hope to send one or more expert assistants to certain countries in the 
effort to rear and to introduce into the United States certain additional 
parasites which we know to exist, and some of which have already been 
imported but have not become established in this country. A study of 
the notes made at the laboratory at Melrose Highlands, Mass., indicates 
that some 29 species of the natural enemies of the gypsy moth and brown- 
tail moth have been imported from time to time, and that 12 of these 
species have been estabhshed. The establishment of the remaining 17 has 
either failed or is doubtful. There remains a possibihty that some of them 
may be recovered at a later date, but tliis is entirely problematical. Of 
the 12 which have become estabhshed, at least 7 seem to have been 
doing very efficient work during the past year, as will appear from Mr. 
Burgess's more detailed statement. 

Mr. Burgess has mentioned in his report the destruction of a certain 
percentage of the Calosoma beetles by skunks and other agencies. The 
striking appearance of this beetle renders it easily recognizable, and it is 
feared that in its increasing abundance it may be heedlessly destroyed by 
ignorant people or largely collected by ardent and unscrupulous collectors. 
The Bureau has, therefore, as you know, issued a series of posters and 
cards calhng attention to this and other important enemies of the gypsy 
moth and the brown-tail moth, in order to prevent this destruction in 
some measure at least. It seems to me especially desirable that the 
Boy Scouts of New England should be able to recognize these beneficial 
insects, in order that this information may be carried into the homes in 
general. Is it not possible, also, that the Boy Scouts might be utihzed 
in some way in the warfare against these two species of injurious insects? 

Yours Yery truly, 

L. 0. Howard, 
Chief of Bureau. 

Statement of Mr. A. F. Burgess. 
During the year 1915 no parasites of the gypsy moth nor the brown- 
tail moth have been introduced from abroad, and conditions have been 
such that it has been impracticable to attempt to carry on observations 
on these insects in their native home, or to collect material there for study 
or investigation. The summer of 1915 was unusually cool, and precipi- 
tation was heavier than has been recorded for many years. These two 
factors, namely, temperature and humidity, have undoubtedly had then: 
effect on reducing the activity of parasites as well as curtaihng the rapid 
development of the wilt disease, which is a prominent factor in reducing 
gypsy moth mfestations. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



83 



An attempt has been made during the year 1915 to Uberate colonies of 
paricsites in as much of the infested territory as possible outside of the 
area where these beneficial species were known to exist. During the 
spring extensive work was carried on with Anastatus hifasciatus, one of 
the egg parasites of the gypsy moth. From a colony of this insect which 
was hberated a number of years ago near West Peabody, Mass., it was 
possible to collect large numbers of parasitized g>^psy moth eggs. Between 
9,000,000 and 10,000,000 of parasitized eggs were obtained in this region, 
and colonies were hberated in Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. In 
all, 91 towns were colonized, 65 of which were in Massachusetts. The 
species is now quite weU distributed in Massachusetts, but further coloni- 
zations v-dll be necessary, particularly in the southern part of the State. 
It is hoped that enough parasites may be secured this winter so that the 
remaining towns which are badly infested with the g^^sy moth can be 
colonized during the spring of 1916. 

The other parasite which attacks g\T)sy moth eggs, namely, Schedius 
kuvanae, has been colonized during the last part of the present year in 
many towns in Massachusetts, particularly'' in the southern part of the 
State. At the present time colonies have befen hberated in nearly all the 
towns where infestation is at all severe. 

During the winter of 1914-15 collections of brown-tail webs secured 
from certain locahties showed quite heavy mortahty of the caterpillars in 
the webs. The number was not as great as during the previous year and 
in some sections mortahty was extreme^ low. Apanteles lacteicolor, one 
of the parasites of this caterpillar, was found more abundantly than during 
the spring of 1914. This parasite seems to be increasing in number at 
present, after suffering a severe decrease last year. Meteorus versicolor is 
also increasing, and has been found in sections, many miles from points 
where colonies have been hberated. These two species have already 
spread into nearly every town in Massachusetts which is infested by the 
gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth, so that fm-ther colonization is 
not deemed necessary at present. 

Another species of Apanteles, which is known as Apanteles melanoscelus, 
and which is a parasite of the gypsy-moth caterpillars, is increasing in the 
region around IVIelrose, where it was originally hberated. It was possible 
to collect enough specimens so that three colonies of 500 each were hb- 
erated this 3^ear. One was placed in Manchester, N. H., and the others 
at Middleborough and Harwich, Mass. 

Compsilura concinnata has been abundant in some locahties, but does 
not seem to be generally distributed over the territory, although it has 
been found during different years in nearly every infested section. It is 
interesting to know that several species of Tachinid parasites, which have 
heretofore simply maintained themselves without increasing to any great 
extent, have been recovered in greater numbers than ever this year, and 
in some cases they have been obtained many miles from the nearest colony 
that was hberated. This refers particularly to Blepharipa scutellata, a 
parasite of the g>"psy moth, and to Zygobothria nidicola, which attacks the 
brown-tail moth. 



84 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Calosoma beetle {Calosoma sycophanta) has been slightly more 
abundant this year than heretofore.. Its activities have not been quite 
as noticeable in all cases on account of the cool weather, which had a 
tendency to keep the beetles in seclusion. In some areas heavy mortality 
among the beetles has been caused by skunks and possibly by other 
animals. This species has, however, maintained its good reputation as a 
foe of the gypsy moth. 

Considering the gypsy moth infested region as a whole, there has been 
no decrease in the severity of infestation during the past year. As stated 
at the outset, the weather conditions have been unfavorable for the work 
of the natural enemies, and on the average, a slight increase in infestation 
is noticeable in many sections. Under normal conditions the effect of 
natural enemies will probably be more pronounced. In the case of the 
brown-tail moth, the infestation has been enormously reduced during the 
last two years. This has been brought about by several agencies, but 
the parasites and natural enemies have undoubtedly contributed ma- 
teriallj^ 

Gypsy Moths and Cranberry Bogs. 

Perhaps the most serious new development in connection 
with the gypsy moth work is the invasion by these insects of 
the cranberry bogs. As the Cape country began to have a 
general infestation, reports w^ere received indicating that they 
were here and there found upon cranberry bogs, but no great 
damage to this property from their invasion was felt until 
the past two seasons, particularly the last year. Cranberry 
growers as a whole are very businesslike, and as soon as the 
larvae were found eating the cranberry vines spraying was 
begun and other remedial measures were taken. However, 
the past season's experience has demonstrated that the condi- 
tions have become so serious that the vast cranberry in- 
dustry, which is of such great economic importance, has 
become actually threatened and demands our immediate 
attention. The fact that these insects readily prey upon the 
cranberry vines complicates the situation and brings an al- 
together new problem up for solution. 

The State Forester has had two meetings with representatives 
of the Cape Cod Cranberry Association, and through his divi- 
sion men has been able to make a very general survey of the 
present conditions and the problem confronting us. The cran- 
berry business is found to be the fundamental industry of 
many Cape towns, approaching as high as seven-eighths of 



^ 1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



85 



the assessed valuation in one town. After a close study 
of conditions it is believed that our present moth law contains 
all the elasticity necessary for dealing with the emergency, 
provided we have sufficient additional funds to cope with the 
situation. 

At the present time a careful survey of the situation is 
being made in each of the towns, and definite estimates of the 
cost of doing the work are being accumulated. It is our pur- 
pose to call a public meeting at some central point like Middle- 
borough at an early date, at which time the whole subject 
may be gone into and discussed in detail by those interested. 
Whether the matter will demand special legislation or con- 
sideration at the hands of the General Court remains to be 
seen. That the problem is a serious one there is no question. 

Special Co-operative Moth Work. 

Under this heading we include the work done on the North 
Shore in co-operation with the city of Beverly and town of 
Manchester and the residents of that section, the work done 
in Dover woodland in co-operation with the town and the 
property owners of Dover, and a new undertaking, under the 
name of the Sagamore Beach gypsy moth work, which we have 
undertaken during the last year in co-operation with the 
Sagamore Beach Association and property owners in that 
vicinity. 

The North Shore work has been continued during the past 
year along the same general lines as in previous years, and the 
work has been handled in an able and efficient manner by our 
division superintendent, Mr. Phillips, and his assistant, Mr. 
Donovan. The chairman of the committee. Col. Wm. D. 
Sohier, expresses himself as being much pleased with the work 
this year. The expense of the work has been much lessened 
this last year owing to the fact that no thorough winter work 
was done in the woodland. This has resulted in the gypsy 
moths increasing in certain small areas, and it will be neces- 
sary to do some creosoting this year in order to prevent the 
spread. During the last year 2,928 acres were sprayed at an 
average cost of $5.63 per acre; 524 acres were cut and burned 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



over at an average cost of $9.70 per acre; 2,630 acres were 
creosoted at an average cost of $1.19 per acre. The cost of 
tliis cutting and burning was very low, owing to the fact that 
a large amount of work was done by the so-called "unem- 
ployed" under the relief fund, which was organized last 
winter. 

In Dover the w^ork has progressed along the same lines as 
those laid down in the beginning for the work. Spraying was 
done during the season, the cost of which was partly paid 
by the' owners. Much thinning has been done and the wood 
sold and the proceeds turned in to the fund for future work. 

The work at Sagamore Beach has not been of great extent, 
but has been of great benefit to the summer colony there and 
has been largely self-supporting. 



Special North Shore Fund. 



Balance from 1914, 


$8,330 


70 


Receipts : — • 






William Morris, 


30 


38 


City of Beverly, 


3,000 


00 


Wm. D. Sohier, agent for property o-\\Tiers, 


5,977 


21 


Town of Manchester, 


3,500 


00 


Wm. D. Sohier, agent, 


5,000 


00 


F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 


4,113 


48 


Massachusetts Highway Commission, 


46 


56 


Appropriation for suppression of gypsy and 






brown-tail moths, 


2,633 


19 


Massachusetts Highwaj^ Commission, 


120 


43 


Boston & Maine Railroad, 


12 


75 


Expenditures: — 






Pay roll, 


$13,750 


17 


Travel, 


1,992 


97 


Supplies, 


8,396 


37 


Bent, 


317 


50 


Stationery and postage 


25 


85 


Sundries, including teaming, telephone, etc., . 


1,471 


54 



$32,764 70 



25,954 40 



Balance Nov. 30, 1915, 



$6,810 30 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



Dover Gypsy Moth Fund. 

Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1914, . . . $1,061 82 
Receipts : — 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 1,000 00 

For tools lost, , 1 00 

Property owners, and wood sold, . . . 2,338 69 

— S4,401 51 

Expenditures : — 

Pay roU, $3,737 22 

Supplies, 455 51 

Teaming, 5 00 

Maps, 4 50 

Stationery (time books), 98 

4,203 21 



Balance Nov. 30, 1915, S198 30 

Special South Shore Fund, 
Balance from 1913, $66 19 

Expenditures: — 
Supplies (arsenate of lead), .... $64 80 

Stationery and postage, 1 39 

66 19 



Balance Nov. 30, 1915, 

Sagamore Beach Gypsy Moth Fund. 



Receipts : — 

E. W. Souther, agent, $799 00 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 500 00 
Various owners, for cordwood, .... 198 25 

$1,497 25 

Expenditures : — 

Pay roU, • $806 27 

Travel, 2 89 

Supphes, 69 90 

Teaming, etc., ....... 97 90 

Seedlings, 40 50 

1,017 56 



Balance Nov. 30, 1915, $479 69 



8S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Reports ox Moth Work from Cities and Towxs. 

Data from the whole moth-infested section of the State in 
the form of reports from each city and town are on file in the 
office. It has been our policy to print this information in the 
annual report every second or third year, and this would be 
the season for doing so, but as the report is already large it 
will necessitate its being deferred. 

The folloTs-ing reports from the city of Boston and the town 
of Brookline are examples of these reports: — 

Boston, Dec. 23, 1915. 

Dear Sm: — In accordance with your request I herewith submit follow- 
ing report on moth-suppression work for city of Boston during the year 
1915. We expended almost $45,000, of which amount $18,000 was laid 
out on private estates, and the balance, $27,000, on public work and excess 
liability on private work. 

The general condition of the city is excellent, there being only a verj'- 
light infestation of brown-tails in West Roxbury and Hj^de Park sections, 
with a general infestation of the gJTsy- 

Conditions in Charlestown, East Boston, South Boston and city proper 
are very satisfactory, with an isolated infestation of gj^sy. 

Jamaica Plain, Brighton and Dorchester have a general infestation of 
gj-psy, about 90 per cent, less than in 1910. 

With our increased facilities for spra™g we have been able the past 
two j'ears to cover entire cit}^; no defohation of sltlv kind noticed or 
reported. We have at present twelve Fitz-Henry high-power sprayers 
and one auto-truck sprayer; also four hand tubs and thi-ee Church ma- 
chines to help out in case of necessity. 

Our park system is in splendid condition, a great part of it being 
uninfested. 

During the coming j^ear we intend to cover the entire city with de- 
struction and spray work. 

Too much credit cannot be given to the State Forester's office for the 
courtesy and assistance rendered to me in the course of my efforts to do 
this work as thoroughly as possible during past yeais. 

Yeiy truly yours, 

William P. Long, 
Superintendent of Street Trees and Moth Work. 

Bbooexine, Dec. 22, 1915. 

The following is a report of the moth work done in Brookline for the 
year ending Dec. 31, 1915. 

The appropriation for the suppression of gypsy and brown-tail moths 
was S28,450. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



89 



Last winter all the trees in the town were creosoted, and this past spring 
the 4,500 acres comprising the town's area were sprayed. Of this amount 
about 1,200 acres are woodland. The infestation of gypsy moths this 
fall is about 50 per cent, less than last year, and the situation can easily be 
controlled with an appropriation smaller for gypsy moths than last year. 
The flight of bro^n-tails was slightly larger than a year ago. These nests 
wdll be removed during January and February. 

The town appropriated the sum of $3,000 for leopard moth work. 
This insect is on the increase, and is by far the most seiious problem the 
department will have to contend with in the way of- tree pests for the next 
few years. 

The patrolling of our woodland area in the dry seasons during the spring 
and fall reduced the number of fires from 32 in 1914 to 7 in 1915. 

The department is also trying to encourage nesting of useful birds in 
the town. We have placed this year 350 bird houses of various designs 
in roadside trees throughout the town. During the coming winter we 
will keep the 53 feeding stations for the birds well stocked with proper 
grains, etc. As yet no appreciable number of the boxes have been occupied. 
We hope that it will be possible to give you excellent reports on this divi- 
sion of the department's work during the next year. 

I take this opportunity to thank you and your office for the many 
courtesies extended to the town during the years I have been connected 
with this department. 

Daniel G. Lacy, 
Superintendent. 

The Purchase and Distribution of Supplies. 
Some time during the month of December concerns handling 
the various supplies which we use in our w^ork are asked to 
submit bids on such quantities as we may need for the ensuing 
year. 

The successful bidder accepts our requisitions from time to 
time for such quantities as may be called for by the cities and 
towns entitled to supplies through this department, also for 
supplies for the nurseries and for the special reforestation work 
being carried on by us. When a city or town is in need of any 
supplies the local superintendent makes out his list, using a 
catalogue of supplies and shipping order furnished him by this 
ofl&ce. 

He hands this shipping order to the field superintendent, who 
lays out and supervises the work being done in each city 
and town, and knows just what supplies are needed, and there- 
fore is held responsible for the approval of these shipping orders. 



90 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The field superintendent in turn mails the order to this office, 
where the requisitions are made out on the concerns from whom 
we purchase the supplies. 

Orders for supplies for nursery or reforestation work must 
be approved by the assistant State forester in charge of that 
particular line of work. 

We endeavor at all times to furnish supplies of a good grade. 

The following is a list of cities and towns, with amount of 
supplies for moth work furnished them, for the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1915. The amounts given are the gross amounts 
furnished, some of the cities and towns having made payments 
to the State Forester's office for all or a part of the amounts, 
according to the amount of their net expenditures or their 
class under the provisions of the law. For amounts received 
from this office in reimbursement and supplies see the table on 
page 98. 



List of Towns and Amounts of Supplies furnished for 1915. 
Thirdndass Towns. 



Acton, 


S574 77 


Georgetown, 


$478 16 


Ashburnham, 


341 88 


Grafton, . 


1 08 


Ashby, . 


264 74 


Groton, 


503 71 


Ashland, . 


138 45 


Groveland, 


192 97 


Auburn, . 


47 30 


Halifax, . 


6 45 


Avon, 


81 89 


Hanover, . 


432 79 


Ayer, 


285 60 


Hanson, , 


148 87 


Bedford, . 


785 90 


Harvard, . 


1,015 11 


Belchertown, 


13 85 


Holden, 


175 08 


Berkley, . 


16 52 


Hopkinton, 


65 90 


Berlin, 


358 99 


Hudson, . 


526 35 


Billerica, . 


784 13 


Ipswich, . 


764 81 


Bolton, . 


590 63 


Kingston, 


262 64 


Boxborough, 


595 20 


Lakeville, 


79 00 


Boxford, , 


419 29 


Lincoln, . 


1,446 44 


Boylston, . 


108 69 


Littleton, . 


465 27 


Bridgewater, 


53 71 


Lunenburg, 


606 72 


Burlington, 


477 79 


LjTinfield, 


529 13 


Carlisle, . 


430 94 


Marshfield, 


152 53 


Carver, 


. 12,630 03 


Mashpee, . 


437 85 


Chelmsford, 


733 19 


Merrimac, 


211 99 


Dracut, , 


734 64 


Middieborough, 


1,075 64 


Dunstable, 


192 53 


Middleton, 


227 22 


Duxbury, . 


252 27 


Millbury, . 


1 08 


Edgartown, 


1 45 


Newburj% 


665 87 


Essex, 


40 17 


Norfolk, . 


89 64 



1 Includes large power sprayer. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 91 



Third-class Towns — Con. 



North Andover, 


S677 07 


Stoneham, 


. $881 32 


North Reading, 


820 06 


Stoughton, 


231 57 


Northborough, . 


429 91 


Stowe, 


677 21 


Northbridge, 


1 08 


Sudbury, . 


791 36 


Norwell, . . . . 


657 69 


Templeton, 


122 93 


Orange, .... 


1 80 


Tewksbury, 


709 32 


Orleans, .... 


40 


Topsfield, 


230 06 


Oxford 


1 08 


Townsend, 


350 01 


Pembroke, . . 


549 98 


Truro, 


147 54 


Pepperell, 


572 47 


Tyngsborough, . 


757 90 


Plainville, 


43 34 


Upton, 


1 08 


Plympton, 


225 49 


Uxbridge, 


1 08 


Princeton, 


387 33 


Way land, 


. 1,010 23 


Raynham, 


160 62 


Wenham, . 


705 21 


Rockland, 


11,731 13 


West Boylston, 


2 668 96 


Rowley, .... 


525 37 


West Bridgewater, 


402 45 


Salisbury', 


488 32 


West Newbury, 


. 1 1,578 55 


Sandwich, 


381 94 


Westborough, . 


189 17 


Scituate, .... 


895 42 


Westford, 


914 07 


Sherborn, 


372 25 


Westminster, 


105 41 


Shirley 


298 26 


Wilmington, 


871 13 


Shrewsbury, 


98 30 


Winchendon, 


331 69 


Southborough, . 


375 33 






Sterling, . . . ; 


326 75 




S43,216 49 


First and Second Class Towns. 


Andover, .... 


S755 03 


Methuen, 


$929 23 


Barnstable, 


12,862 88 


Natick, . 


36 29 


Canton, .... 


1,468 66 


Newton, . 


. 4,372 97 


Concord, .... 


528 23 


Reading, . 


. 1,418 15 


Danvers, .... 


752 16 


Saugus, 


592 89 


Fall River, 


92 30 


Wakefield,. 


456 63 


Gloucester, 


558 84 


Waltham, 


. 12,614 62 


Hamilton, 


519 88 


Weston, . 


. 1,862 87 


Lexington, 


1,310 21 


Woburn, . 


219 29 


Lowell, .... 


387 41 


Worcester, 


. 1,453 86 


Marlborough, . 


803 13 






Medford, .... 


269 70 




$24,265 23 


» Includes large power sprayer. 


» Includes small sprayer. 


Automobiles, 






$78 60 


Division superintendent (moth), . 




312 55 


Dover gypsy moth fund, 






427 96 


Forest thinnings, 






253 11 


Grafton State Hospital, 






5 63 


Prevention of forest fires, 






684 63 


Purchase and planting of forest lands, . 




41 03 


Relief fund for unemployed, 






1,055 88 



92 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Sagamore Beach gypsy moth fund, ...... $44 05 

Special North Shore fund 5,644 76 

State Forest Commission, ........ 66 

State Forester's expenses, ........ 135 06 

Supply store, .......... 173 86 

Traveling sprayers, etc., ........ 1,428 58 



Total $10,286 36 



Housing of Equipment. 

During the past ten years the work of preserving our trees 
and forests from destruction by insects and forest fires has 
caused the cities and towns in our State to purchase more or 
less equipment for use in this work. 

This equipment consists of spraying machinery, forest-fire 
wagons and all of the minor tools and equipment that go with 
them, such as fire extinguishers, axes, shovels, water cans, acid 
and soda, spraying hose, creosote brushes and many other 
tools of minor importance but essential to the work. Up to 
the present time the care of this equipment has not been what 
it should be in a number of cities and towns. 

The State's policy has been to be generous and give as 
much aid as possible where it is of public concern. Both the 
moth law and the forest-fire equipment law encourage cities 
and towns in acquiring this equipment, as a part of the ex- 
pense of it is shared by the State under certain conditions. 

When a modern high-power sprayer has been purchased 
which has cost the town and State each $600, its future value 
is greatly prolonged if it is properly housed and taken care of. 
What is true of the sprayer is true of other tools. We have 
gathered the data as to the methods practiced generally, and 
there is a great lack of uniformity. 

Many municipalities have given the subject attention and 
either built new buildings or have remodeled and adapted old 
buildings for their use at small expense. Others have their 
town property scattered all over the town, and often are 
paying more rent than it would cost to properly house the 
equipment in a convenient central place. Nearly every town or 
city has headquarters for its road and other equipment. This 
is the natural center, where a neat shed could be constructed 
for the sprayers and fire wagon, and, by extending its length 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 93 



15 or 20 feet, a workroom and storeroom might be added where, 
under lock and key, the equipment would always be safe and 
constantly ready for use. 

A building of this kind serves to systematize the work, as 
a note left here will give the information as to where the 
official in charge can be found. On rainy days and at other 
times there are many things that can be attended to at these 
headquarters, like repairing of equipment, making out reports, 
painting, making an inventory of the work, etc., which other- 
wise would be more or less neglected. 

We mention this matter here, particularly to call it to the 
attention of the towns and cities that should be especially 
interested in the housing of their equipment. 

The State Forester insists that his division men personally 
see that all spraying machines and forest-fire equipment be put 
in order so as not to freeze before cold weather, etc., but 
as pointed out above, there is an opportunity to improve con- 
ditions in many places, and it is believed that the matter 
should receive the consideration of our public-spirited citizens, 
and be called to the attention of the authorities. 

State Highway Work. 
Along the State highways spraying and cleaning for the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths and elm-leaf beetle were done 
under the direction of this department. Bills for this work 
were approved by us and transmitted to the State highway 
department for payment. The list of towns and cities in which 
the work was done is as follows : — 



Work on State Highways, 1915. 



Acton, 


S202 00 


Ayer, 


$25 25 


Agawam, . 


28 50 


Barnstable, . ; 


65 84 


Amesbury, 


32 74 


Barre, 


49 35 


Amherst, . 


25 00 


Bedford, . 


43 46 


Andorer, . 


61 35 


Bellingham, 


10 20 


Ashburnham, 


95 25 


Beverly, , 


166 99 


Ashby, 


43 50 


Billerica, . 


77 15 


Ashland, . 


68 88 


Bourne, 


155 00 


Athol. 


24 50 


Boxborough, 


165 90 


Auburn, . 


29 70 


Braintree, 


20 00 



94 



THE STATE FORESTER. 
Work on State Highways, 1915 — Continued. 



[Jan. 



Brewster, . 




$182 


25 


Lunenburg, 


Bridge water, 




21 


42 


Marion, . 


Brookfield, 




61 


22 


Marlborough, . 


Burlington , 




108 


87 


Marshfield, 


Canton, 




23 


50 


Mashpee, . 


Charlton, . 




20 


36 


Melrose, . 


Chatham, 




8 


65 


Merrimac, 


Chelmsford, 




94 


35 


Methuen, 


Chester, . 




34 


25 


Middleborough, 


Chicopee, 




.* 37 


50 


Middleton, 


Cohasset, . 




53 


89 


Millbury, . 


Concord, . 




243 


76 


Monson, . 


Deerfield, 




11 


60 


Montague, 


Dennis, 




16 


20 


Natick, 


Dover, 




82 


04 


Needham, 


Dracut, 




60 


10 


Newbury, 


Duxbury, . 




30 


02 


Newburyport, . 


Sasthampton, 




14 


28 


North Andover, 


Essex, 




16 


00 


North Attleborough, . 


Falmouth, 




100 


45 


North Reading, 


Fitchburg, 




133 


58 


Northborough, . 


Foxborough, 




94 


65 


Northbridge, 


Framingham, 




110 


55 


Northfield, 


Franklin, . 




40 


25 


Norwood, 


Gardner, . 




13 


50 


Oxford, 


Gloucester, 




51 


10 


Palmer, 


Grafton, . 




97 


75 


Pembroke, 


Greenfield, 




30 


40 


Peppereil, 


Groton, 




27 


75 


Plainville, 


Groveland, 




38 


84 


Princeton, 


Hadley, . 




65 


00 


Quincy, 


Hamilton, 




80 


66 


Reading, . 


Hard wick. 




6 


60 


Rochester, 


Harvard, . 




54 


37 


Rockland, 


Harwich, . 




110 


10 


Rockport, 


Haverhill, 




117 


18 


Rowley, . 


Hingham, 




22 


69 


Russell, 


Holbrook, 




12 


00 


Salisbury, 


Holliston, 




22 


92 


Sandwich, 


Hudson, . 




37 


89 


Scituate, . 


Huntington, 




35 


15 


Shirley, 


Ipswich, . 




37 


05 


Shrewsbury, 


Kingston, 




23 


52 


Somerset, 


LakcA^ille, 




12 


48 


South Hadley, 


Lancaster, 




33 


33 


Southborough, . 


Leicester, , 




29 


00 


Spencer, . 


Leominster, 




45 


10 


Sterling, . 


Lexington, 




88 


85 


Stockbridge, 


Lincoln, . 




67 


95 


Stoneham, 


Littleton, . 




64 


22 


Stoughton, 


Lowell, 




49 


51 


Sudbury, . 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 95 



Work on State Highways, 1915 — Concluded. 



Sutton, 


$11 85 


Westborough, . 


$31 05 


Swansea, . 


131 00 


Westfield, 


55 00 


Templeton, 


40 12 


Westford, 


132 55 


Tewksburj', 


84 00 


Westminster, 


17 70 


Townsend, 


84 65 


Weston, . 


84 40 


Tyngsborough, . 


156 75 


Westwood, 


21 42 


Ware, 


44 75 


Weymouth, 


80 68 


Warren, . 


62 11 


Wilbraham, 


20 16 


Wayland, 


77 63 


Williamstown, . 


82 50 


Webster, . 


17 33 


Wilmington, 


65 18 


Wellfleet, . 


32 75 


Winchester, 


59 60 


Wenham, . 


100 61 


Woburn, , 


151 91 


West Boylston, 


66 56 


Worcester, 


13 33 


West Bridgewater, 


19 80 


Yarmouth, 


136 00 


West Brookfield, 


37 59 






West Newbury, 


105 16 




$9,231 82 


West Springfield, 


35 00 







Appropriation for Suppression of Gypsy and Brown-tail 

Moths. 
General Statement. 

Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1914, $88,874 63 

Less reimbursement paid for 1914, 39,669 90 



Balance for 1915 work, $49,204 73 

Receipts : — 

Andover, $205 03 

Ayer, 1,240 94 

Barnstable, 899 39 

Boylston, 672 13 

Bridgewater, 22 75 

Cohasset, 393 22 

Danvers, 516 08 

Gloucester, 27 30 

Hingham, 285 01 

Holden, 1,255 34 

Hopkinton, . . . , 900 33 

Hudson, 1 27 

Marlborough, 406 41 

Medford, 640 40 

Natick, 47 62 



Amounts carried forward, 



$7,513 22 $49,204 73 



96 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Amounts brought f(ynvard, .... $7,513 22 $49,204 73 



Receipts — Con. 

North Andover, 135 34 

Norton, 86 00 

Princeton, 1,302 34 

Quincy, 6 58 

Raynliam, 315 64 

Revere, 57 25 

Rowley, 322 91 

Sherborn, 62 10 

Templeton, 1,460 93 

Topsfield, 2,095 57 

Wakefield, 827 18 

Weymouth, ........ 858 68 

Check return on Lexington pay roll, . . 3 75 

Fall River, . 92 30 

Medford, 269 70 

Natick, 16 53 

Wakefield, 456 63 

New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, 

rebate for damages, 55 00 

Junk sold, 5 18 

Motor cycles sold, 168 00 

Refund from C. J. Jaeger Companj^, . . 33 00 

Use of outfit on thinning work, .... 193 80 

State Forest Commission, 66 

State Forester's expenses, 234 22 

Purchase and planting of forest lands, . . 40 05 

Dover gj'psy moth fund, 428 94 

Sagamore Beach gypsy moth fund, ... 50 15 

Special North Shore fund, ..... 5,657 36 

ReUef fund for unemployed, .... 1,100 88 

Appropriation for 1915, 100,000 00 

Appropriation for 1916, 75,000 00 

198,849 89 



$248,054 62 

Office expenses: — 

Salaries, $3,484 30 

Rent, 2,459 96 

Stationery and postage, 1,103 61 

Printing, 851 72 

Experts, 97 50 

Thinning work supphes, 343 53 



Amounts carried forward, .... $8,340 62 $248,054 62 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 97 



Amounts brought forward, .... $8,340 62 $248,054 62 



Office expenses — Con. 

Supplies, 597 77 

Maps, photographs, etc., 317 13 

Sundries (telephone, lights, water, etc.), . . 956 08 

Field expenses: — 

Town pay roUs, 17,219 78 

Pay roU, 21,191 42 

Travel, 9,499 11 

Supphes, . ■ 77,566 39 

Rent of store, 312 50 

Store equipment, 102 89 

Sundries (teaming, express, freight), . . 599 42 

Special work, 5,613 48 

Reimbursement, 16,793 55 

159,110 14 



Balance, Nov. 30, 1915, $88,944 48 



Financial Summary of Moth Work by Towns. 
The following table shows the reimbursement, amount of 
supplies furnished, and net amount received from this office 
by cities and towns for 1914, the required expenditure before 
receiving reimbursement from the State, the total net expendi- 
ture, the amount received for work on private property re- 
turned to this office, the amount paid in reimbursement, gross 
amount of supplies, and total net amount received from this 
office by cities and towns for 1915, and also the required ex- 
penditure for 1916: — 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1916. j 


Required ; 
Expendi- , 
ture. 


$1,505 35 : 

1,005 76^ 

487 08 : 
2,712 77 
3,577 76 i 
5,000 00 ; 
466 35; 
316 Oil 
574 00; 
2,677 37I 
5,000 00^ 
714 63 j 
450 61 ] 
975 67 ; 
3,788 26 : 
1,132 90 ] 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$754 36 

187 20 

689 88 
472 51 
138 45 

199 26 
209 42 
2,388 43 


Tools 
supplied. 


$574 77 

' 755 03 

341 88 
264 74 
138 45 

•47 30 

81 89 
285 60 
' 2,862 88 


i 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


} $179 59 

348 00 
207 77 

• 

117 37 


Private 
Work. 


/ » $291 80 
\ 139 40 

1,104 46} 

333 80 
12 08 
58 30 

283 43 
82 63 
291 75 
1,112 19 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,150 60 

2,916 08 

858 84 1 
465 52 
803 48 

468 76 
563 77 
* 851 87 
3,626 51 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,459 85 

970 01 

461 61 
2,681 87 
3,437 11 
5,000 00 
510 84 
257 75 
583 64 
2,603 15 
5,000.00 
692 00 
446 40 
928 05 
3,503 85 
1,089 64 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,499 86 

659 14 

590 54 
529 15 
100 55 

131 80 
351 73 
409 23 


Tools 
supplied. 


$695 97 

» 864 17 

114 38 
46 05- 
100 55 

131 02 1 
90 67 
292 55 
»481 14 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$803 89 

476 16 
483 10 

78 

261 06 
116 68 


Class. 




Cities and Towns. 


Ashby 

Ashland 

Athol 

Barnstable 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 





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dad 

III 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1916. j 


Required j 
Expendi- i 
ture. 


1263 08 . 

5,000 00 ; 

615 24 j 
5,000 00 ; 

389 37 : 

5,000 00 1 
2,735 52; 
264 21^ 

847 94] 

572 31 
1,805 84; 
5,000 00 : 
3,788 36] 
3,950 36 j 

3,810 94 ' 

187 55] 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$1,101 64 

1,085 83 
2,286 04 

2,789 02 
1,120 06 

407 08 


Tools 
supplied. 


- 

$477 79 

» 1,468 66 

430 94 ; 

' 2,630 03 1 
733 19 \ 

528 23 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

1 $623 85 

1.855 10 
} 758 99 

386 87 

} - 


Private 
Work. 


- 

/ « $27 00 
1 189 00 

2.296 66 

403 13 

/ « 61 50 
1 878 94 

666 69 

/ > 164 49 
1 617 29 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,022 90 

2,971 74 
2.052 06 

2,197 46 
2,175 23 

3.665 36 : 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$5,000 00 
562 80 
5,000 00 

399 05 

5,000 00 
2,715 96 
196 96 

838 47 

576 27 
1,788 36 
5,000 00 
3,705 84 
4,078 02 

3,684 74 

180 76 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$1,999 06 

2,478 42 
3,015 42 

1,678 11 
1,492 81 

1.597 45 
1,007 09 


Tools 
supplied. 


- 

$503 01 

» 2.997 60 
625 50 

667 93 
1,185 21 

* 1,990 67 
785 41 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$1,496 05 

440 34 
2,389 S2 

1,010 18 

307 60 

378 76 


Class. 


eoi-ieo»-i eo »-i<Meo eo eoeoi-ic<ic<> Cfl eo 


Cities and Towns. 


Brimfield 

Brockton, . . . 

Brookfield 

Brookline, 

Burlington, 

Cambridge, .... 

Canton 

Carlisle 

Carver 

Charlton, 

Chelmsford, • . . . . 

Chelsea 

Clinton, 

Cohasset 

Concord, 

Dana - . 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



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102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1916. . 


1 

Required ! 
Expendi- i 
ture. j 


$1,000 00 1 
5,000 00 j 
1,128 45 1 

5,0C0 00 ' 
2,020 09 ^ 
458 111 

.WO 91 1 

5,000 00 1 
1,530 30 1 
4,150 91 i 
5,000 00 i 
1,838 09 ! 

554 52 ; 

277 02 .' 
2,676 86 j 


1916. 


p go 2S 


$1,033 33 
220 03 

503 71 
544 15 
400 45 
300. 68 


-1 


^ •«!> 3C — LI 00 

s 2? r S g 2 


o ^ C 


- 

) $555 17 

351 18 

400 00 


Private 
Worlc. 


- 

/ • $37 20 
\ 087 13 

1,890 61 

300 00 

118 00 
337 54 
233 75 
1,010 99 


2;tJ . 
S 2 


- 

■ $157 14 

1,083 84 

4,893 21 
777 07 

1,943 01 
857 34 
684 44 

2,321 85 


Required 

Expondi- 


$5,000 00 
6,000 00 
1,093 07 
5,000 00 
1,918 97 
353 78 
4,538 55 

528 07 

5,000 00 
1,297 49 
2,770 19 
5,000 00 
1,708 95 
500 10 
209 24 
2,400 01 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$1,715 93 

203 ()•) 

1,054 94 
700 37 
083 92 
774 01 


— !i 

8'E 


OC M CS 
•"T" — O N O 

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- 

$100 49 

300 00 
543 14 
001 10 


71 

o 




o 
a 

IS 

-< 
5 

O 


Falmouth 

Fitchburi? 

I'^oxborouRh, .... 

Framingham 

Franklin, 

Freetown, 

Gardner 

Georgetown, .... 

Gloucester, 

Grafton, 

Great Barrington, 

Groonfiold, 

Groton, 

Groveland, 

Halifax 

Hamilton, 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 




104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ttU. 




$1,005 64 

3,390 83 
6.000 00 

4,011 27 

98 07 

2,009 40 

600 47 

6,000 00 

040 06 

6,000 00 
538 08 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
1,80;) 21 
4,584 16 ; 


WM. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$1,847 17 

1,440 44 
058 39 

1,085 00 
1,577 00 


Ha 


- 

$1,310 21 

1,440 44 

405 27 
' 387 41 
COO 72 

529 13 




- 

1 $800 00 

J 193 12 

} 478 88 
1,018 47 


o . 

•si 


- 

/ ' $3 05 
\ 1,220 43 

/ ' 202 50 
\ 927 85 

/ ' 243 00 
1 100 75 

3,254 28 

/ ' 143 00 
\ 2,037 59 

507 90 
- 


■S-i 
3|5 


- 

$0,005 31 

2,779 80 

080 16 
4,956 43 
1.081 44 

1.574 21 


«— < 
•i: 5 6 

3 o s- 

cra3 


$1,021 31 
3,045 75 
5.000 00 

3.005 05 

91 19 

1.004 02 

403 03 

5.000 00 

002 62 

5,000 00 
525 74 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
1,342 09 
4,444 38 




o 2 3 2 J 


- 

$1,843 41 

1,802 80 

1,041 29 
193 29 
1,339 21 

2,417 25 


HUl)I)litl(l. 


- 

$931 09 

1,700 38 

007 82 
386 68 
070 75 

607 44 


i . 

iJl 


$1,098 57 

102 48 
343 47 

002 40 
1,849 81 


T. 
I 


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5 


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lilllllllllllll 

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1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



— No. 73. 



105 



M 00 O 
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00 


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CO 


00 
<M 


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3,754 


1,986 


CO 


4,061 



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ill 

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THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan 



1916. 


Required*" 
Expendi- \ 
ture. j 


$589 23 i 
5,000 00' 
2,401 59 ■ 
3,375 80 I 
1,869 67 
3,717 30 i 
3,604 35 \ 
5,000 00 : 

168 90 ; 

159 18 ' 

667 61 : 

5,000 00 : 
5,000 00 i 
468 54 1 

2,416 82 ■ 

3,825 19 \ 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


1 

$1,416 72 

2,186 48 

389 64 

670 46 


1 

Tools 
supplied. 


2 $36 29 

665 87 

4,372 97 
89 64 

> 677 07 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

} $750 85 
300 00 


Private i 
Work. 


- 

$234 35 

/ » 242 59 
1 719 07 

15,287 83 

199 52 

/ » 140 81 
1,020 54 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


- 

$5,136 14 

1,386 54 

12,837 60 
861 59 

2,294 72 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$558 17 
5,000 00 
2,059 57 
3,474 48 
1,836 92 
3,647 16 
3,365 63 
5,000 00 
164 95 
162 70 

635 69 

5,000 00 
5,000 00 
465 54 

2,301 33 

3,876 10 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$0 40 

1,580 63 

3,993 31 
458 86 

640 23 


Tools 
supplied. 


• $18 50 

40 

' 92 15 

531 58 

4,789 55 
111 96 

* 775 57 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$1,049 05 

1,598 54 
346 90 


Class. 


co»-(co<Meocq<M.-ie<5co eo ^r-ceo eo c<i 


Cities and Towns. 


Millis, 

Milton 

Montague 

Nahant, 

Nantucket 

Natick 

Necdham, 

New Bedford 

New Braintree, . . . ' . 
New Salem 

Newbury, . . . . . 

Newburyport 

Newton 

Norfolk, 

North Andover, .... 

North Attleborough, . 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



107 








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THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



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1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCimiENT — No. 73. 



109 





3 .t2 



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o o a a 

CQ CQ m OQ 



110 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1916. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$382 04 

640 39 

619 97 
5,000 00 
780 74 
5,000 00 
810 03 
744 71 
803 41 
1,717 93 
578 13 
207 68 

301 37 

523 00 
1,744 11 
4,981 12 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,321 94 

187 34 
1,005 05 

287 00 
750 01 
147 54 

2,207 90 


Tools 
supplied. 


$791 30 

122 93 
709 32 

230 06 
350 01 
147 54 

767 90 

«1 08 

M 08 
« 456 63 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1 $530 58 

64 41 
896 33 

57 60 
400 00 

1 1,450 00 


Private 
Work. 


/ «$213 13 
\ 476 99 

645 66 
299 87 

665 44 
425 65 

/ « 36 00 
\ 512 28 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,130 01 

> 854 31 
1,573 18 

' 1,685 80 
1,145 81 

1,870 03 
3,170 50 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$376 09 

599 43 

583 98 
5,000 00 
499 77 
6,000 00 
789 90 
676 85 
807 58 
1,628 20 
567 99 
169 23 

283 11 

507 46 
1,608 55 
4,766 51 


1914. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,702 99 
- 

1,626 86 
2,170 15 

» 207 51 
1.154 70 

2,632 18 


Tools 
supplied. 


$746 22 

243 73 
1.018 45 

294 91 
552 84 

1.021 85 
« 827 18 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$956 77 

1,383 13 
1,151 70 

601 86 
1,610 33 


Class. 


CO CO CO ^ CO ^ CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO Cfl 


Cities and Towns. 


sturbridge 

Sudbxiry 

Sutton 

Swampscott, . . . • 

Swansea. 

Taunton, 

Templeton. 

Tewksbury 

Tisbury. 

Topsfield. 

Townsend 

Truro, 

Tyngsborough 

Upton, 

Uxbridge, 

Wakefield 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Ill 



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112 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



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A State highway planted with spruce trees, Groton. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



113 



Report of the State Forester on the Resolve providing 
FOR AN Investigation relative to the Taking of 
Mount Holyoke as a State Reservation. 

To the General Court. 

In the matter of the investigation relative to a State reserv^ation bein 
made of Mount Holyoke, as directed by the General Court in the follow- 
ing resolve, 

"That the state forester shall investigate and report to the next general 
court, not later than the third Wednesday of January, as to the advis- 
abihty, practicability and cost of taking and maintaining Mount Holyoke 
as a state reservation, with such other information relating thereto as he 
may deem expedient," I respectfully state that this investigation has been 
made and is herewith reported upon. The State Forester was more or 
less familiar with the property in question, and besides visiting the grounds 
himself, delegated one of his assistants, Mr. Frank L. Hajnies, to make a 
survey of Mount Holyoke in order to present a comprehensive view of the 
situation. 

The basis of this report is therefore the thorough study made by Mr. ' 
Haynes during the month of September. 

Location. 

Mount Holyoke, an elevation of 954 feet, occupies a commanding posi- 
tion on and forms a pait of the western end of that portion of the Holyoke 
Range lying east of the Connecticut River. The dividing hne between 
the townships of South Hadley and Hadley follows approximately the 
ridge of the range, thereby placing the mountain pajtly in both townships. 

Area. 

The area covered during the investigative work consists of a tract of 
256 acres known as the Mount Holyoke Reservation, which is at present 
owned by the Mount Holyoke Company. This tract includes the summit 
of the mountain and land on all sides of it wathin the limits shown upon 
the plan in the files of the State Forester's office. Upon this area are 
located the Mount Holyoke Hotel and several smaller buildings used in 
connection with the reservation. 

Topography and Soils. 

With the exception of parts of the lower slopes the mountain is of a 
steep and rugged nature, having a rise in elevation from base to summit 
of about 900 feet in 3,000, and on the steeper portions a rise of 450 feet 
in 1,000. For the most part the area Hes between 300 and 900 foot levels. 

The main material making up the ground structure of the mountain 
is basalt. This hard stone occurs to a considerable extent in sohd ledge 
formation, and especially on the ridge and upper slopes, where it is found 



114 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



completelj^ exposed or very lightly covered with soil. Through the slow 
process of disintegration and wash, natural forces have succeeded in 
covering the lower slopes and pockets with sufficient soil for a good growth 
of trees to thrive, and on the extreme lower slopes the land is suitable for 
farming, and is used as such. 

It is upon the lower slopes, where the soil is of sufficient depth, that 
anj^ future tree growth of an intensive nature can be carried on. 

Ground Cover. 

The tree growth and smaller plants found upon the area are as follows : — 



Chestnut. 


Basswood. 


Butternut. 


Oak (red). 


Maple. 


Chestnut oak. 


Oak (white). 


Elm. 


Moose wood. 


Oak (black). 


Cherry. 


Flowering dogwood. 


Hemlock. 


Poplar. 


Alder. 


White pine. 


Red pine. 


Mountain laurel. 


Birch (white). 


Red cedar. 


Witch hazel. 


Birch (black). 


Ironwood. 


Juniper. 


Birch (yellow). 


Beech. 


Sumach. 


Ash. 


Willow. 


Sassafras. 


Hickory. 


Sycamore. 


Blueberry. 



Some of the above hsted species occur in small nimibers, and are 
hsted mainly to give an idea of the varied flora found upon the reserva- 
tion. 

On the whole, the tree growth found upon the area is not of especial 
value from a commercial point of ^dew. About one-third of the area is at 
present stocked with trees of suitable size for lumber, poles and ties. 

Chestnut. 

Among the trees upon this area the chestnut predominates. This 
species occurs either in pure stands or scattered among other hardwoods 
and hemlock, and ranges in size from young sprouts up to trees of 20 
inches in diameter. Unfortunately, the chestnut now standing on the 
reservation is in a dead or dying condition, owing to the prevalence of 
the chestnut bhght, or bark disease. The investigation showed that 
nearly 97 per cent, of the trees of this species were infected, including 
trees of large size, and it is safe to assume that within two years nearly 
every chestnut tree on the reserve will be killed. These dead and dying 
trees contain in total several thousand feet B. M. of lumber and ties, and 
should be cut and utihzed while they have a commercial value. 

Hemlock. 

This tree occurs either in nearly pure small stands or scattered among 
the hardwood growth. Several large specimens are present on the 
reserve, but the combined stands of hemlock constitute only a small 
amount. 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



115 



White Pine. 

There is but one small stand of this species upon the area. It covers 
about 2 acres on one of the lower slopes, and was evidently planted about 
thirty-five years ago. The stand has made an average growth of about 
1 foot per year in height, and is mainly important in that it gives a good 
indication of what this valuable tree species will do under the conditions 
that obtain on the Mount Holyoke area where sufficient soil is available. 

OakB. 

Many good specimens of red, white and black oaks are found on the 
reservation, the larger of them reaching a diameter of 16 to 18 inches. 
The major part of the oak growth consists of medium and small sized trees. 

Other Species. 

Ash, birch, hickory, poplar and remaining Usted species occur on many 
parts of the reserve, but are mostly of small size and of httle value other 
than for cordwood. On the ridges and upper slopes, where exposed con- 
ditions and shallow soil obtain, the growth is of a poor and stunted nature 
and must continue to remain so. While the larger part of the tree growth 
upon the area is not of especial value commercially, it is of very material 
value as a covering for the mountain, thereby enhancing its natural beauty 
from an aesthetic view-point. 

Watershed. 

The area under consideration is of importance as a watershed only in so 
far as it forms a part of the Holyoke Range as a whole. 

Forestry Practice. 
The Mount Holyoke lands as a whole do not constitute a good forestry 
proposition. On the lower slopes, as before stated, soil conditions are 
such that forestry practice could be carried on to a certain extent. This 
would mean the clear cutting of the dead chestnut and the usual neces- 
sary thinnings in the remaining growth where it would pay to make them, 
to be followed by planting the area to pine. Inasmuch as this suitable 
forestry area is small (about 100 acres), the returns through forestry 
practice necessarily would be small even over a long period of time. On 
the upper slopes the gro-^-th should be left about as it is, except in places 
where hght thinnings could be made to pay for the expense involved. 

Remarks. 

Among the many elevations found within the boundaries of Massachu- 
setts the position occupied by Mount Holyoke is in many waj's unusual 
and unique. Rising as it does out of the fertile and highly cultivated 
valley of the Connecticut River, and to a height sufficient to command 
views over an extensive radius in nearly all directions, it is possible to 
observe from the summit of Mount Holyoke combinations of scenery of a 
nature that can be obtained from but few elevations in this entire country. 



116 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



From the Mount Holyoke Hotel, located on the summit of the mountain, 
there may be seen mountains in 4 States, also 40 towns, cities and villages, 
32 of which are in Massachusetts and 8 in Connecticut, namely: — 

Mountains. 



Monadnock, New Hampshire. 
Falcott, Avon, Conn. 
Sugar Loaf, Massachusetts. 
Tom, Massachusetts. 
Green, Vermont. 
Greylock, Massachusetts. 



Norwottock, Massachusetts. 

East and West Rock, New Haven, Conn. 

Wachusett, Massachusetts. 

Toby, Massachusetts. 

Nonotuck, Massachusetts. 



Northampton. 
Whately. 
North Amherst. 
South Hadley. 
Longmeadow. 
Blandford. 

Thompsonville, Conn. 

Suffield, Conn. 

Haydenville. 

South Deerfield. 

Amherst. 

Wilbraham. 

West Springfield. 

Ludlow. 

Windsor, Conn. 

Somers, Conn. 

Williamsburg. 

Greenfield. 

South Amherst. 

North Wilbraham. 



Towns. 

Agawam. 

East Windsor, Conn. 

Goshen. 

Shelburne. 

Pelham. 

Springfield. 

Southampton. 

Enfield, Conn. 

Hadley. 

Sunderland. 

Belchertown. 

Chicopee. 

Easthampton. 

Hatfield. 

North Hadley. 

Granby. 

Holyoke. 

Montgomery. 

Hartford, Conn. 

West Hartford, Conn. 



Some of the Objects of Interest viewed from the Mountain. 
State Hospital, Round Hill, Smith College and Clark Institute in Northampton. 
Williston Seminary, Easthampton. 

Amherst College, Massachusetts Agricultural College, and Mount Pleasant, Am- 
herst. 

Mount Holyoke College at South Hadley. 
Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham. 
United States armory at Springfield. 
Manufacturing city of Holyoke. 
Ingleside, South Holyoke. 
Old Hadley 
Ox Bow Island. 

Shepherd's Island in the Connecticut River. 

The moimtain located as it is among so many well-populated towns 
and cities becomes readily accessible to many thousands of people, the 
more so owing to the fact that an excellent automobile road nms clear to 
the siunmit. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUjVIENT — No. 73. 



117 



The natural beauties of Mount Holyoke and the very excellent scenic 
views to be obtained from it have been familiar to thousands of people 
for many years. 

The Mountain House. 

The first house was built in 1821 and replaced in 1851. The present 
hotel is a wooden building about 75 by 165 feet with 15-foot veranda on 
all four sides, ha\dng a main office floor 20 by 155 feet, good dining room, 
parlor, hbrarj' and observation room, and can accommodate 60 to 75 
people at one time. All of the registers of the hotel since 1822 have been 
preserved and are open for inspection. Many prominent names appear, 
among them those of Abraham Lincoln, James K. Polk and Jenny Lind. 
The hotel has been returning a profit to the company in recent years. 
Other buildings on the reservation consist of the reser\'ation superin- 
tendent's house, stable, power house, workshop and a covered inchne 
railway running up to the ^lountain House. The buildings are in a good 
state of repair. 

Automobile Road. 

The macadam automobile road from the base to the summit of ]Mount 
Holyoke constitutes what is no doubt as fine a road as can be found 
running to the summit of anj' mountain in the Commonwealth. 

Former Ots^'ership. 

The property was o^sTied for many years by the D wight family, who 
maintained there a hotel for the service of the many who visited it because 
of the great beauty of its situation. The buildings erected by them cost 
not far from S100,000 and are in good condition at the present time. 
Owing to death in the family there was a well-grounded fear that the 
property might be sold to some one who would cut the timber and other- 
wise disfigure the mountain. To avoid this the Mount Holyoke Company 
was formed. Its sole purpose was to presers'e the mountain for the benefit 
of the community at large. In furtherance of this object the Dwight 
family turned in all of its property to the Mount Holyoke Companj^ in 
consideration of 250 shares of the par value of SlOO each of the capital 
stock of the Mount Holyoke Company, or a total of S25,000. There was 
paid in by other stockholders 823,000 in cash for 230 shares of like par 
value. In addition to this, S32,000 has been raised by loans. The cash 
subscriptions and loans were used very largely by the company for im- 
pro^g the approach to the top of the mountain, the buildings, etc. The 
macadam roads up the mountain cost S38,000. 

Stockbolders. 

The follo'v\-ing fist contains the names and amount of stock held by the 
various owners at the present time. 



118 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

_ _ Number 

List of Stockholders. of shares. 

Goetting, A. H., 269 Bridge Street, Springfield, Mass., .... 10 

Bridgman. C. J., 187 Elm Street, Northampton, Mass., .... 1 

Bell, Clinton E., 25 Harrison Avenue, Springfield, Mass., .... 2 

Brewer, Frances, 138 Elm Street, Northampton, Mass., .... 2 

Cooley, Clarissa A., 119 Farrington Street, Hartford, Conn., ... 2 

Clarke, Christopher, 40 Hawley Street, Northampton, Mass., ... 2 
Dwight, Helen M., 31 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of 

R. E. Dwight 12 

Dwight, Kirby, 31 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of R. E. 

Dwight 10 

Dwight, Katharine W., 31 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of 

R. E. Dwight 10 

Dwight, Marion E., 31 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of 

R. E. Dwight, 10 

Dwight, Ellsworth E., 192 Summit Avenue, Summit, N. J., care of R. E. 

Dwight 10 

Dwight, Richard E., 96 Broadway, New York City 10 

Gillett, Frederick H., House of Representatives, Washington, D. C, . . 2 . 

Green, Addison L., 1229 Northampton Street, Holyoke, Mass., ... 1 

Hemphill, Ashton E., Holyoke, Mass., ....... 1 

Judd, Chas. C, 1495 Northampton Street, Holyoke, Mass., ... 1 

Judd, John K., 48 Fairfield Avenue, Holyoke, Mass., .... 1 

Ketcham, Genevieve, 31 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of 

R. E. Dwight 16 

Ketcham, Everett P., 120 West 122d Street, New York City, ... 16 

Lyman, Frank, 82 Wall Street, New York City, 10 

Look, Estate of Frank N., Florence, Mass., ...... 2 

Leggett, J. Dwight, care of R. E. Dwight 20 

Leggett, Noel B., care of R. E. Dwight, 21 

Leggett, Schujler M., care of R. E. Dwight, ...... 21 

Metcalf, Joseph, Northampton Street, Holyoke, Mass., .... 50 

Metcalf, Frank H., Holyoke, Mass., ....... 2 

Metcalf, Howard F., 163 Walnut Street, Holyoke, Mass., .... 1 

Newton, James H., Northampton Street, Holyoke, Mass., .... 50 

Page, Thomas C, Chicopee Falls, Mass 2 

Page, Irving H., Chicopee Fails, Mass., ....... 10 

Skinner, Joseph A., 206 Elm Street, Holyoke, Mass., .... 50 

Shores, H. T., 177 Elm Street, Northampton, Mass., .... 1 

Shores, Mabel D., 177 Elm Street, Northampton, Mass., . . . . 1 

Steiger, Albert, Ridgewood Terrace, Springfield, Mass., .... 1 

Stern, Lilian D., Westfield, New Jersey, care of R. E. Dwight, ... 16 

Schillaire, A. J., 203 Bridge Street, Northampton, Mass., .... 1 

Tilley, Estate of John, 181 Northampton Street, Holyoke, Mass., . . 1 

White, Alfred T., 40 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y., . . . . 5 

White, Anrie J. L., 40 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y., . . . . 5 

Williston, Estate of A. L.. 35 Round Hill, Northampton, Mass., ... 10 

Wigglesworth, Geo. W., 53 State Street, Boston, Mass., .... 3 

Westerfield, Florence, Upper Montclair, N. J., care of R. E. Dwight, . . 16 
Walker, Marion D., 11 Mount Morris Park, West, New York City, care of 

R. E. Dwight, 62 

480 



The following is the last inventory of the company's property and was 
made in 1913: — 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 119 

Hotel with new part $40,000 

Furniture 1,000 

Two dwelling houses, ......... 1,800 

Farm (21 acres) 1,500 

Barns and garage, .......... 2,000 

Forest land (236 acres) 10,000 

New roads 33,000 

Four horses 600 

Carriages, . . . . . . . . 300 

John Dwights Avenue, ......... 5,000 

Farm tools and wagons, ......... 200 

Ice house, ........... 100 

Apple orchard, .......... 210 



Total, $95,710 

The following is the last report to the Commissioner of Corporations, 
Boston, Mass. (May 1, 1915) : — 

Real estate, $60,000 00 

Machinery, 1,000 00 

Cash and receivables, ......... 2 32 

Profit and loss 17,677 36 



Total. $78,669 68 

Balance capital stock outstanding, ...... $48,100 00 

Funded indebtedness, 15,000 00 

Floating indebtedness, 15,569 68 



Total . . . $78,669 68 

The property was taxed as follows in 1915: — 

Land, South Hadley, $1,000 

Land, Hadley 4,805 



Total, $5,805 

Buildings, South Hadley $5,500 

Buildings, Hadley, . ' 4,700 

10,200 



Total $16,005 

Hotel Receipts and Expenses. 
Receipts for 1915, 

Board, . $5,624 59 

Admissions 687 30 

Expense 54 08 

Soda 72 75 

Postals, 228 50 

Candy, 43 87 

Pool, 5 15 

Livery, 157 30 

Cash advanced by J. A. Rowell, 170 38 



Total $7,043 92 



120 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Expenses for 1915. 

Supplies, ........... $2,17d 86 

Livery, ........... 61 50 

Expense, painting and repairs, ....... 1,240 66 

Soda 42 20 

Postals 131 42 

Candy, 42 62 

Help 1.983 00 

Advertising, .......... 323 73 

Miscellaneous (Lyman, C. Clark, Interest and Insurance), . . 1,039 57 

Balance in bank, . . . . . . . . . 5 36 



Total $7,043 92 

Bills payable Dec. 1, 1915. 

Taxes, town of Hadley, $148 03 

W. N. Potter Sons & Co. to Oct. 1, 1915 79 40 

Judd & Parsons, insurance due in May, 1916, . . . . 155 00 

Northampton Empire Laundry to Oct. 16, 1915, . . . . 44 93 

J. A. Ross to Oct. 15, 1915 271 4? 

A. McCallum & Co 58 45 

" Springfield Republican, " ........ 3 90 

New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, ... 5 53 

J. A. Ross 78 74 



Total $845 41 



The amount paid for interest and insurance offsets outstanding bills 
by S194.16. 

Advisability, Practicability and Costs of taking and maintaining. 

The State Forester beheves that Mount Holyoke, if acquired by the 
State, ^dll be of much benefit to the people of that section, and once a 
State property would interest many others throughout the whole State. 
This mountain has already become renowned for its wonderful scenic 
beauty, and no one, no matter how much he has traveled, can begin to 
appreciate its grandeur until he has taken a trip there or, even better, has 
spent a day or two at the Mountain House. 

This mountain is easily accessible by automobile, and has a splendidly 
constructed road of comparatively easy grade to the top. It is a land- 
mark well worthy of acquisition by the State for a pubhc reservation for 
aU time. The purchasing of this property by the State, however, should 
not in my estimation be looked upon as a purely forestry undertaking, 
for while the arboreal cover may be considered as of great importance in 
connection with the general effect, it cannot be recommended as possess- 
ing economic importance in growing forest products alone, as it has more 
value from the broad aesthetic standpoint. Much may be done, however, 
in practicing forestry on the lower slopes, where some economic results 



ERRATA. 



On page 121, line 24, for $40,000 read $50,000; and at bottom of 
page, for $50,000 read $60,000. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCTOIENT — No. 73. 



121 



can be relied upon; also the whole property is capable of demonstrating 
good forestry work which would be valuable as an educational object 
lesson to our people. The impressiveness of many of the beauty spots 
visited abroad is greatly enhanced by their close relationship to forestry 
practices, and here could be made, in our own State, a unique example. 
The property could, if purchased, become a regular State forest, and 
be managed imder the same regulations as other forests now being 
acquired. 

The value of the property, due to the great amount of expense neces- 
sitated by the building of the road to the summit, the mountain hotel 
on top and other reservation buildings, together with the expense of 
the incline railroad, is a factor that needs to be considered independ- 
ently of the forestry question. That the first expense of the property in 
developing it to its present stage was very great there can be no question. 
The present owTiers consist of a number of our pubhc-spirited citizens who 
became interested more from pubhc concern than from the possibilities of 
profitable investment, and they are interested with others in seeing the 
property made a State resen-ation. 

When they purchased the property there did not seem to be sufficient 
pubUc interest, but it was hoped it might develop. It is beUeved that 
the time has arrived when the State can now acquire it. 

The owners of the property have made the State the following offer for 
sale of the property through the State Forester. They ask the sum of 
$40,000. The whole proposition, it is beheved, is well worthy of a favor- 
able consideration by the State. The State Forester has endeavored to 
make matters clear as to the exact conditions. It is not merely a forestry 
question. It is a question of preserving for all time to the State a beauti- 
ful spot which at comparatively small expense could be made an invest- 
ment that would grow in value to the State, as it grows in age and tradition. 

Cost of Maintenance. 
It was demonstrated by the experience of the past season that the 
running of the hotel for the summer season, besides paying expenses, 
netted the company a small profit. The present method of running thQ 
hotel is that of hiring a responsible proprietor to manage the hotel for 
the company. Mr. John A. Rowell has been employed during the past 
two or three years. There seems to be the prevaihng opinion that the 
hotel could be made self-supporting. The entire Mount Holyoke property 
is looked after by a superintendent who resides on the reservation the 
year round. Mr. Fred R. LjTnan is the company's resident superintend- 
ent at the present time, and has been serving in that capacity for many 
years. 

The expense of caring for the roads, forest and farm lands entails a 
working capital sufficient to handle the property. Should the State pur- 
chase the property an extra appropriation of $10,000 would be required, 
making a total of $50,000. 



122 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Conclusion. 

Should the State purchase the property it might be made a memorial 
to Mr. Christopher Clark of Northampton, whose heart and soul were 
wrapped up in the preservation of this grand mountain. He died on 
Nov. 21, 1915, at the age of eighty-eight. Mr. Clark had a deep love for 
nature, particularly for trees and mountains, was a remarkable character 
in Massachusetts, and was untiring in his efforts to preserve Mount 
Holyoke. It is believed the property would have been neglected and 
undeveloped had it not been for his personal pubhc-spirited interest. 
Manj% and probably most, of the present stockholders subscribed through 
Mr. Clark's personal sohcitation, with no idea of remuneration but to 
further a good cause. The fond hope of Mr. Christopher Clark, as he 
expressed it to the forester on the mountain last summer, was that he 
might hve to see Mount Hotyoke owned by the State. He was perfecting 
the data for this report at the time of his sudden death. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. Rane, 
State Forester. 

Meetings and Addresses. 
The department has been called upon as usual to address 
various organizations and meetings throughout the year. 
While it has been impossible to do as much of this kind of 
work as formerly, due to our other numerous duties, never- 
theless we were represented at the following meetings during 
the year : — 



Easton, State Grange, fall meeting. 
Danvers, State Grange, fall meeting. 
Monson, Agricultural Society. 
Easthampton, institute meeting. 
Tyngsborough, State Grange field meet- 
ing. 

Plymouth, Commercial Club. 

Blackstone Grange. 

American Forestry Association. 

Lynn City Government. 

Dedham Board of Trade and Business 
Men's Association. 

Ohio State University, Columbus, O. 

Cotuit Grange. 

Barnstable town meeting. 

Athol Grange. 

Essex Agricultural School. 

Norfolk Neighborly Club. 

Pomona No. 1, Holliston. 

Society for Protection of New Hamp- 
shire Forests, Keene, N. H. 



Peterboro, N. H., Improvement Asso- 
ciation. 
Sturbridge Grange. 
State Grange field day, Wrentham. 
State Grange field day, Charlton. 
Duxbury Garden Club. 
North Reading Patrons of Husbandry- 
Massachusetts State Firemen's Associ- 
ation. 

Public moth meeting, Mayflower Grove. 

Overseers of the Poor Association. 

Boston Planning Exhibition, "Shade 
Trees and Forestry." 

Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 
ture. 

Hampden County Improvement 
League. 

Williams College, Good Government 
Club. 

Massachusetts Agricultural Develop- 
ment Conmaittee. 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



123 



Committee on White Pine Blister Rust. 
State Forest Commission. 
Mount Grace citizens' meeting. 
Massachusetts Committee of the Un- 
employed. 



Cape Cod Cranberry Growers' Associ- 
ation. 

New Bedford Water Works Committee. 
Mount Holyoke Company, meeting. 



The following address was delivered by the State Forester at 
Columbus, O., at the dedication of the Ohio State University 
Forestry Building, Feb. 5, 1915: — 

The Evolution of American Forestry. 

The part that forestry has played in our development as a nation is a 
subject well worthy of our consideration on this happy occasion. In 
dedicating a building to be used for the teaching of forestry at its univer- 
sity, the State of Ohio is simply taking a forward step of fundamental 
importance. What the forests have meant to this Commonwealth, yea, 
to our nation, in its development up to the present hour is almost beyond 
the comprehension of man. 

Our forefathers had reason to look upon the forests as a great hindrance. 
To them they were an obstacle to surmount. It is to the sturdy pioneer, 
who has vdih brawn and persistency felled the trees to possess the land 
for agriculture, the basal industry' of the nation, that we must turn to 
appreciate the real picture of our first period. It was during this period 
that the log-cabin homes developed a citizenship which gave us the stal- 
wart foundations of our government, and the ideals which we cherish even 
to this day. The primeval forests in all their grandeur, therefore, were 
blessings to us as a people in other ways than commercially. 

The evolution of the forest in this comparatively new country is interest- 
ing. Following the pioneer and his log house came the development of 
the water-power and the old-time substantial sawmill located upon our 
streams. During this period every rural community had its grist and 
sawmill, and about this center the rural town sprang up. The gristmill 
furnished the flour and the sawmill converted the forest into a commercial 
commodity. In those days the farmer was the lumberman, for every 
farm had its woodlot. The average farmer's family was large, and fur- 
nished its own labor. During the growing season there was plenty to do 
in general agriculture, while during the winter this same labor was equally 
busy harvesting the lumber crop. All hands, together with teams and 
oxen, were busy getting saw logs off to the mill. Each farmer had his 
particular pile of logs, and as the sawyer was ready for them he rolled 
them into the mill, and, as well, went into the pit and drew away his 
lumber. Saw logs in those days were real saw logs, the larger the diameter 
the chestier the farmer or his son as he handled them. It was a board of 
at least a foot in -wadth that was wanted, and such a thing as the commercial 
New England box board would have been looked upon with contempt. 
This lumber was taken home and used in the construction of the sub- 



124 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



stantial farm homes which even now dot the countryside. Again, enough 
lumber was sold to make one hand wash the other. During this period 
the farmer was the lumberman. During this period, also, a natural forest 
pohcy was being carried out. As only the larger or mature trees were cut, 
it of course followed that those of medium and smaller size were allowed 
to remain. These in turn shortty grew to merchantable size, and were 
harA^ested in lil^e manner. This method kept the land constantly stocked 
and yielding forest products. 

Following the second period came the innovation of the portable saw- 
mill. Through the development of the portable steam engine it was 
quickly seen that it was a more economic proposition to take the mill to 
the logs, rather than the logs to the mill. This proved the death warrant 
to the water-power mill, which tale is told over and over again throughout 
the land by the many deserted monuments now crumbUng upon our 
streams. 

The portable mill period is still with us. As the country has grown 
older there has been a tendency towards specialization, and the mill man 
or lumber operator has so perfected the business that he now controls and 
manages an industry of large proportions. The lumbermen have rapidly 
spread over the country, until to-day they represent some of our wealthiest 
corporations, and are called timber barons. Gradually the lumber centers 
have spread from the east to New York and Pennsylvania, thence to the 
pineries of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, and thence to the Vir- 
ginias and Carolinas. The primeval growths of every section have been 
exploited and operated, until to-day finds us procuring from our local 
lumber yards, redwood shingles and sugar pine from the great Pacific 
Northwest, cypress from Louisiana, white wood or yellow pine from the 
central south, and Georgia pine from the States of that section. What 
this natural resource has meant to us is evidenced by the forest products 
that have been cut in such States as Mississippi and Alabama, Missouri 
and New Mexico, New Hampshire and Maine, Colorado and Montana, 
not to mention the great lumber-producing States of the Pacific coast. 

The nation could not have developed to its present state of efficiency 
without our indigenous forest products, for the uses to which they are put 
are legion. Of what else could we have built our homes or cities and 
villages, bridges and railroads, constructed our telegraph and telephone 
fines, propped our mines, traversed the seas, and, in fact, made our imple- 
ments, vehicles, etc.? Even the by-products, as tar, pitch, turpentine, 
charcoal, resin, alcohol, tannin, etc., are again important industries, and 
are essential to our great economic success. 

Wood as fuel played a great factor in earfier days, and even now is of 
importance in many sections. As coal and oil fields become exhausted we 
may yet return to wood as the most natural and economic fuel. 

So I might go on almost indefinitely, but perhaps this is enough to 
demonstrate the real importance of the forest in our present development. 
The portable steam and, later, electric sawmiUs have had their mighty' 



1916.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 125 



sway throughout the land, and this stage of our development has out- 
rivaled all others. 

This rapid development has been shown not only in the utilizat-on of 
our forests, but to a greater or less extent in the utilization of the other 
natural resources which constituted our birthright. In our wild rush of 
development and utiHzation we have disregarded the future, and hved 
only in the present, until now we must pause to realize that this kind of 
development is effective for a time, but extremely wasteful in the end. 
"Conservation," a term which expresses in one word caution and economy, 
has of late been the slogan of our constructive and thoughtful people. 
This campaign fh'st originated in forestrj^, but was quickly apphed to the 
conservation of all our natural resources. We have reached that stage in 
our national development when we must of necessity not only employ 
rational and sane principles of conservation, but must take a further step 
in the restoration of our inexhaustible resources, hke forests. Waste, mis- 
management and forest fires have destroyed enough of forest resources 
alone to have supphed our wants for many years to come, not taking into 
account the effect upon stream flow, the denudation of the soil and other 
correlated calamities. 

But why should we concern om-selves with the water that has flowed 
over the dam! It is the future in which we are now interested, and as we 
meet here to dedicate this building to forestry we feel confident that the 
great State of Ohio fully recognizes the importance of what forestry may 
be to Ohio's future, — nay, must be, provided she reahzes her greatest 
success. 

No^ that Ohio has erected this building to forestry development and 
instruction, it will naturally follow that from this, as a center, much of a 
constructive and practical value will be disseminated. A knowledge of 
tree life, either from the economic or aesthetic standpoint, appeals to the 
average citizen, and an opportunity to study forestry during the formative 
stages of student hfe should be at his command. It is a mistaken idea, 
but one we are prone to accept, that a study of forestry is of use simply 
to the would-be forester, lumberman or farmer, while reaUy a knowledge of 
trees and forests will give a touch of pleasure and inspiration to the traveler, 
writer, sportsman, poet, artist, or even hterary genius, that no other sub- 
ject can replace. In these days of speciahzation we need a blending of 
knowledge on the part of our students that we may still retain standards 
of real culture. I therefore recommend courses in fundamental forestry, 
at least, to all university and college students. 

One of the greatest pleasures on the part of our American tourists when 
visiting Europe in recent years has been the trip to the renowned Black 
Forest country of Germany. Many of these same people, who have had 
little interest in our own woods, other than to deplete them, find here a 
kindly respect and reverence for trees and forests. Where can one get 
greater dehght than tramping through this unique country? These 
splendid forests not only are beautiful, but they are handled so dexterously 



126 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



that they solve the great economic problem of supplying forest products, 
and give constant employment to an army of men. In turn, the municipal 
forests are to many of the smaller towns and cities what large areas like 
the Black Forest are to the nation. Here again we do well to study and 
emulate their example in Ohio and elsewhere. These forests play a very 
important part in not only paying a large part of local taxes, and furnishing 
work for the inhabitants, but they really constitute the playgrounds of 
the nation. 

In the past we Americans have felt our duty accomphshed when we 
have estabUshed parks and pubhc squares in the center of our villages and 
cities. These are all right so far as they go, but they cannot be compared 
to larger areas where our people, young and old, could love and enjoy 
nature on a more pretentious scale. It is time that our educators in 
schools and colleges get a clear vision of the benefits to come from the 
outdoor life. The forest, with its abundance of wild bird and animal Hfe, 
flowers, shrubs, etc., offers a great field for developing a happy and con- 
tented people. 

High ideals in forestry development, combined with careful methods 
of education, form the only real solution of the forestry question. 

It is no longer a question of simply harvesting the crop, but one of 
growing a crop that we may have one to harvest. It is going to take time 
for our men of affairs, who have been busy operators of lumber, to accept 
the larger and broader viewpoint, and regulative legislation, both national 
and State, must be called in now and then to ameliorate conditions. 

Already much has been accomphshed. We have a national forest 
service which has done much in recent years to interest our people in the 
subject. Many of our States have a forester or commissioner who is 
clothed with the responsibihty of formulating a State forest poHcy. In 
this work, as in all others, it is extremely important that they should cherish 
the fact that they are molding the foundations of great future possibihties 
in forestry, provided the work is laid out on a broad and comprehensive 
plan. While forestry is new with us, it nevertheless has been practiced 
in Europe for centuries, and the great good to come to any State that en- 
courages its practice is evident to all who are competent students of the 
subject. 

We Americans are slow to act, but once we have satisfied ourselves that 
we are on the right path nothing daunts us. In this connection may I 
venture to say that now that Ohio has a splendid new building, where the 
department of forestry is happily housed, the next step that should follow 
is that of creating the position of State Forester. Surely the great State 
of Ohio, with its gigantic manufacturing, agricultural and mining indus- 
tries, can find a perpetual use for all the forest products that she can grow, 
and local production brings about conditions for an economic success that 
otherwise would be impossible. Ohio should have a well-defined State 
forest pohcy. It is just as important that our depleted and worn-out 
lands, that originally should never have been cleared for agriculture, be 
returned to forests, as it is that we practice better farming upon the lands 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



127 



now under cultivation. While I am not sufficiently familiar with this 
State to point to specific examples, nevertheless I dare say there are 
thousands upon thousands of acres of land that are too rocky, 
mountainous, sandy, moist, hilly, stony, etc., to be of value to any- 
body. These same lands, however, were originally covered with a heavy 
growth of timber, and they should be returned to that condition. To 
accompHsh this task will need direction and a due sense of responsibihty 
on the part of a State forester. Ohio is a natural forest country, and it is 
none too early for the State to estabhsh demonstrative State forests on 
just such lands. It is unreasonable to expect private capital to under- 
take this work until it is shown tha't the investment is practical. Also 
the great danger from forest fires must be eliminated by instigating State- 
wide systems of patrol and management. Forest fires should be as sys- 
tematically and effectively combated in the country as our city fires are. 
There is httle use of advocating reforestation without first giving sufficient 
fire protection. Much has been done in some States in the way of in- 
staUing lookout stations and forest-fire fighting equipment. Massachu- 
setts has 26 lookout stations and 353 forest wardens, besides 1,800 deputy 
forest wardens, as her fire-fighting organization. The Massachusetts 
forest warden, who is an official appointed by the selectmen in towns and 
the city government in cities, subject to the approval of the State Forester, 
is clothed with the following powers and duties: — 

No warrants can be paid for fighting forest fires without his approval. 
He may compel any citizen between the ages of eighteen and fifty-one to 
assist in fighting forest fires, or may impress teams and implements. No 
fires may be set out of doors from March to December without a permit 
from him. He appoints his own deputies, has the power to arrest without 
a warrant persons caught setting fires, and is responsible for the disposal 
of brush and slash. He also is of assistance to assessors in securing data 
for forest taxation. These are some of the more important of his duties. 

A State forest poUcy should embrace and regulate the following 
subjects: — 

Expert services should be given without expense, except for travel and 
subsistence, to anybody in the State, particularly emphasizing forest 
planting on the part of the farmers. Forestry hterature of a practical 
nature should be disseminated whenever there is a call for it, the most 
economic utihzation of all forest products should be carefully studied, 
and a modern system of taxation should be adopted in every State. A 
nursery would prove of great assistance in planting State lands, while in 
many States small trees might be sold at cost. The poorer towns should 
be given State aid in the purchase of forest-fire fighting equipment. Five 
hundred dollars will make a very good beginning. Each State needs to 
regulate the disposal of its brush and slash, since some of the worst fires 
get their momentum from its being allowed to remain. Also, all raikoad 
engines burning wood, coke or coal should be inspected, to see that they 
are properly protected with spark arresters, ash pans and grates. 

Other regulations worthy of mention are as follows: — 



128 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Governor should have the power to proclaim the hunting season 
closed during a very dry time. Fish and game deputies should have the 
same authority as regards forest fires as the forest wardens. The boy 
scouts should be utihzed as fire fighters, and the rural mail-carriers be 
compelled to report all forest fires to the forest warden or his deputies. 

In conclusion I ^vish to touch upon one other subject, and that is the 
outlook in the future for a well-equipped forestry student. This is a 
subject about which all foresters are being asked. Forestry has come 
into importance rapidly of late, and forest schools have quickly sprung 
into existence. When the writer was a student in this university, 1888 to 
1891, there were no forestry schools in the country, and all have been of 
comparatively recent origin. The men who are in the more important 
forestry positions to-day received their education through personal love 
and devotion to the subject, and they were their own instructors. The 
forest r\^ schools and departments in our universities and colleges are 
awakening a real interest, and training young men in a profession which 
is bound to grow in importance and value. Not all young men who choose 
the profession necessarily will make a success in it, but I can see no reason 
why there are not many openings for those who really love the outdoor 
associations and rugged life of the forester. We certainly are going to 
need an army of well-trained and efficient men to construct and carry on 
the work already begun in some of our States, and to organize and develop 
forest pohcies in a large number of States where at present Httle, if any- 
thing, has been attempted. I have httle patience with the man who is 
constantlj' foreseeing every profession filled up and no chance for the future. 
If a young man has the right kind of stuff in him, and forestry appeals to 
him, I predict he may find a field here wherein he can not only earn a 
hvehhood, but he can be of great service to his State and nation also. 

With this new building, and with the inspiration that its classrooms, 
laboratories and library will afford, coupled with the wholesome environ- 
ment that will ever prevail so long as our own Professor Lazenby and his 
pohcies persist, I am sure forestry at the Ohio State University will ever 
be taught and dispensed to Ohio's sons and daughters with dehghtful 
satisfaction. 

I congratulate the university and the great State of Ohio in its splendid 
forestry endeavor, and wish even greater things for you in the future. 

New Legislation. 
No legislation of particular importance relating to the work 
of this department was passed at the last session of the General 
Court. The law relative to the sale of arsenate of lead was 
amended so as to read as follows: — 



1916.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



129 



Chapter 80, General Acts of 1915. 

An Act to authorize local moth superintendents to furnish 

arsenate of lead to towns. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter six hundred and five of the acts of 
the year nineteen hundred and thirteen is hereby amended by striking out 
the words "now receiving aid from the commonwealth in suppressing the 
said insect pests", in the third and fourth lines, — so as to read as follows: 
— Section 1 . For the purpose of assisting in the extermination of gypsy 
and browTi tail moths, the local moth superintendent in any city or town 
is hereby authorized to furnish, at the cost thereof, arsenate of lead to 
any owner of real estate situated within the limits of such city or town. 
Material purchased under the provisions hereof shall be used only for the 
suppression of gypsy and brown tail moths and only upon land of the 
purchaser. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 18, 1915. 

The law requiring the mayor of cities and the selectmen of 
towns to send notices to owners of property infested with gypsy 
and brown-tail moths was amended, giving to said officials the 
authority to publish the notice in newspapers published or 
circulated in the city or town at least three times during the 
month of October if in the opinion of the mayor or selectmen 
such publication will be a sufficient notice. 

Recommendations. 

1. As the gypsy-moth conditions menacing the cranberry 
bogs in southeastern Massachusetts have become very grave, 
the work of the suppression of this insect in that district calls 
for due consideration and sufficient funds to cope with the 
situation. 

2. The law requiring permits to set fires in the open air 
should be so amended as to apply to all cities and towns in 
the Commonwealth. 

3. It should be the duty of every city and town to provide 
itself with the proper facilities for housing its forest fire and 
moth equipment in some suitable place. 

4. It is believed that our forest-fire work can be greatly strength- 
ened and made more effective, provided we establish in each 



130 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 1916. 



State forest-fire division, of which there are four, an auto truck 
equipped with fire apparatus, to be used as an auxiliary in 
such towns as find they need extra assistance. This equip- 
ment is just the aid needed many times to control a fire situ- 
ation, and, being State property, would be in touch with the 
lookout observers and division wardens, and manned by the 
State Fire Warden's men during the dangerous fire seasons. 
As there is an unexpended balance each year of the appro- 
priation made available to reimburse towns for forest-fire 
fighting equipment, it is recommended that legislation be en- 
acted authorizing the State Forester to apply this unexpended 
balance to the purchase of the equipment outlined above. 

5. The white pine blister rust, one of the diseases of the 
white pine, should be given due consideration at the hands 
of our various State officials, particularly the pathologist of 
the Agricultural Experiment Station and the State Nursery 
Inspector, in determining our conditions as regards this dis- 
ease. Some definite policy of holding the disease in check, or 
exterminating it if possible, should be arrived at. It is be- 
lieved that while this disease may become very destructive 
to our white pines, nevertheless the danger is not sufl^i- 
cient to discourage prospective planters of the white pine. 
It is not our purpose to minimize the importance of this 
disease, nor do we intend to lessen our endeavor to combat it. 
We do, however, believe it a good policy not to overexaggerate 
the question, and thus necessarily deter the constructive work 
of reforestation, until there is more convincing proof than is to 
be had at present that the disease is likely to become a great 
menace to white pine. It is to be hoped that the average 
Massachusetts citizen will go ahead planting white pine as 
enthusiastically as ever, leaving the problem of its protection 
from diseases and insects to be looked after by technically 
trained officials. 

F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 



OF* 



Public Document 



No. 73 



f THE 

STATE FOEESTBR 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL EEPORT, 
1916. 



F. W. RANE, State Foresteb. 



BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1917. 



C 



Publication of this Document 

appkoved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



3 



Cotntnontocaltl) of M(i53ac[)nsttt5. 



To the General Court, 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 409, section 5, 
Acts of 1904, it is my duty and also my pleasure to submit 
the annual report of the State Forester for the past year. 

It is certainly gratifying to the head of a department to 
have had such whole-hearted co-operation as has been accorded 
us. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 

Dec. 23. 1916. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Introduction, . . . . . . . , . . .7 

Organization, ........... 11 

New quarters. ........... 14 

Correspondence courses on shade tree management, etc., .... 14 

Birds and trees, . . . . . . . . . . .15 

White pine bUster rust, .......... 15 

Roadside thinning, .......... 19 

Gypsy moth in cranberry bogs, ........ 20 

Forestry insurance, .......... 22 

State grange and forestry, ......... 22 

Proposed office of town or city forester, ....... 24 

Auto-truck sprayers, . . . . . . . . . .26 

Exhibitions 28 

Forest product laboratory at Madison, Wis., ...... 28 

Moth-thinning work, .......... 29 

Co-operative thinning work, . . . . . . . . .30 

Woodland examinations, . . . . . . . . .31 

Utilization of forest products, ......... 32 

Wood distillation, ........... 33 

Charcoal, 34 

Chestnut utilization, 35 
Alder wood, . . . . . . . . . * . . .35 

Publications in preparation, . . . . . . . ■ . . 37 , 

Private co-operative forest examinations, ....... 38 

Forest examinations 1904 to 1916, ........ 40 

Forest examinations, 1916, ......... 41 

Reforestation work, .......... 43 

Financial statement, ......... 52 

Nursery work, ........... 45 

Inventory of stock. State nurseries, ........ 48 

State forest administration, ......... 49 

Western Massachusetts forestry office, ....... 51 

Publications, . . . . . . . . . . . .52 

State Forester's expenses: — 

Financial statement, ......... 52 

State Fire Warden's report, ......... 53 

Financial statement, ......... 64 

Forest warden conferences, ......... 55 

Fires reported, ........... 55 

New fire towers, ........... 57 

Reimbursement for fire equipment, ........ 58 

Inventory of fire equipment, ......... 58 

Fires reported, 1916, 62 

Types of land burned over by fires, ........ 63 

Classified damage by fires, ......... 63 

Comparative damages by fires, ........ 63 



6 



CONTENTS. 



Precipitation from 1911 to 1916, 

Federal co-operation in forest-fire expenditure, 

Forest-fire conference, .... 

Railroad fires, ..... 

Brown-tail moth situation, 

Parasite work, ..... 

Method of spraying from the tank, . 

Apportionment of general expenses, . 

Forestry meetings, ..... 

Co-operative moth work. 

Special funds : — 

Financial statements. 
Reports on moth work from cities and towns, 
State highway work, .... 
Distribution of supplies, .... 
Gypsy moth suppression : — 

Financial statement. 
Financial summary of moth work, . 
Report on cutting timber on Mount Grace, 
Report on taking Mount Holyoke, . 
Report on cutting timber on Mohawk Trail, 
Meetings and addresses, .... 
List of forest wardens, .... 
List of moth superintendents, . 
Recommendations, .... 




A white pine forest fringing the State highway between Gardner and 
Greenfield. Here is an example of how the economic and festhetic 
go hand in hand. One might believe this a scene in the black 
forest countrj- of Germanj-. Let us have more of them in this 
State. 



THIRTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

Splendid co-operation and a definite growing interest in all 
forestry matters on the part of our citizens, whether they are 
officials or otherwise, have been manifested everywhere through- 
out the State during the past year. 

The assistants and district men in this department unan- 
imously speak in their annual repor.ts to the department of the 
increased interest and co-operation accorded them ever>n;^here. 
Towns and cities have raised money and turned it over to the 
State Forester's Department for the erection of suitable forest- 
fire towers, for trimming, planting and improving the trees in 
the highways, for planting watersheds, and for forest fire- 
fighting equipment. These, together with the many courtesies 
shown us throughout the State, lead us to feel that we are 
indeed public servants who are welcomed by our citizens. 

During the past year many conferences of forest wardens 
were held in different parts of the State, and a general meeting 
of all moth superintendents was held in Boston during the 
winter. 

The co-operative work between the cranberry growers and 
the State Forester's Department in combating the gypsy 
moths in the cranberry bogs has apparently been productive 
of good results. 

The wood utilization work in progress for the past few years 
was continued with increasing interest and has given practical 
results. 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The forest survey of Worcester County, which has been 
under way for the past two summers, is completed and a 
bulletin containing the results will soon come from the State 
printer. A similar survey of Plymouth County was also carried 
on during the past summer, but the data have not yet been 
compiled. This information will be very valuable in deter- 
mining the amount and kinds of our forest areas. 

The State Forest Commission has increased the acreage of 
lands for State forests and now we have three such forests: 
the Otter River forest in Worcester County; the Myles 
Standish forest in Plymouth County; and the Harold Parker 
forest in Middlesex and Essex counties. The total area of the 
three approximates 9,000 acres. 

The department has made several exhibits at various fairs 
and public gatherings which will be alluded to elsewhere in 
this report, as will also be found the lists of public addresses 
given and meetings attended by the State Forester and his 
assistants during the year. 

The white pine blister rust, an imported disease affecting the 
five-needle pines, which has been found in this country in 
recent years,, has received a great deal of attention by the de- 
partment during the year. Many outbreaks have occurred in 
the State, and it has been our purpose to ascertain the extent 
of this disease, together with a method for its eradication. 

In many respects the comparative contrast of last year and 
the present season is interesting. While 1915 was noted for 
the overabundance of unemployed labor, the State Forester's 
Department being called upon by the General Court to find 
employment for hundreds of men in all sections of the State, 
that they might at public expense earn a living, this year the 
demands for labor have been so great and the competition so 
keen that it has been very difficult to secure sufficient em- 
ployees at prices commensurate with our appropriation, to 
carry on the work necessary to be done. In average seasons 
the local town and city forestry officials are constantly besieged 
to take on more labor than they can handle economically, and 
this opportunity for selection tended to raise the standard of 
efficiency. But this year practically all our officials were 
constantly short-handed and compelled to get along as best 
they could. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



9 



This season has been a great contrast also to others of 
recent years in the great amount of precipitation or rainfall. 
It rained more or less practically every day until early fall. 
Our trees and forests have gloried in an extremely hea\y 
and healthy foliage, which has been a pleasure to look upon 
throughout the whole season. The extremes of drought and 
high temperatures of recent years combined with insect and 
disease depredations, not to mention the constant menace from 
forest fires, have strained tree patience, if that term may be 
used, but the past season has certainly encouraged them to 
regain much of their old-time vigor and sturdiness. 

The reforestation work this year has been remarkably suc- 
cessful. Nearly every small tree that was planted has lived, 
and all naturally stocked plantations have made equally fine 
showings. Some of the older plantations have made remarkable 
strides, it not being uncommon to see a growth of 2J to 3 feet 
on white pines four to six years set, and in one case a measure- 
ment of 42 inches was made. It stands to reason that seasons 
capable of giving such good results must enable trees and 
vegetation generally to reserve more or less potential energy 
so that they may overcome or resist relatively unfavorable 
conditions for a time at least. 

One of the most healthy signs is the good will on the part 
of boards of selectmen in towns and officials in cities toward 
our forestry and moth work. Instead of the tendency to change 
local officials yearly and an indifference to their work, which 
was now and then evident in earlier days, we are finding that 
these officials stand ready and are willing to assume the 
responsibility necessary to accomplish desired results. This 
fact is evidenced by the better equipment our towns and cities 
have acquired, the business way that the work is financed, and 
by no means the least factor, the whole-hearted and earnest 
way in which the men whom they appoint undertake the work. 
The response that has come from towns and cities to the 
request made by this department last year in suggesting that 
suitable sheds and storage houses should be provided for the 
forest-fire and spraying equipment, tools and supplies, has 
been indeed most gratifying. Already many not elaborate but 
very suitable buildings have been provided. Here the local 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



oflficial has his headquarters, and it affords him an opportunity 
to employ his time to advantage when otherwise he would be 
unable to do so. 

The amount of so-called private work performed by the 
local forestry officials is an index as to their standing and appre- 
ciation in the community. It is perfectly apparent that people 
generally are turning to them for advice and assistance, and 
this is nothing other than natural. 

The State Forester has been criticized at times by a few 
contractors for encouraging the city and town officials in offer- 
ing to aid private owners, particularly in moth work. While 
it has never been the policy of this department to encroach 
upon the legitimate occupation of those who engage in the 
business of spraying and caring for trees, nevertheless the 
basic law of the State Forester's office is to assist our people 
whether in a public or private capacity in combating moths, 
which are declared a public nuisance, and in encouraging 
modern forestry in the best and most economical way possible. 
It is inevitable that on account of the elimination of the 
expense of equipment and supervision, the towns and cities 
should find it possible to do the work more cheaply than 
contractors. 

There is little occasion, however, for being disturbed over 
this question at the present time for there is pknty of work, 
it is believed, for everybody, and the State Forester desires to 
express his high appreciation of the many concerns and indi- 
viduals who are engaged in spraying and forestry work, and 
to say that it is most highly appreciated and much needed, 
and it is believed will be for some time to come. 

It is always a pleasure to recommend contractors who are 
honorable in their dealings, and we make it an object to have 
a list of these concerns in the office, to which we refer requests 
as they come in. On the other hand, it is our duty as well to 
caution and protect our people from impostors who are con- 
stantly appearing in different sections under the guise of 
experts. 

The State Forester was especially gratified in the pleasing 
recognition given his department in the annual address of the 
master of the Massachusetts State Grange, Mr. Edward E. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



Chapman, at its recent meeting held in Boston. At the 
same meeting the committee on forestry recommended several 
resolutions which the grange adopted, all of which showed 
valuable interest and support of forestry work in Massachu- 
setts. Besides the State Grange, the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, the previous week in annual session, passed three resolu- 
tions favorable to forestry matters of interest to this department. 
More recently the Massachusetts Tree Wardens and Foresters 
Association, which is composed largely of the ojfficials in cities 
and towns in charge of tree and forestry work, has voted to 
recommend certain legislation to the incoming General Court 
toward unifying and perfecting the care of shade trees and 
forestry in cities and towns. 

Many other important activities of this department might 
be called to the reader's attention, but some of them have 
already been alluded to in previous years, and others will 
be touched upon in other parts of this report. The chief 
desire of the State Forester is that this department may con- 
tinue to have the splendid co-operation and support of our 
Massachusetts people that has always been accorded us in 
the past. 

Organization. 

We are fortunate in having had but very few changes in the 
personnel of our working force throughout the past year. Mr. 
Frank L. Haynes, who has been forest examiner on the general 
forestry staff, was transferred to a similar position in the 
employ of the State Forest Commission. As Mr. Haynes 
worked all summer in the actual engineering work of the Com- 
mission and was paid by it, the transfer is more on paper than 
otherwise. 

Arrangements have been made with the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College whereby Mr. W. D. Clark, the professor 
of forestry, will act in the capacity of assistant State Forester 
as has heretofore been the practice with the professor of fores- 
try at the college. This arrangement is of benefit to both 
the college and the State Forester's department, as it enables 
both State organizations to co-operate harmoniously. Although 
Professor Clark's time of necessity will be largely employed 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



in teaching and college work, nevertheless, should he have the 
time and inclination to do so, he will feel free to enter into 
the regular work of the State Forester's department. One of 
our forest nurseries is located at the State college, and Pro- 
fessor Clark is taking general supervision over it. 

A new departure has been made in placing a forester at 
Springfield, whose duty it will be to give advice and assist 
people in general in the western part of the State. This work 
has been started in conjunction with the Hampden County 
Improvement League, a very wide-awake organization with 
headquarters at Springfield. Mr. Charles R. Atwood, a gradu- 
ate of the University of Maine, a young man who has been in 
our employ in forest utilization work for over a year, was 
delegated to this work. 

The work heretofore carried on by Mr. Ray F. Weston, with 
headquarters at Middleborough, has been put in charge of 
Mr. Lithgow Hunter, the former having resigned. Mr. Hunter 
is a practical forester, who has been in the employ of this 
department for the past year and a half and merits the 
advance. 

The organization is at present as follows : — 



General Staff. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, 
C. O. Bailey, . 
Elizabeth Hubbard, 
Elizabeth T. Harraght, . 
Jennie D. Kent on, . 
Mabel R. Hamnett, . 
Robert Harding, 



State Forester. 

Secretary. 

Bookkeeper. 

Stenographer. 

Stenographer. 

Clerk. 

Office boy. 



General Forestry. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, 

H. O. Cook, M.F., . 

W. D. Clark, M.F., . 

J. R. Simmons, B.Sc, . 

Chas. R. Atwood, B.Sc, . 

James Morris, . 

Eben Smith, 

J. A. Palmer, . 

J. L. Peabody, . 

H. N. Butler, . 

H. H. Chase, . 

Dean Townsley, 



State Forester. 

Assistant forester in charge. 

Assistant forester (Amherst). 

Reforestation work. 

Assistant forester (Springfield). 

Agent. 

Superintendent, Barnstable Nursery. 
Superintendent, Amherst Nursery. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 
Field foreman. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



13 



Staff Moth Work. 

F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, . . State Forester. 

George A. Smith, .... Assistant (equipment, accounts, etc.). 

Paul D. Kneeland, M.F., . . Assistant (woodlands, products, etc.). 

LiTHGOW Hunter, .... Assistant. 

Gut W. Lucas, B.Sc, . . . Assistant. 

Francis V. Learoyd, . . . Supplies. 



District 

1. John W. Enwright, Medford. 

2. Saul Phillips, Beverly. 

3. John J. Fitzgerald, Haverhill. 

4. Wm. a. Hatch, Marlborough. 



Moth Men. 

5. Harry B. Ramsey, Worcester. 

6. C. W. Parkhurst, Foxborough. 

7. W. F. Holmes, East Braintree. 

8. J. A. Farley, Plymouth. 



Staff, Forest Fire Prevention. 
F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.Sc, . . State Forester. 
M. C. Hutchins, .... State Fire Warden. 
JosEPHA L. Gallagher, . . . Clerk. 
James E. Moloy, .... Locomotive inspector. 
Miner E. Fenn, .... Locomotive inspector. 



District Forest Wardens. 

1. Oscar L. Noyes, Byfield. 3. John P. Crowe, Westborough. 

2. Jos. J. Shepherd, Pembroke. 4. Albert L. Ordway, Westfield. 



Calvin C. Parker, North Harwich. 

Calvin Benson, Barnstable. 

W. I. Moody, West Falmouth. 

W. F. Raymond, Bournedale. 

Frank L. Buckingham, Plymouth. 

S. Edward Matthews, Middleborough. 

John H. Montle, Fall River. 

R. J. Zilch, Attleboro. 

Chas. F. Kimball, South Hanson. 

John H. Bacon, Sharon. 

Frederick R. Stone, South Sudbury. 

John H. O'Donnell, Greenwood. 

Henry H. Hammond, Chelmsford. 

Frederick W. Oliver, Georgetown. 

Miles O. Burnham, Essex. 



Robert McLaughlin, Millville. 
John P. Giblin, Westborough. 
James Maley, Princeton. 
P. B. Coles, Warwick. 
George W. Clifford, Amherst. 
George B. Sherman, Brimfield. 
Charles Putnam, Westfield. 
N. C. Woodward, Shelburne Falls. 
H. H. FiTZROY, Savoy. 
George Laurent, Chester. 
John E. Curtin, East Otis. 
Clayton Bunt, Great Barrington. 
Robert Miller, Pittsfield. 
Clifford George, Williamstown. 



For list of forest wardens and local moth superintendents, 
see page 113. 



14 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



State Forester's New Quarters. 

This department has finally been housed in the State House 
and we may be found in the new east wing on the fourth floor, 
with entrance at Room Xo. 408. These new quarters will be 
our permanent home, and it is believed that being in the State 
House, where city and town officials come naturally for so 
many avenues of business relations, will facilitate matters 
very much. "\Miile our old headquarters were but a short 
distance away, it required an extra effort to look us up, and 
undoubtedly many very important calls that might have re- 
sulted in much good have been missed. 

We invite, therefore, all citizens and organizations interested 
in everj'thing that pertains to forestry to make our permanent 
new home the headquarters and the center for all forestry activ- 
ities of the State. 

Correspondence Courses on Shade Tree Management 

AND Forestry. 

The State Forester has made arrangements with the Mas- 
sachusetts Agricultural College authorities for correspondence 
courses, and has requested all town and city officials whose 
work has to do with trees and forestry to take the courses on 
these subjects in order that they may have a first-hand knowl- 
edge of the fundamentals of their work. The State forester's 
division men have taken samples of these courses about the 
State with them, and explained their purposes and methods 
to the officials in cities and towns. A number are already 
enrolled, and it is predicted that this will be an interesting 
and extremely valuable undertaking. 

Arrangements have been made to have special emphasis laid 
upon the white pine blister rust disease, so that next spring 
the men having taken the course will have the benefit of some 
theoretical knowledge on this subject, which, with their prac- 
tical training, will help to make their services more valuable. 

It is believed this is the first definite work of this kind 
attempted by any State, and, if it works out satisfactorily, it 
will furnish a good basis to future care and management of 
shade trees and forests. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



15 



Relations of Bikds and Trees. 

The importance of the birds in protecting our trees against 
insect pests cannot be too strongly emphasized, and a great 
deal of good work can be accomplished by private landowners 
and others if they will only take active steps to encourage 
the increase of the insectivorous birds. 

The State and Federal governments are exerting every effort 
to suppress the gypsy and brown-tail moths by all the well- 
known methods of spraying, banding, creosoting, etc., as well 
as by introducing numerous varieties of parasites. 

\Miat we have got to count on ultimately are the natural 
methods of suppression, i.e., the birds and parasites, but until 
the infestations are under control every known method of 
suppression will have to be resorted to, and this undoubtedly 
means strenuous work for some time to come, ^^l]ere the 
public can help to great advantage is to take an active hand 
in bringing about an increase of the birds. This can be done 
to best advantage by individuals rather than by the State. 

The methods of encouraging the birds are very fully set 
forth in the numerous publications by both the State and 
Federal governments. 

During the year the State Forester has been fortunate in 
making the acquaintance of Mr. John C. Lee of Wellesley, 
Mass., who is an ardent nature student and bird enthusiast. 
He has been able, through perseverance and skill, to produce a 
practical bird house, which is within the reach of any one, as 
it sells for five cents. Of course this is simply actual cost, no 
profits to any one. He also has innumerable original devices 
and ideas relative to the housing, protection and care of birds 
that the writer believes are bound to aid bird lovers in their 
future endeavors to get practical results. 

White Pine Blister Rust. 
This department has planted millions of white pine trees 
during the past ten years and it still has millions in its nur- 
series waiting to go out. Considering this and the fact that 
the white pine is really the most valuable commercial tree in 
the State, we challenge the statement that any one is more 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



concerned than this department in the welfare of this noble 
and beneficent tree. 

We have every reason to be interested in this disease, and 
we propose to do everything within our power to cope with it. 
In last year's annual report it will be remembered that definite 
recommendations were made on the whole subject. The work 
of the past season having shown that the disease is more wide- 
spread than we had expected to find it, we now need some 
definite and drastic methods of coping with it. While there 
are diverse opinions among would-be authorities as to its viru- 
lency, just how long it has been in existence in this country, 
etc., and while any one's opinion should at least be respected 
whether ultimately right or wrong, nevertheless we all can 
agree that now is the time to act, and no time should be lost 
in establishing definite public policies of eradication. It is 
going to require continued public funds that should be expended 
judiciously, whereby results will naturally follow. 

We in Massachusetts have had valuable training in forestry 
work in the suppression, largely at public expense, of ob- 
noxious insects, and it is believed that this experience alone if 
taken advantage of can be made one of the most potent forces 
in dealing a death blow to this white pine blister rust disease. 

The State Forester delegated one of his assistants, Mr. J. R. 
Simmons, to keep in close touch with the work throughout 
the year, and the following is a brief report on the subject 
by him. It contains many things likely to be of interest to 
the reader. 

Aimouncement was made in last year's annual report of the presence in 
Massachusetts of the white pine blister rust, a fungous disease having two 
hosts, the five-needled pines and the currants and gooseberries (Ribes). 
A su mm ary of the work of investigation and eradication to date was given 
at that time. Durmg the past year funds amounting to $27,000 have 
been appropriated — by the State, S13,000, and national governments, 
S14,000 — for the purpose of further investigating the blister rust disease 
in IMassachusetts. The State Nursery I^specto^, Dr. H. T. Femald, under 
whose direction the money has been spent, has covered the entire State, 
and has issued a report in which he describes the work done by his depart- 
ment and gives the location of all infections found. The reader is re- 
ferred to this report for the present distribution of the disease in Massa- 
chusetts. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 



17 



There is at this time no appropriation by which the State Forester is 
authorized to investigate or combat the bhster rust disease, but, ha^-ing 
at his command a competent organization in the personnel of his district 
moth superintendents and field foresters, he has undertaken the training 
of these men in readiness for any situation in which they may be called 
upon to act. Everj^ infection found by the employees of this department, 
whether on pine or Ribes has been reported to the State Nursery Inspector, 
and, whenever their work could be so arranged, the field foremen have 
done scout duty under the instruction of Dr. Femald's inspectors. All 
State plantations on which imported stock was used have again been 
examined, and all diseased trees removed. This phase of the work in- 
cluded the investigation of nine lots, from which, in all, 232 trees were 
taken and burned. However, with the exception of a few trees removed 
from the so-called IMuddy Pond lot in Westminster, none of these speci- 
mens had died from blister rust. 

In October, 1916, a letter was sent to every local moth superintendent 
and forest warden in the State, "^ith the request that he investigate the 
gardens in his city or town for cultivated varieties of Ribes showing blister 
rust infection, and that specimens of leaves be sent to the State Forester's 
office. By this method a large area, representing all sections of the State, 
was covered, and forty-five Ribes infections were definitely located, nearly 
all of which were found on the black currant. The investigation was un- 
dertaken for its educational value, and was followed up by a letter of in- 
struction to the town and city forestry officials. 

An extensive territorj^ has also been covered in the course of routine 
work by the assistant foresters in charge of general forestry and reforesta- 
tion. In response to a large number of apphcations on the part of in- 
dividual landowners for forest land examinations, 86 estates or land hold- 
ings have received attention to date. Twenty-five per cent, of these were 
examined for blister rust as the chief object of investigation, and a total 
of ten infections (six currant and four pine) were found. It is but fair to 
say that of the four pine infections, three were in artificial plantations, 
and the remaining one included but a single diseased tree. Two infec- 
tions were located in the same town, where the blister rust is known to 
have existed for a number of years. 

The findings of this department up to the date on which the annual 
report goes to press may be briefly summarized as foUows: — 

(1) There is a general infection on Ribes over most of the area of the 
State, indicating the spread of the disease this season in the summer 
spore stage on currants and gooseberries. 

(2) There is a hght infection on pine, confined to plantations made 
from foreign stock, doubtless diseased when planted, or to native pine 
stands where currants and gooseberries have been growing in the near 
vicinity for many years. 

(3) There are considerable nmnbers of large trees on which diseased 
branches have been found and removed, — trees which, in themselves, 



IS 



THE . STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



were comparatively strong, but which, if uncared for, would act as dis- 
seminators of the disease to currants and gooseberries, and thus in time 
to other pines. 

(4) The progress of the disease on pine has thus far been slow, and only 
a very small percentage of trees which have died from various causes have 
been killed by the bUster rust. 

In view of the fact that the State Forester has received a large volume 
of letters, and quantities of specimens of Ribes leaves, pine branches, 
twigs and needles from individuals who were erroneously convinced that 
their pine stands were infected, the following diseases, which may be mis- 
taken hy the uninitiated for bUster rust, are worthy of note. Currants 
and gooseberries are often attacked by the leaf spot {Septoria ribes Desm.) 
and the anthracnose {Pseusopeziza ribes Cleb.) both of which may cause 
complete defoKation of the bushes. These diseases are, however, con- 
fined entirely to Ribes and are, therefore, no menace to pines or other 
trees. There is another rust which attacks the currant and gooseberry 
in the early spring, usually before the bhster rust (Cronartium) appears. 
It occurs on the Ribes in the so-called cluster cup stage, which corresponds 
in the life cycle to the stage of the blister rust found on the pine. It is 
bright orange in appearance and only one or a very few spots usually occur 
on a leaf. Pines suffer from a number of minor diseases, and j^oung pines 
are especially susceptible to attack by the white pine weevil, whose bor- 
ings on the inside of the main shoot often cause a swelling of the small 
lateral branches not unlike the early stages of bhster rust. There is a 
fungous disease (Phoma) which makes its appearance on young pines near 
the ground, girdling the trunk, causing a swelling above the point of in- 
fection, yellowing of the needles and final death of the tree. This disease 
is probably more often confused with bhster rust than any other now 
known. Another enemy of the young white pine is the Hylobius pales 
beetle, which breeds in the bark of pine stumps and feeds on the bark of 
young pine trees. It has been often assumed by those not familiar with 
this insect that his marks were those of some small animal, such as a squir- 
rel or mouse, which had been attracted by the honey-like resin of a rust- 
infected tree. In such cases the damage has been wrongly attributed to 
bhster rust rather than to the work of the insect. An excellent bulletin 
on this pest (by Prof. E. E. Carter) can be obtained from Harvard Uni- 
versity, Department of Forestry. Mention should also be made of what 
has commonly been termed "pine blight," due to climatic conditions, and 
not considered in any way a serious menace. Scattered trees have turned 
browTi during the past summer over most of the area of Massachusetts. 
If the tree is generally healthy, it will almost always recover. 

The white pine blister rust is also further discussed in a 
paper printed elsewhere in this report entitled "Forest Depre- 
dation and Utilization." The bulletin that every one interested 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



in knowing about this disease should have is Farmers' Bul- 
letin, No. 742, by Dr. Perley Spaulding. This bulletin is sent 
free upon application to the United States Secretary of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. 

Roadside Thinning. 

A method of moth suppression along our roadsides is based 
upon the idea of removing the gypsy moth plant foods from 
those species of trees and shrubs which are less liable to or 
even immune from caterpillar depredation. 

This form of work has been carried on to a greater or less 
extent for the past seven years and has now been extended over 
several thousand miles of roadsides. It might be termed an 
application of proper forestry methods to the roadsides, and if 
these same methods could be extended throughout the wood- 
lands, the gypsy moth problem would be for the most part 
permanently solved. 

Neglected roadsides are usually filled up and literally tangled 
with a profuse growth of trees, vines, brush and shrubs. 

The initial cost of thinning a locality of this description 
is undoubtedly greater than that of any other method of gypsy 
moth suppression, but when the permanent benefits are con- 
sidered, the difference in cost is discounted. Briefly, the first 
act of thinning is to remove the oak, gray birch, willow, pop- 
lars, black cherry, hop-hornbeam, alder, witch-hazel, apple and 
all tangled brush, shrubs and vines. Occasionally it is possible 
during the first cutting to retain certain ornamental shrubs 
and vines but not generally, for owing to the massed condition 
of the undergrowth very little form is left to the weaker and 
more ornamental species of shrubs. 

After removing the species named, we have left to constitute 
our roadside trees the evergreens of all varieties, maple, hick- 
ory, locust, ash, butternut, chestnut, black birch, yellow birch, 
white birch, ailanthus, beech, tupelo and elm. For a period 
of years following the thinning treatment it wull be found 
necessary to cut over these localities with a brush scythe to 
suppress the sprout growth springing from the stumps pre- 
viously cut. Therefore it is most necessary that during the 
first thinning the stumps should be cut close to the ground. 



20 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



After thinning work had been carried on throughout the 
State to some extent, many people interested in native plant 
life made inquiry concerning the resistant qualities of certain 
shrubs in regard to gypsy moth depredation, and this led to 
a study of the subject. The result proved most of our native 
shrubs to be highly resistant and many immune. As a con- 
sequence, the State Forestry Department recommended in 
brush-scj^the work following roadside thinnings the retention 
of the following-named native shrubs: the several species of 
the Cornus family, viburnums, sumach, deciduous holly, clethra, 
ceanothus, buttonbush, mountain laurel, bayberry, shad, ben- 
zoin, sweet fern, elder, azalias, lilac, and the various species 
of our native vines which are all resistant, woodbine, bitter- 
sweet, grape, ivy and wild clematis. 

These vines and shrubs not only serve as a caterpillar repel- 
lent, but they constitute an attractive undergrowth beneath 
the roadside trees and serve to cover unsightly stone heaps, 
gravel pits and walls. 

Roadside thinning in the manner described is an effort to do 
away largely with all other forms of gypsy moth treatment on 
our outlying roads except the simple one of cleanliness, and is 
carried to varying depths of from 15 to 50 feet from the edge 
of the road. 

Gypsy Moths and Cranberry Bogs. 
The destructive work of gypsy moths on cranberry bogs 
was found to be a very important problem this year. Upon 
further investigation by this department, it was found that 
matters were more serious than we had realized. In order to 
get at the root of the matter this department had several 
meetings and conferences with a committee of men who were 
appointed by the Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Association to 
co-operate with the State in determining upon ways and means 
of relief. The five men who represented the cranberry associa- 
tion were Mr. Seth C. C. Finney of Carver, chairman, Mr. 
Irving C. Hammond of Wareham, Mr. J. M. Bump of Carver, 
Mr. John W. Churchill of Plymouth, and Dr. Franklin F. 
Marsh of Wareham. Although th.ere was much unfavorable 
weather, everybody went at the task without loss of time, and 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 21 



it IS believed that all parties concerned feel that the results 
have proven well worth while. The committee representing 
the cranberry interests is composed of wide-awake business 
men with whom it has been indeed a pleasure to work. Their 
fairness and insistence upon owners of bogs doing their pro- 
portionate financial share in meeting the aid from the town 
and State have given us w^holesome satisfaction in the work. 

The cranberry bogs fall mostly in the divisions of Mr. 
Holmes and Mr. Farley, and these two men report not only 
very excellent co-operation by bog owners but an inclination 
on the part of many to carry on the work about their bogs at 
their own expense. It is also apparent that a great amount 
of moth thinning work is being carried on throughout this 
same section by farmers and woodland owners. The hard 
woods are rapidly being taken out and white pine encouraged 
to come in. This practice is not only the best remedy against 
gypsy moths, but is the foundation step in the production of 
a forest crop of great intrinsic value. If the gypsy moth has 
driven us to recognize this principle alone, it is quite possible 
that twenty-five to fifty years hence we may look back upon 
our present calamity as a blessing in disguise. 

The towns of Carver and Middleborough in particular are 
making great strides towards encouraging white pine, which 
goes well with cranberry growing and general farming, thus 
utilizing all kinds of land by adapting them to their special 
crops. 

It is not our purpose to outline as yet just what are the 
best methods of handling the gypsy moths in protecting cran- 
berry bogs, but with, the experience gained this season, and by 
following the same methods in conjunction with the committee 
and growers, it is believed we shall have advanced far enough 
to venture to do so another year. 

Both labor and arsenate of lead are expensive at the present 
time, and it is feared that these conditions may continue the 
coming season, therefore the estimates that have been made 
will hold good this season. 



99 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Forestry Insurance. 
This question is being studied, and it is believed that within 
the next year or so a practical solution of the matter may be 
outlined and inaugurated. Mr. W. R. Brown of Berlin, N. H., 
a practical lumberman and forester, has given the matter 
much attention, and it is believed we can work out a practical 
solution of the subject through a mutual forest insurance plan 
that will satisfy our people. This is the next step in forestry 
needing adjustment. 

Extract on Forestry from the Annual Address of 
Master of the State Grange. 
The State Forester wishes to acknowledge with a great deal 
of pleasure the complimentary way in which State Master 
Edward E. Chapman referred to our w^ork in his annual ad- 
dress to the State Grange on December 12. When one realizes 
that he represents 40,000 grange members who are interested 
in rural matters, the compliment seems all the greater. The 
following is the quotation from his address : — 

I should feel that my report was incomplete without some reference to 
the important subject of forestry. Probably no effort on the part of the 
State has been received with more satisfaction and enthusiasm than the 
development of a definite forestry policy. I am glad to express the con- 
viction that a majority of our citizens, and especially all Grangers, have 
come to recognize that fact that no field of pubhc endeavor holds greater 
possibilities designed to increase the wealth of the State and the enjoy- 
ment of our citizens than the reclamation of the wild and waste lands by 
planting them ,to commercial trees. Every Granger must \dew with satis- 
faction the splendid development made in every branch of the State forest 
service during the past few years. To reach this point of satisfactory 
development has required a vast amount of hard, unselfish work on the 
part of the officials of the State Department of Forestry and fairly en- 
titles them to the cordial support of all who hope to see Massachusetts 
one of the leading States of the Union in the conservation and manage- 
ment of our natural resources. 

The stabihty of forest operations depends almost wholly upon protec- 
tion which must be given against the various dangers which threaten the 
forests, such as fire, insect depredations and other hostile agencies. To 
meet the first of these dangers, there has been estabhshed what may be 
considered one of the most thoroughlj^ equipped forest-fire protective sys- 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



23 



terns in the United States. This system as at present constituted is made 
up, first, of the forest warden and his deputies in each city and town, who 
have sole control of the prevention and extinguishment in their respective 
mimicipaUties. At present there are nearly 2,000 such wardens and depu- 
ties, most of whom are thoroughly interested in their work, which cannot 
fail to make a most effective organization. I am informed that through 
the well-directed efforts of the Forestry Department many of our towns 
are now weU equipped mth suitable apparatus for fighting forest fires. 
Perhaps the most valuable feature of the system is the establishment of 
the lookout stations, thirty of which are located at suitable points in the 
State and have proved extremely valuable as a means of reducing the 
annual damage caused by forest fires. Therefore we may reasonably con- 
clude that, with adequate fire protection assured, taxes placed at a mini- 
mum, and assistance in management guaranteed by the Forestry De- 
partment at a nominal cost, private indi\dduals may practice forestry on 
their nonagricultural lands with the consciousness that they are making 
a reasonably safe investment. 

The reforestation law, so called, passed by the General Court of 1908, 
has proved to be of inestimable value and has thoroughly justified the 
wisdom of its makers. Under this law the private owner who wishes to 
reforest his land, but cannot at the time afford the expense, may turn it 
over to the State Forester who will plant it, and under this law the owner 
is given ten years in which to repay the Commonwealth for the cost of 
planting. If at the end of that period the owner does not wish to redeem 
it, it remains the property of the Commonwealth. The great value of 
this law from a forestry standpoint is made apparent from the fact that 
many people wiU take advantage of its provisions who would otherwise 
refrain from planting their land and financing the work themselves. It 
constitutes a direct aid as well as an encouragement to private reforesta- 
tion. Inasmuch as nine-tenths of the forest land will in all human proba- 
bihty remain in private hands, it must be ob\dous that such encourage- 
ment and aid are most important. 

Three years ago, by act of the General Court, a commission was ap- 
pointed for the purpose of acquiring wild and waste lands to be converted 
into State forests. Since its estabhshment this commission has acquired 
three reservations, the aggregate area of which is about 10,000 acres. 
Because of the acquisition of these lands for State forests, it is the conten- 
tion of some people that the reforestation act which I alluded to above 
has been in existence sufficiently long to have fulfilled its mission as a 
object lesson in planting management, an opinion which, in my judgment, 
is erroneous, for in determining the question one should consider that 
while the State Forester, working under the reforestation act, has estab- 
lished 130 plantations, they are located in only 52 towns. Inasmuch as 
there are 352 towns in the State, this leaves 300 towns \\ithout such object 
lessons; so that until the plantations are more widespread, it would seem 
to be unwise to discontiaue giving to landowners the encouragement which 



24 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



this law now affords. I feel that such an expression of opinion on this 
matter as might be voiced in some resolution adopted by the State Grange 
w^ould serve to stimulate and encourage the forestry movement in our 
State. 

Resolved, That the members of the Massachusetts State Grange view 
with gratification the splendid advancement made by our State Forester 
in the development of a definite and comprehensive forest poHcy. It is 
further 

Resolved, That we believe it to be in the interest of all the people of 
this Commonwealth to retain and continue the policy contained in the 
so-called reforestation act, chapter 478, Acts of 1908, and that we depre- 
cate and oppose any attempt to abandon or materially change said policy. 

Proposed Office of Town or City Forester. 

It is believed that the time has come when there should be 
one man in each town and a similar oflficial in each city where 
the charter does not already provide for it, who should be 
appointed by the selectmen in towns and the oflBcials of the 
government in cities, subject to the approval of the State 
Forester, whose duty will be t^o exercise the authority now 
vested in the offices of moth superintendent and tree warden. 

The recommendation is that the new official be designated 
as town or city forester as the case may be. The sole purpose 
of this recommendation is to unify and standardize the work 
and thereby be able to get better results. 

In order to ascertain just how the selectmen would feel on 
this subject the following letter was sent them. 

Dear Sir: — During the past few years the offices of local moth super- 
intendent and tree warden have been the subject of discussion by many 
people interested in general forestry and the protection of our shade trees; 
and the question has arisen whether or not better results could be ob- 
tained if the two positions should be combined, the office to be called 
town forester, to be appointed by the selectmen, subject to the approval 
of the State Forester. This would be in accordance with the present 
manner of appointing the local moth superintendent and the forest warden. 

No one has appreciated more than I the splendid interest which has 
been manifested by most of our cities and towns in all that pertains to 
forestry and insect suppression work. Yet I firmly believe that if the 
responsibility for the proper management of the trees in each municipality 
were imposed upon one competent person selected in the manner sug- 
gested above, it would remove all possibihty of conffict of authority such 
as now exists, and put the whole problem of tree protection on a much 
firmer and more practical basis. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



25 



As State Forester I am frankly stating my personal views on this ques- 
tion, based upon several years' experience in observing the operation of the 
present laws. In entertaining this opinion I am not moved by any desire 
for further power or authority; neither do I wish to shirk any respon- 
sibility which would benefit the work in which I am engaged for the people 
of the Commonwealth. 

Personally convinced of the wisdom of such a change, I desire to ascer- 
tain as far as possible whether or not the suggested change in the law 
would meet with the approval of the selectmen throughout the State, and 
if so whether they would be willing to give it their support. 

Very truly yours, 

F. W. Pane, 
State Forester. 

In response to this letter the department has 208 acknowledg- 
ments signed in most cases by the whole board, and of this 
number only 21 towns are opposed while 187 are favorable to 
such a change. 

The same matter was presented before the annual meeting 
of the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture on December 
5, and after a thorough discussion they passed the following 
resolve : — 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of the State Board of Agriculture that 
the office of tree warden should be made an appointive office; the appoint- 
ment to be made by the board of selectmen in the same manner and under 
the same regulations as the appointment of moth superintendent and 
forest wardens in cities and towns. 

The subject was taken up by the Massachusetts Tree 
Wardens and Foresters Association at their annual meeting 
last winter, and it was voted that a committee of six members, 
three from this association and three from the Massachusetts 
Forestry Association, consider the matter and report upon the 
same. 

At a special meeting of the Massachusetts Tree Wardens 
and Foresters Association, held at Worcester on December 13, 
at which time the subject was reported upon, the following 
vote was adopted : — 

Voted, That it was the sense of the meeting that we adopt legislation 
similar to Senate Bill No. 308 as presented to the General Court in the 
year 1916, which was as follows: — 



26 THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



An Act to provide for the Appointment op Tree Wardens in Cities and 

Towns. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The mayor and aldermen in cities and selectmen in towns shall 
annually in the month of January, subject to the approval of the state forester, 
appoint a tree warden to serve for the term of one year, or until the appointment 
of a successor. The tree warden, in addition to exercising the powers and duties 
conferred by chapter one hundred and forty-five of the general acts of the year 
nineteen hundred and fifteen, shall serve as the local moth superintendent and shall 
exercise all the powers and duties conferred upon such superintendents by chapter 
six hundred of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and thirteen and amendments 
thereof. 

Section 2. So much of section three htmdred and thirty-four of chapter eleven 
of the Revised Laws and amendments thereof as provides for the election of tree 
wardens in town meetings is hereby repealed. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect on the first day of January in the year 
nineteen hundred and seventeen. 

The Massachusetts State Grange also discussed the same 
subject in public session at their annual meeting in Tremont 
Temple, Boston, on December 14, at which time there were in 
attendance representative farmers from over the whole State, 
and the following resolve was passed: — 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of the Massachusetts State Grange, 
that it is for the best interests of cities and towns, and of the work carried 
on under the departments of tree warden and moth superintendent, that 
the office of tree warden and moth superintendent be made an appointive 
office, the appointment to be made under the same regulations as the ap- 
pointment of moth superintendents. 

The above citations are presented simply to show that the 
recommendation is favored not only by this department but 
by our Massachusetts people generally. 

The benefits to be derived from such an office could be 
discussed at length, but they are so obvious that it seems 
unnecessary to do so. 

AuTO-TRUCK Sprayers. 
With the great amount of roadside spraying necessary, the 
policy that has resulted in aiding many of our towns with 
relatively small liabilities was the so-called traveling sprayer 
system. This was to lay out definite routes and then make 
each sprayer serve a number of towns that otherwise would 
be unable to have the services of such a sprayer. This 
department besides furnishing the sprayer, manned it with 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



27 



a competent engineer, horses and driver, and foreman, while 
the towns, through their local moth superintendent, furnished 
the extra labor and general co-operation necessary. 

This practice has worked remarkably well and given universal 
success, but a study of conditions and experience are valuable 
teachers; and we are convinced that a great saving in time 
and money can be made by the substitution of traveling 
auto-truck sprayers in the place of horse-drawn ones. 

We have had one such sprayer, built by this department in 
1911, which has been in constant use each year, and its value 
on the North Shore, particularly on roadside work, has been 
well recognized. This experiment by this department was the 
beginning of revolutionizing the whole spraying question. 
Since that time, several such sprayers have been built, and 
with the advent of improved auto trucks, the time is ripe for 
their further use. 

The United States government. Bureau of Entomology, 
built an auto-truck sprayer last year for its moth work that 
contains many improvements, and the results therefrom are a 
guarantee as to its value. This year they have already let 
contracts for three more such sprayers with further im- 
provements. 

This department has gone into the subject carefully and 
has decided to purchase three such spraying outfits, which 
will certainly be a big factor in accomplishing results. These 
outfits will take care of a large territory and enable us to 
cover quickly what it now takes many horse-drawn sprayers 
to cover. The present horse-drawn equipments can be used 
for aiding those towns needing such or additional equipment. 

An auto truck can be operated by the engineer, saving 
thereby the expense of a teamster and the quickness with 
which an auto truck can go for water and return, as com- 
pared with a horse-drawn equipment, is a very important item. 

While the first expense is much greater, the fact that these 
trucks can be used at other seasons of the year for many pur- 
poses as auxiliaries, for forest-fire fighting, collecting sprayers 
for overhauling, planting and care of trees on street highways, 
etc., readily shows that their acquisition will be very essential 
in the success of our State forestry work. 



2S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Exhibitions. 

A slightly different method was employed this year in bring- 
ing before the public the work of the department through the 
medium of exhibitions. The underlying motive in so system- 
atizing this branch of forestry publicity was to give the largest 
possible amount of information to the greatest number of 
people. The county fairs seemed to offer the best opportunity 
for the teaching of general forestry methods, and exhibitions 
were installed at each of the following fairs: Marshfield, 
Oxford, Worcester, Fitchburg, Walpole, Reading, North Easton 
and Springfield (National Dairy Show). 

During the week of December 11 to 16 an exhibition was 
given in Tremont Temple, on the occasion of the meeting of 
the State Grange. 

Each exhibition was conducted along lines previously worked 
out, and included gypsy-moth work, forest-fire prevention, 
reforestation, forest improvement thinnings and general for- 
estry. The electrically illuminated transparencies showing 
these different branches of forestry work, which were used at 
the national exhibition at San Francisco last year, proved of 
the greatest advantage from the educational point of view. 
At all of the outdoor gatherings the. latest models of forest- 
fire motor truck and observation tower were placed on ex- 
hibition. 

A Visit to the United States Forest Products Laboratory 
AT Madison, Wis. 
After having had a conference with the United States For- 
ester, Mr. H. S. Graves, on the question of utilization, par- 
ticularly with reference to using the hardwoods in our moth- 
infested woodlands in Plymouth County, the State Forester 
made a trip to Madison, Wis., to consult with experts on the 
subject. Through the good offices of Forester Graves, Dr. 
Howard Weiss, the director of the United States Forest Prod- 
ucts Laboratory, kindly offered the writer every possible 
courtesy, and the few days spent there proved of inestimable 
value. The amount of research that is being undertaken there, 
much of which has far-reaching value, is stupendous. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



To a forester, the many uses for all kinds of woods to 
which these scientists are pointing the way, as well as the 
present and future industries, are extremely interesting. It 
leads one to predict the time, at no great distance, when 
forests and trees in general will cease to be used for lumber 
and fuel, but will have innumerable other uses of far greater 
value. The great numbers of manufactured products that 
are made from wood fiber and w^ood pulp on display at the 
laboratory brought together from all parts of the country 
are certainly worth seeing. Everything from silk stockings and 
neckties to carpets and substitute wicker furniture are on exhi- 
bition. I was interested also in learning that New England 
manufacturers are among the leaders in these industries. The 
director told me of one firm alone that is manufacturing 20 
tons of wrapping twine a day, all of which comes from wood 
pulp. 

What is true of wood fiber products is equally true of wood 
chemical products. Besides charcoal and tar, acetate of lime 
and wood alcohol are some of the more important products 
obtained. 

To secure information more particularly regarding the wood 
chemical products was the purpose of my visit. A very com- 
prehensive knowledge of the whole process was gained, and 
this, together with the information we had already ascertained 
through correspondence with such firms as the Du Pont Powder 
Company, and a visit by my assistant, Mr. Paul D. Kneeland, 
to plants in New York and Pennsylvania, has given us much 
information which we trust may sometime prove valuable. 

Moth-thinning Work. 
Report of Progress during the Past Year. 
The principle of moth thinnings, the removal of moth- 
favored trees as a means of controlling the gypsy moth, has 
found such general adoption that its propaganda and practice 
are no longer confined to one branch of the department. Many 
who ridiculed it at first are now among the leaders in advo- 
cating moth thinnings as the chief means of control for wood- 
land infestations. No one branch of the department is responsi- 



30 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ble for the results obtained, but all have worked together. 
Moth thinnings have passed the test of experience and are now 
as much a matter of routine in most places as is spraying or 
creosoting. In newly infested districts considerable work re- 
mains to be done to demonstrate to owners the value of these 
thinnings. The main efforts of the department are now directed 
towards seeing that they are properly carried out and in aiding 
in the disposal of their product. 

Co-operative Work. 

The policy of direct aid to private owners in carrying 
out these moth thinnings is meeting with sufficient success 
to justify its continuance. The department co-operates with 
private owners by managing these operations and selling the 
product, while the owners furnish the capital necessary for 
carrying out the work properly. In this way the owners have 
the advantage of expert management of their forests without 
charge. The State is well repaid, not only by the control of 
the gypsy moths at slight expense to itself in the area covered 
by the operation, but by the fact, even more important, that 
the land, privately owned, will in the future be managed along 
forestry lines, probably just as much as if the land belonged 
to the State itself. It will never be possible in this country 
for the State to own as large a proportion of the forest lands 
as it does in many European countries. It seems to us that 
by this policy of aiding and co-operating with private land 
owners, the State may be able in the end to have a large pro- 
portion of the forest lands handled as conservatively as if it 
owned them itself. For this reason, the department is now 
branching out to aid not only owners of moth-infested wood- 
land, but all who wish to practice forestry on their land. This 
will be discussed more fully later on. 

The following co-operative operations have been carried on 
during the past year. Some of these have been listed in pre- 
vious reports. If so, work has been continued on them into 
the past year. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 31 



Cooperative Operations. 



Name of Owuer. 


Location. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Character of Operation. 


G. M. Angier 


Marion, . 




15 


Cord wood. 


A. M. Davenport, 


Wellesley, 




11 


Sawmill. 


Arthur D. Delano, . 


Rochester, 




25 


Cordwood. 


W. R. Heady, .... 


Blandford, 




2 


Alder wood. 


C. W. Hubbard, 


Weston, . 




150 


Sawmill, planting, sprajdng. 


F. H. Johnson, .... 


Andover, 




35 


Sawmill. 


C. H. Jones, .... 


Weston, . 




60 


Cordwood, logs. 


Karlstein, 


Dedham, 




10 


Brush, cordwood. 


H. A. Lamb 


Milton, . 




20 


Sawmill, brush, etc. 


New Bedford Water Works, . 


Rochester, 




200 


Sawmill. 


L. V. NUes 


Wellesley, 




20 


Cordwood, logs. 


Horace Packard, 


Stoughton, 




15 


Gray birch, cordwood. 


Wm. E. Putnam, 


Dan vers. 




40 


Logs, wood, brush. 


M. E. Reed. .... 


Milton, . 




14 


Sawmill. 


A. G. Rotch 


Lakeville, 


• 


200 


Sawmill. 


J. J. E. Rothery, 


Sandwich, 




30 


Cordwood, charcoal. 


Jaa. S. Russell, .... 


Milton, . 




150 


Sawmill. 


Ellery Sedgwick, 


Beverly, . 


• 


50 


Cordwood, brush. 


Bartlett heirs 


Needham, 




140 


Sawmill. 


Nathaniel Stevens, . 


North Andover, 




100 


Planting, brush. 


Wheaton College, 


Norton, . 




SO 


Sawmill. 



A total of 1,248 acres was covered in these operations. Over 
2,300,000 feet of lumber and more than 6,000 cords of wood 
were cut, and over 100,000 trees planted. The total capital 
spent by private owners on these operations during the past 
year was about 860,000. The receipts to owners for lumber and 
wood which was sold for them this past year exceeded S75,000. 
Some of this was for material cut in previous years. 

Examinations. 

During the past year 27 moth examinations, which covered 
1,981 acres, were made. These were in 20 different towns, and 
14 written reports were submitted. Besides this a number of 
informal examinations were made on which no records were 
kept. A number of examinations were made by the moth- 



32 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



thinning staff, which were recorded as forestry examinations 
and are so recorded in another section of this report. Seven 
different gatherings were addressed during the year on moth 
thinnings, and considerable publicity work was obtained 
through newspaper articles. 

Better Utilization of Forest Products. 

The farm improvement organizations have been able to 
interest the farmers in more scientific farming by showing them 
better markets for their products and better ways of selling. 
State and government agencies are giving the farmers actual 
and tangible aid along these lines, which is meaning not only 
dollars and cents to the recipients, but better farms and farming 
for the future. It is on exactly the same principle that this 
department is attempting to aid forest owners in the utilization 
of their forest crops. If the owners of forest land become 
more interested in the disposal of their crop, they will show 
more interest in raising and perpetuating it. The lumber- 
man who merely buys stumpage and has no interest or induce- 
ment to keep the land on which this stumpage grows per- 
petually productive, must give way to the landowner who will 
think of the future as well as the present productivity of his 
land if forestry is ever to become anything more than an idea. 

The field in forest utilization is so large that we are able to 
devote ourselves only to specific problems as they arise. A 
certain amount of general investigation is being done to find 
out and index the chief markets for forest products in the State. 
However, that field has been quite well covered in the past. 
Each locality and even each woodlot presents its own problems 
which cannot be worked out from generalities. We have been 
pleased to aid in the solution of a number of such problems 
for forest owners during the past year. The two principal 
problems w^hich now" confront us, and to which we have 
devoted our main energies, are the utilization of oak and of 
chestnut. 

The importance of finding good markets for oak is due to the 
fact that oak is the favored food of the gypsy and brown-tail 
moths. The proportion of oak in the woodland of the eastern 
and southern parts of the State must be greatly reduced before 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



33 



the moths can be successfully checked. The profitable sale of 
this oak, when it is removed, is therefore a vital problem. Oak 
which is large enough to be cut into lumber or ties can be 
disposed of profitably. In certain sections this was doubted 
until through our co-operative operations it was successfully 
demonstrated to be true. However, the bulk of the oak in 
the moth-infested region is only large enough for cordwood. 
The disposal of large quantities of oak cordwood is a necessity 
both for moth control and to save the owners an enormous loss 
due to moth killing. The local markets will not consume more 
than a certain amount, — not as much as will have to be cut 
within the next few years, especially down Cape Cod way. 
Oak wood does not sell very well in the Boston market, where 
cordwood from the northern beech, birch and maple forests is 
in demand. The only possible way seems to be in using it 
in chemical distillation or for charcoal, so these two subjects 
have been very thoroughly investigated. 

Wood Distillation. 
Last winter several chemical distillate plants in Pennsyl- 
vania were visited and the whole subject thoroughly gone over. 
Then some of the wood cut in Middleborough was sent to 
Madison, Wis., and tested there in the United States lab- 
oratory, to determine its suitability for chemical distillation. 
Finally, this summer a crew of forestry students covered 
Plymouth County, to map and determine the location and 
extent of the moth-infested oak woodlands. From the data 
thus obtained, it seems that the establishment of a medium 
sized up-to-date wood chemical plant in the southern part of 
the State is a feasible project if the capital necessary for such 
a plant can be obtained, and the landowners of the region can 
be interested suflBciently to assure the plant of an adequate 
supply of wood. A preliminary meeting was held in October 
at which six or seven prominent landowners or lumbermen of 
that region were present. They seemed interested and were 
willing to help raise capital. Nothing further has been done in 
the matter since. This has been due to the fact that it seemed 
unwise to push the matter further at present. THe unprec- 
edented shortage of labor and the present demand for and 



34 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



high price of wood of all kinds, due to the coal and labor 
shortage, have been the cause. Whether anything further can 
or will be done remains to be seen. All the facts and data 
obtained are open to the inspection of any one who may be 
interested in this matter. 

Charcoal. 

Charcoal is one of the products of wood distillation, it being 
the residue after the other products are roasted out of the 
wood. Charcoal has been produced for ages in open sod kilns 
and the other products allowed to go to waste in the form of 
smoke. A little charcoal is still made in this way in southern 
Massachusetts. In order not to leave any stone unturned in 
the solution of the cordwood problem, it was decided to experi- 
ment in the making of charcoal in sod kilns, and by the data 
and experience thus gathered to determine whether or not 
this opened a market for at least some of the wood. Mr. J. 
J. E. Rothery of Boston, who owns a large tract of land in 
Sandwich and iMashpee, kindly consented to co-operate with 
us in such an experiment. His land is situated 6 or 7 miles 
from the railroad in a locality where there is a large amount 
of standing oak wood and a very small local market for it if 
cut. His land, like the surrounding areas, was seriously moth 
infested and some of the trees were already killed. Labor is 
scarce and expensive in that region, and by this combination of 
circumstances his wood would not be worth the cutting if sold 
through the usual channels. Therefore, by putting his wood 
into charcoal, it did not seem as if there would be much to lose, 
and there might be a gain. However, his condition is similar 
to that of owners of thousands of acres in that region. One 
hundred and twenty-five cords were cut for this experiment, 
which will be sufficient to make about 5,000 bushels of char- 
coal. The wood is being coaled at this writing, so we cannot 
yet give the results of the experiment. However, the price of 
charcoal is now high, and it seems from the present prospects 
that we shall be able to show a profit to the owner for his wood 
when the experiment is finished, — perhaps a substantial one. 
We should be glad to co-operate with other owners along similar 
lines. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



3.3 



Chestnut Utilization. 
The chestnut bhght is steadily advancing and no ray of hope 
in checking its ravages has yet appeared. In places its advance 
seems slower than anticipated, and in others more rapid. The 
blight is most prevalent in the western part of the State. All 
we can do is to aid the owners of chestnut growth in the sale 
and removal of their trees and in starting different species on 
their land. To make this aid more real and efficient we have 
inaugurated a policy of co-operative operations with owners 
of chestnut woodlands similar to what we are doing in moth- 
infested woodlands. However, to receive our aid the o'^Tier 
must agree to take measures which will insure a continued 
forest growth on the area (as planting, if necessary and advis- 
able). This work is done under the general forestry law, which 
requires that the owner pay the expenses of travel and main- 
tenance of the one who supervises the operation. However, 
it is not anticipated that this expense will be very onerous. 
By the experience in utilization gained in these operations we 
hope to be of great practical aid to other owners who do not 
need our aid in cutting their chestnut. Fortunately, at the 
present time the market for chestnut lumber of all kinds is 
good, and the prices are favorable. We are advising all owners 
to cut now when the market is high. After things settle down 
again, the continued ravages of the blight will force large 
quantities of chestnut on the market with, we fear, a dis- 
astrous effect on prices. We shall welcome calls from any owner 
of chestnut, and can furnish him with considerable assistance 
in the sale of his lumber or wood. 

Alder W^ood. 

Another experiment in utilization, which has aroused con- 
siderable interest, was conducted this year. Just now, due to 
the war, there is a big demand for alder wood, which is used 
in the manufacture of black powder. There is considerable 
alder growing in Berkshire County and other parts of the 
State. It is generally considered a nuisance, since it springs 
up in the rich, moist soils, and makes an almost impenetrable 
thicket. Many farmers spend odd hours in cutting and burning 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



it up in brush heaps. Years ago in certain localities it was cut 
and hauled to a powder factory just over the Connecticut line. 
One mill near Concord, Mass., has always bought it, but most 
of their supply has come from New York State. In searching 
for a larger supply, they got in communication with this 
department, and we decided to try and see if an alder wood 
industry could be started profitably in this State. Judge W. 
R. Heady of Springfield, who has an estate in Blandford, con- 
sented to furnish the capital for this experiment, while this 
department managed it. One carload of alder was cut and 
shipped, and the figures showed that he obtained a profit 
above all expenses of about S2 a cord. This is not very much, 
but is better than having the material go to waste or even be 
an expense as before. 

The figures of the experiment are as follows: The powder 
mill paid $12.50. a cord for the peeled alder wood delivered. 
The bark is used as a dye, and was sold at $35 a ton on the 
cars. Fifteen cords of peeled wood should give about a ton 
of bark. The cutting and peeling of the wood is the chief 
expense, it being quite a task to remove the bark. In this 
operation it was done by hitting the stick with a wooden 
spud, which, in the spring and summer, causes the bark to 
come off quite readily. At other times the peeling is done 
with a draw shave. This was done at a rate of $5 a cord 
by some ambitious but inexperienced college students, who 
furnished the only labor that could be obtained. They did 
not make very much money at it, but it seemed that expe- 
rienced labor could at least make a day wage at that price, 
getting perhaps a half-cord a day. The collecting and bagging 
of the bark was a further expense. It all had to be hauled 8 
miles over very poor roads to be loaded on the cars. The 
freight cost about $2 a cord, the railroads having granted a 
special commodity rate on our application. The conclusions 
drawn from the experiment are that if labor can be obtained 
under fairly favorable conditions, the cutting of alder wood 
should prove profitable. If farmers or their families could 
do it in spare hours, it should prove quite remunerative, 
although of course not any bonanza. We should be glad to 
give further and more specific information on the subject to 
any who are interested. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 



37 



Publications in Preparation. 

Two bulletins are in preparation, the data for which have 
been collected largely during the past year. It is hoped that 
they will be ready for publication within a few months. Both 
throw light upon moth-thinning problems. One is to be on 
the "Forests of Plymouth County.'* In character and scope it 
will be similar to the one just published on Worcester County. 
The work was undertaken at this time in preference to other 
counties of the State in order to aid in combating the moths 
in that section. We desired a more thorough knowledge of 
forest conditions and composition in order better to realize and 
foresee the moth infestation in the woodlands of the county. 
This work was especially useful in helping to ascertain the prac- 
ticability of a chemical wood plant in that section. By the 
rough estimate obtained in making the field data for this bul- 
letin, we were assured that there was a sufficient supply to keep 
such a plant busy. In the preparation of this bulletin special 
efforts have been made to study and describe all markets of and 
possible places for the sale of wood and lumber. The field 
data were obtained by a crew of forestry students, who made 
traverses of the towns in half-mile strips this past summer. They 
lived in tents which were moved from town to town as they 
proceeded and meals were provided by a cook, who had charge 
of the camp. In this way the work was done more rapidly 
and economically than had been possible previously w^here only 
one or two men mapped a town and boarded around at places 
perhaps inaccessible to their work. 

The other bulletin is on "The Utilization of Oak," and will 
embody all the experience and accumulated data collected 
during the past four years. The purpose of this bulletin will 
be to bring a knowledge of the uses of oak to the ordinary 
forest owner, so that he may be able to see in a standing oak 
tree or forest what it may be most profitably and economically 
converted into when cut. 



3S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Labor Problem. 

The main difficulty of woods work this fall and winter has 
been to find labor for carrying it on. We have aided a number 
of owners who wished to carry on forestry work on their 
places in finding such labor. 

Program for the Coming Year. 
The moth thinning and utilization work begins the year with 
plans for larger service to the forest owners of the State. With 
field agents resident in the southern and western parts of the 
State, we shall have the facilities for co-operating in forestry 
operations of any kind, which we have never had before. W^e 
shall be able to give substantial and prompt aid to all owners 
who desire to practice forestry on their lands, or who are suf- 
fering from the ravages of insect or fungus pests. Our aim 
will be to popularize forestry by practical means, by showing 
that in actual operations it pays. 

Private Co-operative Forest Examination Work. 
We have made more examinations this year than ever before, 
with the exception of 1912. It is inevitable that a scare con- 
cerning the danger of some new tree insect or disease brings 
a number of landowners into this office asking for an examina- 
tion of their woodlands to see whether their trees are infested 
with the new pest. In 1912 it was the swift invasion of 
the chestnut bark disease which aroused the sudden interest 
of the owners, and during the past year it was the publicity 
given the threatening invasion of the white pine blister rust 
which sent numerous letters, telephone calls, office visitors 
and examination applications to this office. It is not to be 
supposed that all the assistance given private landowners by 
this department is included in the accompanying table. Many 
examinations are made by the woodlot utilization branch of 
our department and also by our district moth superintendents, 
but as these men keep no special record of such examinations 
they are not listed. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



39 



In addition to the examination of private lands a few jobs 
of brush clearing and light thinning were supervised by the 
foresters of the general forestry branch of this department, as 
follows: — 

Acres. 

Mr. Jas. H. Barnard, Norwell, 10 

Mr. H. G. Pratt, Shirley, 12 

Brockton Poor Farm, 10 

Mr. Geo. A. Parker, Halifax, 5 

Mr. H. W. Smith, North Grafton (two operations), 150 



The great bulk of this supervised operating work, however, 
is done by our woodlot operating division, whose work you 
will find described elsewhere in this report. 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 




1917.] PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 73. 41 

List of Foeest Examinations, 1916. 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 


Problem. 


Attleboro Trust Company, 


Attleboro, 


4 


Thinning. 


Ames, T. W 


Dedham, 


12 


Thinning and planting. 


Annes, Elanor M 


Deerfield, 


65 


Thinning. 


Baker, Daniel W 


Phillipston, . 


30 


Thinning. 


Barnard, J. H., 


Norwell, 


10 


Thinning and planting. 


Beal, H. W 


Shrewsbury, . 


20 


Thinning and planting. 


Bird. C. S 


East Walpole, 


40 


Thinning and planting. 


Bullard, Wm. N 


Lenox, . . . 


225 


Thinning and blister rust. 


Cheney, W. B., . 

Craig, David 


Brimfield, 
WeUesley, 


50 
5 


Estimate, thinning and plant- 
ing. 

Thinning and blister rust. 


Curtis, Miss R. E., . 


Brighton, 


- 


Disease and thinning. 


Cushman, Mrs. Mary E., . 


Amherst, 


3 


Cutting. 


Ciishman, Mr., .... 


Hubbardston, 


25 


Thinning. 


Dana, A. P 


WeUesley, 


40 


Thinning. 


Danvers State Hospital, . 
Davenixjrt, Alfred, . 


Danvers, 
Boxford, 


500 
2 


Thinning, planting and gen- 
eral. 
Blister rust. 


Davison, C. S., ... 


South Williamstown, 


20 


Cutting and estimate. 


Denegre, Walter B., . 


West Manchester, . 


5 


Blister rust. 


Department of Public Works, . 


Attleboro, 


20 


Thinning and planting. 


Ellis, Geo. H 


West Newton, 


900-1,000 


Thinning and planting. 


Ellis Memorial Camp, 


Sharon, . 


250 


Thinning and planting. 


Endicott, Wm. C 


Danvers, 


200 


Blister nist. 


Felton, Frederick L., 


Bolton, . 


200 


Chestnut blight. 


Fogg, Horace, .... 


Norwell, 


25 


Thinning. 


Fulley, Mrs. Marj' G., 


Deerfield, 


30 


Estimate and thinning. 


Gillett, Louis B., . 


WUbraham, . 


35 


Estimate and cutting. 


Hobbs, W. D 


Shrewsbury, . 


25 


General and thinning. 


Heady, Wallace R 


Blandford, 


30 


Estimate of alder. 


Harriman, C. S 


North Wilmington, 


60 


Planting. 


Harris, R. 


East Bridgewater, . 


2 


Thinning. 


Higginson, H. L., . 


West Manchester, . 


65 


General. 


Howe, Mrs. N, L., 








Jewett, C. H 


Pepperell, 


60 


Thinning. 


Johnson, R. E., ... 


Barre, 


25 


Taxation. 


Kilboume, Dr., 


Groton, . 


125 


Estimate and thinning. 


Kirkham, Edward, . . . 


Holliston, 


100 


Thinning. 


Lane, Emory W 


Waltham, 


12 


Planting. 



42 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Examinations, 1916 — Continued. 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Problem . 


I>eoniiii8ter, city of, Poor Fsnn, 


L/Sominster, . . 


41 


Thinning. 


Lyman, S. B., .... 


Athol, . 


45 


Thinning. 


Marshall, Lewis, 


Walpole, . 


5 


Thinning and planting. 


Metcalf, Louisa A., . 


Franklin, 


45 


Estimate. 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Westborough, 


340 


Thinning and planting. 


Millis, town of, .... 


Millis, . 


100 


Blister rust. 


Overseers of the Poor, 


Brockton, 


10 


Planting. 


Oveson, R. H., .... 


Southborough, 


20 


General. 


Palmer, Bradley, 


Ipswich, . 


10 


Blister rust. 


Parker, Geo. A., 


Halifax, . 


20 


Thinning and planting. 


Parker, Samuel T., . 


Wakefield, 


Vi 


Insect and fungus. 


Pearson, Benjamin, . 


Byfield, . 




Weevil and blister rust. 


Perkins, Harry S., 


East Boxford, 


25 


Thinning. 


Perry, J. C, et al, . 


Shelburne Falls, . 




Tree disease. 


Pickman, Dudley L., 


Bedford, 


200 


Blister rust. 


Pitman, Benj. F., 


Marion, . . 


5 


Blister rust. 


Powell, J. W., . . . 


Quincy, . . . 




Thinning. 


Pratt, H. J 


Harvard, 


46 


Thinning. 


Prescott, C. W 


Concord, 


10 


Blister rust. 


Proctor, F. L 


Wellesley , 


40 


Blister nist. 


Putnam, Wm. E., . 


Danvers, 


60 


Thinning and planting. 


Rolfe, W. A., . 


Boxford, 




General and blister rust. 


Saltonstall, R. M., . 


Sherborn, 


125 


Thinning. 


Seagrave, Arthur, 


Uxbridge, . . 


20 


Thinning. 


Sears, Philip, .... 


Brookline, 


10 


Thinning. 


Sedgvidck, Ellery, 


Beverly, . 


165 


Thinning. 


Town Farm, .... 


Sharon, . 


5 


Planting. 


Skinner, Joseph A., . 


South Hadley, 


5 


Planting. 


Stiles, Wayne, .... 


Huntington, . 


40 


Thinning and estimate. 


Swampscott Park, . 


Swampscott, . 


20 


Planting. 


Taft, Geo. S., . 


Uxbridge, 


6 


Thinning. 


Tunxis Club, .... 


Tolland, . 


6,000 


Heavy thinning. 


Vaughn, Aubrey W., 
Walpole High School, 


Sturbridge, 
Walpole, . 


40 
150 


Chestnut blight, thinning and 

planting. 
Thinning and planting. 


Walpole, town of , . . . 


Walpole, . 




Thinning and planting. 


Welschendorf, Geo. E., . 
Ward, Maria J., ... 


East Bridgewater, . 
Norfolk, . 


40 
10 


Thinning, planting and blister 
rust. 

General and estimate. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 

List of Forest Examinations, 1916 — Concluded. 



43 



Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acresj . 


Problem. 


Watertown Arsenal, . 


Watertown, 


2 


Planting. 


Westborough State Hospital, . 


Westborough, 


- 


Blister rust. 


Wetherell, L. C, . . ' . 


West Mansfield, . 


50 


Taxation. 


Winsor, Robert, 


Weston, . 


- 


Chestnut bark disease. 


Winsor, Robert, 


Weston, . 


350 


Chestnut bark disease. 


Whitney, By am, 


Princeton, 


60 


Planting. 


Elizabeth Peabody House, 


Sharon, . 


30 


Thinning. 


Fenno, Ed. N., .... 


Falmouth, 


150 


Thinning. 


Wilson, Wm. P., 


Bourne, . 




Blister rvist. 


Brand, I., 


South Billerica, 


35 


Thinning. 


Schaff, Morris, .... 


Southborough, 


80 


Brushing and planting. 


Clark, Miss Jennie, . 


Lowell, . 


20 


Improvement thinning. 


Total, 




11,640 





Where areas are not given, the examination was of shade and ornamental trees. 



Reforestation Work. 
The work of taking over and reforesting cut over woodlots 
and old pastures under the reforestation law has been held 
somewhat in check during the past two years by the fact that 
the new policy of purchasing large contiguous tracts under 
the title of State forests was just being inaugurated. It was 
thought best not to acquire land under two systems at one 
time until both at least were well established and recognized. 
The State forest system is now well established, and it can be 
seen that the State forests and plantations each fill different 
places in our work of reclaiming waste lands, and in fact the 
one complements the other. We, therefore, feel justified in 
taking up the reforestation work again as it has been carried 
on in the past. 

We have purchased two small lots, one of 30 acres in Barn- 
stable adjoining the Shoot Flying Hill tower, and another of 10 
acres. The remaining lots were granted to us without cost and 
with the privilege of redemption on the part of the owner. The 
statistics of the new planting and auxiliary work done will be 
found in the follow^ing table. This does not include work done 
on State forests, which is described in another place. 



44 ' THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



New Work, 1916. 



Num- 
ber. 


Name. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Planted 
(Acres) ^ 


Brushed 
(Acres). 


Number 
of Trees 
set. 


122 
129 
126 
127 
124 
130 
125 
132 
128 


Simpkine, 
Simpkins, 

omitn, .... 
Hanson, 

Morgan 

Johnson, Mrs. Caroline, 
Johnson, Adolph, . 
Herrick, 


Yarmouth, 

Yarmouth, 

Ashburnham, . 

Ashburnham, 

Marlborough, 

Hubbardston, , 

Dana, 

Dana, 

Lynnfield, . 


40 
22 
32 

95 
95 
11 
10 
7 


40 
22 
32 

45 
70 
11 
10 
7 


40 
22 
32 

35 
7 


40.000 
20,000 
32,000 
18,000 
45,000 
22,000 
9,000 
8,000 
7,000 








337 


262 


136 


201,000 



In addition to the new planting we have cut brush and 
filled in where trees have died on older plantations, as listed 
in the second table. 



Maintenance Work, 1916. 



Num- 
ber. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Replanted 
(Trees). 


Brushed 
(Acres). 


t 

Fire Line 
(Rods). 


67 
68 


Buckland, 

Buckland 


166 
11 


2,000 
8,000 






53 


Hubbardston, 


34 




34 




16 


Westminster, 


39 






100 


60 


Kingston, 


140 




120 




54 


Wellfleet, 


8 


7,000 


8 




27 


Gardner 


93 






85 


79 


Gardner, 


87 






36 


63 


Lancaster, 


74 


10,000 






22 
26 


Hubbardston, 

Templeton 


10 

60. 






70 
50 


46 


Oakham, 


115 


23,000 


30 




13 


Spencer, 


5^ 




5M 


140 




Totals 


842 


50,000 


198 


481 





The State Forester's nursery at Barnstable. This nursery supplies the stock for the 
whole Cape Cod section of the State. Three hundred seed beds. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



45 



NuKSERY Work. 
Our nursery policy, which was more or less settled last year, 
has been more fully carried out this year. This policy is to 
maintain at Amherst and Barnstable nurseries in which to raise 
all our seedling stock and such transplants as there may be 
room for, and to set in auxiliary transplant nurseries the excess 
supply of seedling stock. Our chief auxiliary nursery is at the 
State Farm in Bridgewater, where the labor is furnished by the 
inmates of the farm, and the only expense to us is the time 
of one foreman in managing the work. We are indebted to 
Captain Blackstone, the superintendent, and Mr. McRea, the 
farm manager, for their active interest and co-operation in this 
work. On the Otter River and the Myles Standish forests we 
have established small nurseries for the purpose of raising 
transplants to be set out on the reservations. These nurseries 
are easily cared for by the men employed on the forests. At 
the Norfolk State Hospital a small nursery was started, more 
for demonstration purposes than for practical use. We were 
able to reduce our nursery costs below that of 1915 in spite of 
the fact that a small motor truck has been added to our nursery 
equipment. 

At the State Farm nursery all the white pine transplant stock 
on hand in the spring, amounting to 150,000 trees, was shipped 
out for field planting, and 700,000 Scotch pine seedlings were 
put in their place. In the fall 300,000 more Scotch pine seed- 
lings were added to this number of transplants. 

From the Amherst nursery we shipped 233,000 transplants 
for planting on our own lands, and 550,000 seedlings and 72,000 
transplants were sent outside of the department. We trans- 
planted about 1,000,000 two-year seedlings in the nursery and 
shipped out 200,000 seedlings for transplanting in auxiliary 
nurseries. Under the direction of Professor Clark at the Agri- 
cultural College some fertilization experiments were tried. 

From the Barnstable nursery 56,000 transplants were shipped 
for department planting, and 16,000 for outside planting. Over 
1,000,000 Scotch pine seedlings were sent to the State Farm 
nursery for transplanting there. 



46 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Stock shipped for Planting on Reforestation Lots and State 

Forests, 1916. 



1^ UXtDJiiAZ • 


Op6C16S* 


Class. 


\JJAXIJ\3I. » 


Amherst, 


White pine, 


3-year transplants, . 


4,000 


Amherst 


White pine, 


4-year transplants, . 


146,000 


Amherst 


Red pine, . 


4-year transplants, . 


65,000 


Amherst, 


Spruce, 


4-year transplants, . 


10,000 


Amherst, 


Ash 


2-year seedUngs, 


3,000 


Amherst , 


Larch, 


3-year transplants, .. 


6,350 


Barnstable, 


White pine, 


4-year transplants, . 


56,000 


State Farm 


White pine, 


4-year transplants, . 


97,000 


Total 






386,350 




Stock shipped for Transplanting in Special Nurseries, 1916. 


NuKSERT. 


Species. 


Class. 


Number. 




White pine, 


2-year seedlings, 


280,000 




Scotch pine, 


2-year seedlings, 


1,000,000 











N\imber shipped for planting on reforestation lots and State forests, 386,350; niunber shipped 
for transplanting in special nurseries, 1,280,000; total niunber, 1,666,350. 



Stock bought from Other Nurseries, 1916. 



Bought fbom — 


Species. 


Class. 


Nvma- 
ber. 


Shipped to — 


Keene Forestry Company, . 
New England Forestry Company, 
New England Forestry Company, 
American Forestry Company, 

Total 


White pine, . 
White pine, . 
Red pine, . 
Sugar maple. 


4-year transplants, 
4-year transplants, 
4-year transplants, 
2-year seedlings, . 


7,000 
5,000 
30,000 
1,000 


Ashbur nham . 
Winchendon. 
Winchendon. 
Dana. 


43,000 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 47 

Stock shipped Outside Department, 1916. 



Consignee. 


Species. 


Class. 


Num- 
ber. 


Nursery. 


Metropolitan Park Commission, 


White pine. 


2-year seedlings, . 


200,000 


Amherst. 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


White pine. 


2-year seedlings, . 


150,000 


Amherst. 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Scotch pine. 


2-year seedlings, . 


100,000 


Amherst. 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Red pine, 


2-year seedlings, . 


100,000 


Amherst. 


Boston State Hospital, 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


100 


Amherst. 


Boston State Hospital, 


Norway spruce, 


4-year transplants. 


100 


Amherst. 


Boston State Hospital, 


Larch, 


4-year transplants, 


100 


Amherst. 


Moth department, 


White pine, 


4-year transplants. 


21,000 


Amherst. 


Moth department. 


Red pine. 


4-year transplants, 


10,100 


Amherst. 


Moth department. 


Spruce, 


4-year transplants. 


8,300 


Amherst. 


Grafton State Hospital, 


White pine, ' . 


4-year transplants. 


5,000 


Amherst. 


T. W. Ames 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


500 


Amherst. 


Hudson Water Board, 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


10,000 


Amherst. 


Dan vers State Hospital, . 


Red pine, 


4-year transplants, 


2,000 


Amherst. 


F. C. Haskins 


White pine, 


4-year transplants, 


4,000 


Amherst. 


F. C. Haskins 


Red pine. 


4-year transplants, 


500 


Amherst. 


Harry W. Smith, 


Red pine. 


4-year transplants, 


5,000 


Amherst. 


Harry W. Smith, 


Spruce, 


4-year transplants. 


5,000 


Amherst. 




White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


150 


Amherst. 


City of Marlborough, 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


1,000 


Amherst. 


Attleboro Board of Public Works, 


Norway spruce. 


4-year transplants, 


1,000 


Barnstable. 


North Shore Improvement So- 
ciety. 

Watertown Arsenal, . ' . 


Norway spruce, 
Spruce, 


4- year transplants, 

5- year transplants. 


2,000 
300 


Barnstable. 
Barnstable. 


Brockton Overseers of the Poor, 


White pine, 


4-year transplants. 


9,500 


Barnstable. 


Brockton Overseers of the Poor, 


Spruce, 


4-year transplants. 


2,000 


Barnstable. 


Brockton Overseers of the Poor, 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


1,000 


Barnstable. 


Attleboro Public Works, . 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


7,000 


State Farm. 


North Shore Improvement So- 
ciety. 

Simpson estate, . . . . 


White pine, 
^^hite pine. 


4-year transplants, 
4— year transplants. 


8,000 
10,000 


State Farm 
State Farm 


North Shore Improvement So- 
ciety. 

Attleboro Board of Public Works, 


Spruce, 
White pine. 


4-year transplants, 
4-year transplants. 


2,000 
7,000 


State Farm 
State Farm 


Simpson estate, .... 


White pine. 


4-year transplants. 


10,000 


State Farm 


F. C. Haskins, .... 


White pine, 


4-year transplants. 


7,500 


State Farm 


Total 






690,050 





48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The inventory of our various nurseries shows that we have 
640,000 four and five year transplants on hand for field planting 
next season. We have nearly 3,000,000 three-year transplants, 
but do not plan to use more than a few of this class in field 
planting, preferring to let them become four years old. We 
have approximately 2,000,000 two-year seedlings which next 
year must be transplanted, and 627 beds now one year old. 



Inventory of Stock, State Forest Nurseries, 1916. 
Barnstable. 



Species. 


5- Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


4-Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


3-Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


3-Year 
Seedlings. 


2-Year 
Seedlings 
(Beds). 


1-Year 
Seedlings 
(Beds). 


White pine, 




150.000 


125,000 




166 


260 


Red pine 




75.000 


125,000 


15,000 






Austrian pine, . 




20,000 


10,000 


35,000 






Scotch pine. 








300,000 


25 


80 


Spruce, .... 


50,000 




225.000 




15 


60 


Douglas fir, . . . 






60,000 








Larch, .... 






15,000 






5 


Arbor vitae. 






25.000 








Norway maple. 






2,000 








Totals, 


50,000 


245.000 


585,000 


350,000 


206 


405 



Norfolk State Hospital. 


White pine. 






50,000 








State Farm, Bridgewater. 


Scotch pine. 






1,000,000 








Otter River State Forest. 


White pine. 






150,000 








Myles Standish State Forest. 


Scotch pine. 






40,000 









1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 49 



Inventory of Stock, State Forest Nurseries, 1916 — Concluded. 

Amherst. 





5-Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


4-Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


3-Year 
Trans- 
plants. 


3-Year 
Seedlings. 


2-Year 

S66cllings 
(Beds). 


1-Year 

Seedlings 
(Beds). 


White pine, 




217,000 


1,000,000 




63 


195 


Red pine, .... 




30,000 


35,000 




17 


18 


Scotch pine. 




6,000 


76,000 




19 




Spruce (Norway), 




OA AAA 

39,000 






18 


9 


Hemlock, .... 


- 


3,000 


- 


- 






White ash, 




45,000 










Arbor vitae, 




4,500 










Austrian pine, . 










3 




European larch, 










30 




Totals, 




344,500 


1,111.000 




1501 


222 


Grand totals, 


50,000 


589,500 


2,936,000 


350,000 


356 


627 



1 The 150 two-year seed beds contain approximately 868,500 trees. 



State Forest Administration. 
By law the State Forester is charged with the administration 
of State forests acquired by the Forest Commission, but, as he 
has no appropriation for this purpose, the only money which we 
have been able to devote to this work has been about S3, 500, 
which has been taken in part from the nursery fund and in part 
from the general fund of the department, which otherwise could 
have been spent for salaries, traveling and general office ex- 
penses. To use this money on State forests we must necessarily 
curtail our other lines of work which should legitimately be 
carried out. The money spent by this department has been put 
on the Otter River forest. The State Forest Commission has 
from its own funds done considerable work on the Myles 
Standish forest in Plymouth, but, as their funds are intended 
for land purchase and contingent expenses, they do not feel 
justified in setting aside any considerable amount for strictly 
forestry work. On the Andover forest no work whatever has 
been done. It must be strongly urged therefore that an appro- 
priation of $20,000 be provided for the reforestation and ad- 
ministration of the State forests which have been and are about 
to be acquired. 



50 THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Otter River Forest 
During the past winter and this fall approximately 70 acres 
have been brush cleared in preparation for planting. During 
the spring about 125,000 transplants were set on 200 acres as 
against 75 acres in 1915. The fire lines built in 1915 have been 
mowed and burned over, the sides of the main highways have 
been cleaned of brush, and some old woods roads have been 
opened up. A small transplant nursery for the purpose of 
raising stock for use on this forest has been established. Those 
owners who sold their lands to the State, reserving cutting 
rights, are making use of those rights this fall, and a serious 
problem is offered to us in the disposal of the slash which they 
leave. The Forest Commission has added to the forest by the 
purchase of one small interior holding of 6 acres. The head- 
quarters house was struck by lightniilg during the summer, but 
the damage was not large. 



Account. 


Labor. 


Teaming. 


Supplies. 




$326 75 








832 38 


$77 81 






1,673 13 








459 50 


4 00 






281 50 




$34 00 




$3,573 26 


$81 81 


$34 00 



Myles Standish Forest, 

Nursery. — In May, 1916, approximately 35,000 two-year- 
old Scotch pine seedlings were set in beds on the reservation. 
These young plants have done well during the past season^ 
proving that any number of young pines needed for future 
planting upon the reservation may be raised in a nursery upon 
the reservation itself if so desired. 

There still remain a few spruce and larch in a formerly used 
nursery upon the reservation that should be planted during the 
coming planting season. 

Plantations. — In May, 1916, approximately 1,500 large white 
pine plants about seven years of age were transferred from a 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



51 



former nursery on the reservation and set out at the usual 
spacing of 6 by 6 feet. Approximately 300 red pine plants four 
years old were set at the same time. Although the white pines 
were much larger and older than plants usually set in planta- 
tions, about 99 per cent, of those set have lived. 

Road Clearing. — During the past year about 16 to 18 miles 
of unused and nearly unused roads that had become choked up 
with brush and pitch pine were cleared. Many of these roads 
have been grubbed over, thereby making them usable for the 
quick transportation by teams or automobiles of fire equipment. 
The clearing of these roads has made nearly all parts of the 
reservation much more accessible. 

Also, approximately 7 miles of the exterior boundary lines 
were cleared in the spring to a width of 15 feet. This boundary- 
line work should be continued when funds are available for the 
purpose. 

A Western Massachusetts Forestry Office. 

We have had the privilege of putting into operation this past 
year a plan which we have for some time had in view. We 
have placed a forester in Springfield for the purpose of handling 
the forest examinations, planting work and woodlot operations 
in that end of the State. The fire warden and gypsy moth 
divisions of this department both have several sectional superin- 
tendents, but all forestry work in the past has been handled 
directly from Boston headquarters. It has been impossible for 
us to give adequate attention to the large forestry needs of the 
western end of the State, and the private landowners desiring 
examinations of their property have been under the necessity of 
paying the traveling expenses of the forester from Boston, while 
now such expenses will only be counted from Springfield. This 
same saving applies to the work of the department. 

The co-operation of the Hampden County Improvement 
League has helped materially to make this plan possible. They 
have supplied our assistant with free oflBce quarters and service 
in their rooms in Springfield. The young man chosen for this 
situation is Mr. C. R. Atwood, a graduate of the forest school 
of the University of Maine, who for more than a year past has 
been a field foreman in our woodlot operating service. 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Publications. 

No new publications have been put out during the year, but 
the data for the extensive investigation of the forest conditions 
of Worcester County commenced in 1913 have been completed 
by the survey of six towns which had not been previously done 
and the condensing of the complete data into a bulletin which 
is now in the hands of the printer and which we expect to 
appear in a few weeks. 

A fifth edition of our popular bulletin, "Forest Trees of 
Massachusetts," which has been out of print for nearly a year 
has come from the press and is ready for distribution. 

Financial Statement. 



Purchase and Planting of Forest Lands. 

Appropriation for 1916, S10,000 00 

Check returned, T. F. Webber, .... 12 00 

Expenditures:- ^1^,012 00 

Pay roU, S8,810 85 

Travel, 512 26 

Land, 190 00 

Trees, 12 75 

Freight, teaming, express, 316 78 

Supplies and equipment, 132 61 

Postage, 2 81 

Sundries, 27 45 

10,005 51 

Balance returned to treasur^^ Nov. 30, 1916, . . . $6 49 

State Forester's Expenses. 

Appropriation for 1916, . . . . S21,000 00 

Amount brought forward for overdraft, . . 28 69 

Expenditures:- ' ^21,028 69 

Pay roU, S8,083 22 

Travel, 2,462 39 

Printing, 385 32 

Stationery and postage, 661 36 

Books, maps, photographs, etc.. . . . • 281 51 

Supplies and equipment, 1,195 82 

Sundries, 216 47 

Xurserj^: — 

Pay roll, 5,490 45 

Travel, 25 92 

Seeds and seedlings, 1,153 64 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



53 



Express, freight, teaming. 
Supplies and equipment, 
Sundries, .... 



$340 72 
147 30 
578 87 



Balance returned to treasury Nov. 30, 1916, 



$21,022 99 
$5 70 



The State Fire Warden's Report. 



Mr. F. W. Rane, State Forester. 

Sir: — In compliance with your request, and in accord with the provisions 
of chapter 722, section 2, Acts of 1911, 1 beg to submit the following report 
of the work accomphshed by this branch of the department this year. 

It is certainly very pleasing to the members of the forest fire service to 
report the decided reduction in fire losses, area burned and cost to extin- 
guish fires since the department was estabhshed in the fall of 1911. The 
forest fire loss during the season of 1911 previous to the establishment of 
this department was $537,729; the average acreage burned over per fire 
was 39.31; and the average damage per fire was $226.24. These losses 
have been gradually reduced each year, our reports this year showing a 
loss of only $44,765, with an acreage burned over per fire of 13.22 and the 
average damage per fire $36.54, while the railroad fire loss has been re- 
duced 96 per cent, from that of 1911. 

With the exception of the drought during a portion of the month of 
May, the season has been very favorable. Our reports show a large 
number of fires during the above month, some of which caused considerable 
damage, notably the one at Loveville in the town of Holden, where several 
buildings were destroyed, but with very little damage to the forest area. 
The fire on Martha's Vineyard, where several thousand acres were burned 
over, caused considerable damage to the heath hen colony. 

While the precipitation was much below normal during September, 
October and November, we did not experience any serious fires. It was 
suggested by certain interests outside this department that Governor 
McCall issue a proclamation declaring a close season for hunting, but con- 
ditions did not seem to warrant such an extreme measure. The Governor's 
secretary, however, issued the following warning the day previous to the 
opening of the season: — 

The Governor feels that while the State Forester does not report that there is a 
special danger from fires on account of the drought, yet he deems it best to caution 
people who are in the woods during the hunting season to take great care against 
the starting or spreading of fires. The fire warden and his deputies and the game 
commissioners have been instructed to take careful observation and to report to 
the Governor, and if it should appear from their reports that there was danger of 
fire, His Excellency would feel called upon to suspend the open season until con- 
ditions improved. 

While our reports show an increased number of fires during the entire 
hunting season, through the efforts of our district wardens and town forest 
wardens in extinguishing them promptly, very Httle damage was caused. 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The same arrangement of fire districts has been maintained again this 
year. Several new towers have been erected and a number of the old 
towers have been repainted and suppHed with additional equipment. 
The permit law as amended during the past session of the Legislature^ 
requiring permits in every city and town, has given general satisfaction. 
Making its appUcation universal throughout the State has helped very 
materially in the prosecution of violators, and the law has been more 
generally respected than in pre^-ious years. 

The law relative to the disposal of slash and brush following wood or 
lumber operations has not accomplished the results that I anticipated 
when it was enacted two years ago. The trouble seems to be in its enforce- 
ment. Wardens are allowed no compensation for the work and in many 
cases local affairs enter in, so that it is really impossible in many towns to 
have proper enforcement of the law. It seems ver^- necessaiy^ that the 
law be amended, giving this department the same authority that is vested 
in the town forest warden relative to the enforcement of it. 

The establishment of a fire protective sj-stem for the protection of our 
recently purchased State forests has become necessarj' this year, and while 
this department has had a veiy limited amount of money that could be 
expended for this purpose, through an appropriation made by the land pur- 
chasing board, it was possible to brush out the survey lines and roads and 
distribute tool boxes equipped with forest fire-fighting apparatus and bar- 
rels filled with water throughout the Miles Standish Reser^'ation in Car^^er 
and PhTQouth. The roads and sur^'ey lines make excellent fire lines and 
means of getting additional fire-fighting equipment to any fire that may 
occur on the reser%'ation. We should have on this reservation, as soon as 
funds are available, a small motor truck for carn-ing fire-fighting equip- 
ment, so that no time may be lost in getting to a fire. 

In order that we might better demonstrate to the public the importance 
and necessity of having a motor truck for use at forest fires, we purchased 
a small truck and equipped it with three double forester pumps, six extin- 
guishers, five one-man pumps, ten 5-gaUon Marshfield cans for water, six 
shovels, six wire brooms, two axes and two grub hoes. In addition to the 
above, the truck was so arranged as to cany from ten to fifteen men. 
This makes an ideal equipment for small towns at a very reasonable cost. 
The truck was on exhibition at many of the fairs throughout the State 
this fall. 

The towns of Pa'mer, Xorton, Carlisle and RajTiham purchased similar 
trucks this 3'ear, and several other towns are to make provision at their 
coming town meeting for the purchase of one. During the past j^ear we 
have had one truck located at Westborough under the supervision of the 
district forest warden, with sufficient equipment for assisting small towns 
iu fighting large fires. In Westfield our district forest warden is supplied 
with a trailer fully equipped and ready for any emergency' caU. This 
trailer can be attached to his auto, which carries from five to eight men, 
enabling him to get men and equipment to any dangerous fire in the dis- 
trict prompth'. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIENT — No. 73. 



55 



Forest Warden Conferences. 

During the months of February' and March this department held a 
series of forest warden conferences throughout the State. These were 
held at Pittsfield, Greenfield, Worcester, Fitchburg, Springfield, Lawrence, 
Middleborough and Boston. The object of the meetings was that em- 
ployees of the department might get in closer touch with the town forest 
wardens and selectmen and discuss with them the different methods of 
handling forest fires, the organizing of forest fire-fighting crews, the 'ap- 
pointment of deputies located in the outljdng portions of the various towns, 
and the importance of procuring equipment suitable for forest fire work. 

These meetings were \eTy instructive and were attended by nearly all 
the forest wardens throughout the State, each one being free to discuss 
matters pertaining to his locaHty. Short talks were given by members of 
this department on the general outline of the sj-stem and work. Mr. E. 
A. Rj'der of the Boston & Maine Railroad and Mr. Charles B. Rood of 
the Xew York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad were in attendance, and 
explained fully what these railroads are endeavoring to do in order to 
lessen the damage and expense caused by railroad fires 

The following is a list of observation stations and substations available 
for use at the present time, gi™g the number of fires reported from each 
during the past three j^ears : — 



Fires reported from Observation Stations. 



Station. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


Harwich ... 


35 


31 


20 




14 


42 


7 






13 


9 




54 


114 


28 




— 1 


-1 


-1 


116 


102 


25 




133 


128 


61 




33 


453 


222 




105 


101 


148 




68 


167 


68 




-1 


_i 


-1 




203 


280 


42 




-I 


98 


97 


Wakefield 


174 


263 


40 


Chelmsford 


302 


276 


29 


-I 


213 


26 




96 


272 


3 




-I 


-I 


65 




386 


530 


74 




485 


598 


121 


Petersham, 




-1 


-1 






-1 


-I 




94 


36 


38 


Pelham, 


47 


59 


15 




90 


86 


30 


Chsirlton, 


-1 


-I 


— I 


Mount Tom, 


135 


72 


-1 




130 


104 


38 




11 


13 


1 


Ashfield 


2 


24 


-I 




-1 


-I 


2 




— 1 


-1 


13 






3 


32 




-1 


_i 


11 


Williamstown, 


— I 


56 


8 




3,013 


4,180 


1,273 




> Not ir 


I operation. 







56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



A new 30-foot tower with stairs was erected on Monk's Hill in the town 
of Kingston. This covers the area formerly covered by the tower in 
Pljanouth, and an additional amount of territory to the south and west. 
This station will be in operation during the entire fire season, while the 
Plymouth observation tower will be retained for use as a substation during 
severe droughts. The town of Kingston contributed very liberally towards 
the construct'on of the telephone lines to this tower. 

A new 40-foot tower with stairs was erected on Prospect Hill in Hing- 
ham. The towns of Cohasset, Hingham and Norwell contributed towards 
the purchase price of this tower, which covers an area of about 200,000 
acres. 

Owing to the discontinuance of the Blue Hill Observatory some two 
years ago, it became necessary to change the location of our Bluff Head 
tower to Moose Hill, in order that we might better protect the territory 
formerly protected by the Blue Hill tower. A new 40-foot tower with 
stairs was erected at Moose Hill, the towns of Foxborough, Sharon, Wal- 
pole, Westwood, Stoughton and Dover contributing towards the purchase 
price of this tower. 

The tower formerly on Bluff Head was removed to Chester, where it 
will be erected next year on Holcomb's Hill. This is a 30-foot tower, and 
an extension of 20 feet will be added, giving it an elevation of 50 feet. 

A 30-foot tower which has been in use for the past three years on Becket 
Mountain in the town of Becket has been taken down and removed to 
Lair's Hill in Tolland, where an extension of 20 feet was added. This 
change was made necessary by the erection last year of the tower on Lenox 
Mountain in the town of Lenox, which covered a large amount of territory 
formerly covered by the Becket Tower. 

The old 30-foot tower formerly used at Westborough has been moved to 
Savoy Mountain in the town of Savoy, and a 20-foot extension has been 
added. 

The above three towers are equipped with stairs and an 8-foot room at 
the top. 

A new 40-foot tower with stairs was purchased and cement abutments 
were installed on Watatic Mountain in the town of Ashby, but, owing to 
our Umited appropriation, we were unable to erect the tower this fall. 
This tower will be placed in operation early in the spring. The towns of 
Fitchburg, Townsend, Ashby, Ashburnham and Gardner contributed 
towards the purchase price of this tower. 

It has been necessary to construct several miles of telephone lines in order 
to connect the above stations with the New England Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company system. The construction work of both towers and tele- 
phone lines has been done entirely by our district men, inspectors and 
observers. Owing to the heavy rains during the months of June and July 
we were able to discontinue many of our observation stations and use 
the observers on this construction work. At times when the observers 
were not obliged to be on the lookout stations, I have had many of them 
devote their time to work on roads leading to the t owers, so that it is now 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



57 



possible for auto parties to drive direct to many of our observation sta- 
tions. I hope that this work may be continued, with such assistance as we 
may be able to derive from local parties interested in the project, until all 
our stations are made easily accessible. The county road leading to our 
tower on Mount Everett is nearly completed, $2,600 ha\ang been expended 
by the county of Berkshire this year in its construction. The towers are 
nearly all equipped with stairs so that they are accessible to any one, and- 
our records show a total of nearly 30,000 visitors during the past year. 
We are always pleased to have the public visit them, not only for the 
pleasure they may derive from the beautiful scenery for miles around, but 
also from an educational standpoint. Our observers are very courteous 
and obHging and take pleasure in explaining our system and giving visitors 
a comprehensive idea of what the State is endeavoring to do to suppress 
the forest fire evil. 

New Towers. 

It is necessary that four new stations be estabHshed to cover the State 
entirely and complete the observation system. One station should be 
located on Martha's Vineyard, where we have had serious fires in the past 
with no protection from this department whatever. A new station should 
be located on Prospect Hill in Waltham, which would cover several towns 
that we are unable to cover from any other station, and where we are 
subject to a large number of fires each year. One should be located in the 
vicinity of North Brookfield, where we have a large amount of forested 
area without protection. While we have used Little Mugget Hill for the 
past three years as a substation, it seems necessary, if we are to accomplish 
the best results, that we should erect a small tower in order that we may 
accurately locate fires and also protect our equipment necessary for use in 
such work. 

As our appropriation for forest fire-protection work is only sufficient for 
the maintenance of the present system, it will be necessary to ask the 
several towns that will be benefited by the above stations to raise a suffi- 
cient amount to cover the total cost of construction of the same. I feel 
quite confident that the amounts will be raised and the system completed 
this year. 

The appropriation of $5,000, which has been available each year for the 
past five years for reimbursing towns with a valuation of $1,750,000 or 
less 50 per cent, on forest fire-fighting equipment purchased by them, was 
this year reduced to $2,000 by the General Court. Owing to a large 
number of towns that have already taken up a large portion of their allot- 
ment, it seems fair to assume that this amount, if appropriated each year, 
will be sufficient to meet the future reimbursement bills. As shown by the 
following table the towns this year have been reimbursed to the amount 
of $1,276.74, apportioned throughout the districts as follows: District 
No. 1, $265.55; District No. 2, $463.38; District No. 3, $308; and District 
No. 4, $238.82. All equipment purchased under this appropriation should 
be under the supervision of the town forest warden and is subject to in- 
spection at all times by the State Fire Warden or his assistants. 



58 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement during Year 1916. 



Asnbyt . . . . 


$95 


30 


IN vli XbCaULii-L^i • 


$1 ^7 

• . ®i Ol 


BelliDgham , 


99 


oo 


I^TortrOHy • • • 


94.1 9fi 


i^oxiorai . . . . 


6 


lO 


Otis 


A. 9'i 


Srimfield, 


51 


00 




63 75 


Rrookfieldf . . • 


127 


00 




3 75 


VyUilcviiif • • • • 


43 


75 


Plymptoii| , 


4 73 


£j8«si/ LongmeadoWi . « 


10 


50 




109 13 


Erving, . . . . 


8 


00 


Shirley, 


27 00 


Florida, . . . . 


5 


25 


Southwick, 


20 57 


Gosnold, . . . . 


55 


40 


Upton, 


4 95 


Harwich, . . . . 


16 


00 


West Brookfield, 


99 75 


Holbrook, . . . . 


66 


00 


Westminster, 


5 91 


Lakeville, . . . , 


80 


00 


Windsor, . 


50 00 


Lanesborough, . 


34 


25 






Montgomery, 


17 


00 


Total, 


. $1,276 74 


New Braintree, . 


1 


88 







Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement Act. 



Towns. 


Axes. 


Cans. 1 


Extinguishers. | 


H«s. 1 


Lanterns 1 


Mattocks. j 


Pails. 1 


Pumps. j 


2? 
1 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. | 


Wagons. 1 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Acushnet, 


1 


10 


18 








4 


1 








2 


$250 00 


Ashburnham, 






8 




















25 00 


Ashby, . 






48 








2 


2 




6 




1 


250 00 


Ashfield, 






33 




















99 00 


Ashland, 




24 


10 








12 


8 




6 


24 




85 78 


Auburn, 






83 




















249 00 


Avon, . 




10 










12 












9 90 


Becket, . 




14 


16 










2 






24 




79 50 


Bedford, 


1 


14 


24 


















1 


249 67 


Belchertown, 






46 










1 








1 


211 87 


Bellingham, . 




46 


26 








6 






8 


24 


1 


146 77 


Berkley, 




36 


24 




















162 00 


Berlin, . 


2 


10 


38 








12 




3 


12 




1 


241 45 


Blandford, . 


6 


1 


16 








3 


3 






12 




83 17 


Bolton, . 




14 


33 








6 






6 






126 65 


Boxborough, 


1 


12 


30 






2 






3 


4 


3 


1 


182 80 


Boxford, 




24 


16 
















12 




51 75] 


Boylston, 






66 








24 






28 






243 61 


Brimfield, 




10 


48 




















170 25 


Brookfield, . 




66 


25 










3 




24 


24 




127 00 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 59 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Towns. 


S 

1 


Cans. 


a 


1 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


Rakes. 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Burlington, . 




- 


20 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


$100 00 


Carlisle, 


2 


15 


19 




2 


- 


6 


- 


1 


6 


12 


1 


250 00 


Charlton, 


- 


- 


77 


- 


- 


- 


4 


- 


- 


6 


- 


- 


250 00 


Chatham, 


2 


15 


11 




2 


3 


4 


- 


3 


5 


- 


1 


152 98 


Chester, 




37 


15 




- 


- 


- 


5 


- 


- 


12 


1 


156 97 


Chesterfield, 


- 


- 


25 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


75 00 


Colrain, 




- 


10 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12 


- 


43 75 


Cummington, 




- 


19 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


102 12 


Dana, . 






6 


















1 


250 00 


Dighton, 


5 


8 


26 




1 


- 


- 


- 


5 


2 


30 


2 


242 89 


Doiiglas, 


- 


75 


50 




















180 25 


Dunstable, . 


2 


25 


10 


- 


1 


- 


4 


- 


3 


6 


6 


1 


110 69 


East Longmeadow, 


2 


- 


18 


- 


2 


- 


12 


3 


- 


4 


- 


1 


164 46 


Edgartown, . 


2 


5 


10 


~ 


2 


3 


4 


- 


3 


5 


- 


1 


152 17 


Enfield, 


- 


20 


27 




















85 87 


Erving, 


- 


- 


27 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18 


- 


- 


94 52 


Essex, . 


- 


24 


12 




















37 80 


Florida, 




- 


8 




1 


- 


5 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


31 25 


Freetown, 


- 


24 


20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


- 


72 


- 


- 


167 48 


Georgetown, 


- 


54 


54 












6 


12 






196 48 


GiU, . 


- 


5 


20 




















65 00 


Goshen, 


- 


12 


58 




















244 05 


Gosnold, 


- 


8 


12 




















55 40 


Granby, 




12 


12 




















39 90 


Granville, 


- 


10 


22 


















2 


203 50 


Greenwich, . 


- 




18 


- 


















60 45 


Groveland, . 




6 


12 












3 


12 






51 05 


Hadley, 






15 




















75 00 


Halifax, 




12 


64 








12 






18 




1 


241 91 


Hampden, . 






24 








24 




6 


6 


6 




89 06 


Hancock, 
Hanson, 


_ 


g 

6 


24 








6 


2 




5 


6 


2 


14 37 

250 00 


Harvard, 


2 


7 


29 




2 


3 






3 


12 




1 


250 00 


Harwich, 






14 










2 










64 50 



60 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 









2 




























& 




CO 












i 




men 


Towns. 


S 


i 


a 




nterni 


ittock 




m 
C 






re Bn 


igons. 


imbu 






Q 


"S 




03 




1 


Ph 


<A 


02 


% 






Holbrook, 




12 


31 




- 


- 


- 


5 






48 


- 


$190 25 


Holland, 




- 


8 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


25 00 


Hubbardston, 






52 




- 


- 


18 






4 


- 


- 


175 75 


Kingston, 






24 




- 


- 




~ 




~ 


- 


2 


108 00 


Lakeville, 


~ 


20 


17 




















80 00 


Lanesborough, 


2 


5 


8 


~ 


3 


- 




3 


6 


6 


48 


1 


131 50 


Leverett, 


2 


20 


16 


8 


2 


4 


- 


2 


4 


8 


- 


2 


160 17 


Littleton, 


~ 


~ 


6 


- 


- 


- 




~ 


~ 


18 


- 


- 


34 87 


Leyden, 


16 


10 


10 


17 


- 


- 






4 


8 


- 


- 


31 55 


Lunenburg, . 


2 


36 


10 


- 


2 


3 


4 




3 


29 


- 


1 


160 37 


Lynnfield, 


~ 


35 


20 




- 


- 




10 






6 


2 


249 95 


Mashpee, 


6 


24 


25 




- 


- 


12 






12 


- 


1 


157 12 


Mendon, 




24 


21 
















42 


1 


173 97 


Menimac, 




~ 


15 




- 


- 








~ 


- 


- 


75 00 


Middleton, . 




12 


16 


6 


2 


- 


- 


- 




5 


- 


- 


157 69 


Millis, . 






8 




- 


- 




~ 






- 


1 


242 00 


Monterey, 




- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


3 


- 




12 


- 


15 25 


Montgomery, 










- 


- 




4 






- 


- 


17 00 


New Ashford, 










- 


- 




4 






4 


- 


18 25 


New Braintree, 




- 


37 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




6 


- 


122 85 


New Salem, . 




55 


20 




















100 50 


Newbury, 




- 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


8 


- 




12 


- 


55 90 


Norfolk, 




- 


18 




- 


- 




- 






- 


- 


99 00 


North Reading, . 




- 


38 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




12 


1 


250 00 


Northborough, 






25 


- 






~ 


- 










102 37 


Norton, 




2 


8 














12 


12 


1 


241 25 


Norwell, 


6 




32 








12 






12 




1 


250 00 


Oakham, . . 




12 


31 




1 


1 


6 




3 


3 




1 


226 97 


Otis, 




5 


10 










1 










66 75 


Paxton, 


3 




28 


12 












6 






105 87 


Pelham, 






19 










5 










84 12 


Pembroke, . 






31 


- 






60 










1 


250 00 


Petersham, . 


2 


10 


36 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 




1 


248 05 


Phillipston, . 




36 


38 










1 










130 15 





1917.1 PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 61 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Continued. 



Towns. 


Axes. 


Cans. 1 


CQ 
hi 

•J 

X 

W 


Hoes. 


1 Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


1 


Shovels. 1 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


Plainfield, . 






30 












- 








$146 25 


Plainville, 


2 


10 


22 




2 


3 


4 




3 


5 


30 


1 


228 75 


Plympton, . 






- 










12 


- 


18 






25 66 


Prescott, 




100 


10 




















58 03 


Princeton, . 




32 


80 




















249 20 


Raynham, . 


3 


46 


30 




6 


3 


12 


_ 


9 


15 




3 


222 23 


Rehoboth, . 




10 


48 


















1 


250 00 


Richmond, . 




15 


31 




_ 


_ 


4 


_ 


- 


12 






109 20 


Rochester, . 




24 


60 


_ 


_ 




_ 


_ 


- 


30 


_ 




205 37 


Royalston, . 


3 


20 


32 


30 


2 


2 


12 


_ 


- 


42 




2 


250 00 


Russell, 




7 


39 




















220 25 


Rutland, 




12 


18 








6 


_ 


- 






1 


250 00 


Salisbury, 


6 




47 




10 




29 




- 


11 






250 00 


Sandwich, 


22 


12 


36 






2 






- 


24 




1 


245 60 


Shelburne, . 






50 












12 


6 




1 


186 87 


Shirley, 




48 


42 




















166 50 


Shutesbury, . 




28 


25 








23 




- 


6 






101 25 


Southampton, 






- 










1 


- 




12 




8 75 


Southwick, . 




13 


26 


12 






3 


2 


- 


12 




l' 


122 07 


Sterling, 






25 












- 




18 


1 


241 12 


Stow, . 






42 












- 


18 






131 31 


Sturbridge, . 




11 


35 




















116 45 


Sudbury, 


- 




40 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


250 00 


Sutton, . 




50 


50 


24 










32 


24 






188 46 


Tewksbury, . 


2 




24 




2 








- 


30 




1 


174 00 


Tolland, 






- 










4 


- 




4 




18 26 


Townsend, . 






46 




















250 00 


Tjmgsborough, 




220 


20 










54 


12 


24 


36 




250 00 


Tyringham, . 


2 


10 


30 




2 




10 




2 


3 






144 80 


Upton, . 


1 


18 


30 
















24 




240 23 


Wales, . 


2 




40 


12 


2 


2 


2 






6 






241 99 


Warwick, 




6 


10 




















154 35 


Washington, . 






15 


3 


1 




10 






8 






105 32 


Wendell, 




38 


27 




2 




12 






18 






163 24 



62 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Inventory of Equipment purchased under the Reimbursement 

Act — Concluded. 



Towns. 


Axes. 


Cans. 


Extinguishers. 


Hoes. 


Lanterns. 


Mattocks. 


Pails. 


Pumps. 


Rakes. 


Shovels. 


Wire Brooms. 


Wagons. 


Reimburse- 
ment. 


West Boylston, 


- 


- 


107 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


$250 00 


West Bridgewater, 






20 


















1 


250 00 


West Brookfield, . 




16 


49 










7 




12 


24 




221 50 


West Newbury, . 




8 


13 










3 






18 




87 12 


Westhampton, 






16 




















48 00 


Westminster, 




77 


48 


24 






24 






36 


12 




250 00 


Wilbraham, . 




27 


32 








23 




12 


6 






118 38 


Wilmington, . 




12 


40 




1 






18 




34 






187 38 


Windsor, ; 






60 




















250 00 


Worthington, 


2 


15 


10 






3 








5 




1 


86 01 


Wrentham, . 




12 


30 






4 














250 00 


Totals, . 


111 


1,895 


3,545 


154 


55 


42 


\52 


183 


144 


816 


587 


63 


120,095 41 



Forest Fires of 1916. 



Months. 


Number. 


Acres. 


Cost to 
extinguish. 


Damage. 


1915. 


2 


5 , 


S3 00 


$8 00 


1916. 


15 


46 


52 00 


10 00 




3 




8 00 


5 00 




10 


68 


25 00 


5 00 




233 


^ 1,382 


1,368 00 


3,287 00 




567 


12,332 


4,619 00 


38,755 00 




28 


65 


207 00 


153 00 


July, ....... 


8 


6 


37 00 


45 00 




5 


3 


29 00 




September, 


20 


36 


287 00 


700 0» 




170 


1,102 


1,160 00 


1,208 00 


November, 


164 


1,152 


798 00 


589 00 


Totals, 


1,225 


16,198 


$8,593 00 


$44,765 00 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 63 



Types of Land burned over (Acres). 





1914. 


1915. 


1916. 




3,001 


3,817 


1,435 




9,016 


6,749 


755 


Second growth, not merchantable, 


7,943 


9,107 


1,970 




11,645 


14,681 


9,990 




3.510 


8,128 


1,573 




4,860 


5,907 


475 




38,975 


48,389 


16,198 



Types of Classified Damages. 





1914. 


1915. 


1916. 




$50,697 00 


$73,782 00 , 


$18,786' 00 


Lumber, logs, cordwood, .... 


14,427 00 


23,544 00 


4,545 00 


Bviildings, bogs, etc., 


3,530 00 


31,904.00 


10,823 00 




331 00 


1,930 00 


1,638 00 




26,404 00 


9,907 00 


8,973 00 


Totals 


$95,389 00 


$141,073 00 


$44,765 00 



Comparative Damages by Forest Fires for the Past Seven Years. 



Ybaes. 


Number 
of Fires. 


Acreage 
burned. 


Cost 
to extin- 
giiish. 


Damage. 


Average 
Acreage 
per Fire. 


Average 
Damage 
per Fire. 


1910, . 




1,385 


42,221 


$23,475 


$205.383 . 


30.46 


$148 29 


1911, . 




2,356 


99,693 


47,093 


537,749 


39.31 


226 24 


1912, . 




1,851 


22,072 


20,219 


80,834 « 


11.92 


43 67 


1913, . 




2,688 


53,826 


35,456 


178,357 


20.02 


66 35 


1914. . 




3,181 


38,975 


48,750 


95,389 


12.25 


29 98 


1915, . 




3,008 


48,389 


36,783 


141,073 


16.08 


46 90 


1916, . 




1,225 


16,198 


8,593 


44,765 


13.22 


36 54 





64 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Precipitation est Inches from 1911 to 1916, inclusive. 



Months. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


1914. 


1915. 


1916. 


Normal. 


December, 


3.24 


2.59 


5.73 


3.66 


4.56 


5.69 


4.56 


January, . 


3.07 


3.87 


3.21 


4.30 


7. 38 


1.84 


4.12 


February, . 


3.20 


2.24 


3.77 


3.52 


4.30 


5.37 


3.97 


March, 


3.27 


5.26 


5.32 


4.20 


.06 


4.16 


4.34 


April, 


2.86 


4.05 


4.73 


5.51 


2.44 


5.43 


3.46 


May 


.89 


4.03 


2.85 


2.95 


2.01 


3.97 


3.37 


June 


4.76 


.53 


3.20 


1.75 • 


1.43 


5.31 


3.07 


T..1.. 

July, .... 


4. 55 


4. 16 


2. 00 


3. 38 


9. 52 


7. 55 


3. 65 


August, 


6.70 


3.85 


3.30 


4.59 


4.83 


2.81 


3.70 


September, 


3.36 


1.71 


2.77 


.45 


.74 


1.66 


4.36 


October, . 


3.01 


1.52 


7.62 


2.03 


3.11 


1.81 


4.13 


November, 


5.71 


3.45 


2.70 


3.06 


2.47 


1.88 


3.96 


Totals, 


44.62 


37.26 


47.20 


39.40 


42.85 


47.48 


45.87 





Appropriation for Prevention of Forest Fires. 



Appropriation for 1916, ..... 


. $28,000 


00 


Receipts : — • 






For equipment from towns and cities, . 


974 


30 


For fire towers : — 






Ashland, ....... 


100 


00 


Ashby, ........ 


100 


00 


Cohasset, ....... 


200 


00 


Dover, ........ 


60 


00 


Fitchburg, ....... 


100 


00 


Foxborough, ....... 


100 


00 


Gardner, . . 


100 


00 


Hingbam, ....... 


300 


00 


Lakeville, ....... 


150 


00 


Norwell, ....... 


125 


00 


Pittsfield 


42 


00 


Sharon, . . . . . 


200 


00 


Stoughton, . ■■ . 


150 


00 


Townsend, ....... 


100 


00 


Walpole, ....... 


100 


00 


Westwood, ....... 


50 


00 


Albert R. Ordway, ...... 


6 


01 


New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, 


1 


90 


Cochrane Chemical Company, .... 


6 


00 


Federal department (Weeks law). 


1,252 


50 


State Forest Commission, ..... 


31 


50 


Gypsy and brown-tail moth, .... 


94 


20 


New Hampshire, ...... 


6 


94 


Vermont, ........ 




90 


Rhode Island, ....... 


9 


19 


New York, ....... 


7 


60 


Connecticut, . . . , . . 




55 



$32,358 59 i 

i 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



65 



Expenditures: — ■ 
Payroll, . 
Traveling expenses, 
Printing, . 
Stationery and postage, 
Sundries, . 
Equipment, 
Construction, 

Teams, freight and express. 

Telephone, 

Supplies, 

State Forester's expenses. 



Balance returned to treasury, . . . . 
Reimbursement for forest fire-fighting equipment to towns, 



$18,124 57 
6,258 47 
444 68 
193 26 
286 05 
1,355 19 
4,023 32 
329 77 
916 12 
486 63 
63 73 



$32,421 77 
$3 71 
$1,276 74 



Federal Co-operation. 
The co-operation carried on between this department and the Federal 
department has been very satisfactory. In addition to our regular Federal 
allotment of $2,500, we were allowed an additional allotment of $252, to 
be applied to the maintenance of Williamstown and Mount Everett 
observation stations. The regulations governing the Federal allotments 
make it necessary that the funds be expended in the payment of observers. 
We, therefore, transferred nine observers to the Federal pay roll for the 
entire season. I do not expect that this allotment will be decreased during 
the coming season, and there is a possibihty of its being shghtly increased. 

Co-operative Forest-fire Conference. 
Through an invitation extended by the State Forester to the Federal 
department, collaborators and State Fire Wardens of the northeastern and 
lake States and the State Fire Wardens from Pennsylvania and Rhode 
Island, the Fourth Annual Weeks Law Co-operative Forest Fire Confer- 
ence was held in this city on January 20 and 21, 1916, at which the follow- 
ing program was carried out : — 

JANUARY 20, MORNING SESSION. 
Chairman, State Forester F. W. Rank. 
Secretary, State Fire Warden M. C. Hutchins. 
Practical Working of the Weeks Law. 
A discussion of the Weeks law policy and methods, the actual operation and effect 
of the requirements and how the administration of the act can be improved. 
Mr. J. G. Peters, Chief of State Co-operation, Washington, D. C. 

Publicity and Educational Work. 

A discussion of the ways and means of publicity and educational work, including 
the part which should be taken by the State, the Federal government and 
private owners. 

Mr. W. G. Howard of New York. 

Mr. Charles P. Wilber of New Jersey. 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



JANUARY 20, AFTERNOON SESSION. 
Chairman, Mr. E. C. Hikst. 
Organization and Financing of Fire-protection Work. 

A discussion of the form and methods of organization and distribution of costs, 
in relation to all the agencies concerned in fire protection. The following 
subjects were included: — 

1. Organization of State fire-protective force, with duties of its members, inspec- 

tion, patrol and lookout organization. 

Mr. F. B. Moody of Wisconsin. 

Mr. George H. Wirt of Pennsylvania. 

Mr. F. E. Mace of Maine. 

2. Relation of counties and townships (or towns) to the general protective work 

of the State. Distribution of costs as between ^ State, counties, private 
owners and Federal government. ^ 

Mr. A. F. Ha WES of Vermont. 

Mr. W. O. FiLLEY of Connecticut. 

Mr. F. W. Besley of Maryland. 

In the evening moving pictures showing equipment, methods of handling 
fires and destruction caused by fires were held in Tremont Temple. Films 
were shown by the Federal department, Maine forestry department, New 
York Conservation Commission, Wisconsin forestry department and the 
Massachusetts State Forester. 

JANUARY 21, MORNING SESSION. 
Chairman, Mr. W. O. Fillby. 
Railroads and Fire Prevention. 

A discussion of the policy and methods pursued by railroad companies, the need 
of protective measures from the standpoint of the State and of the railroad 
itself, and the general relation of the railroads to the protective work and 
problems of the State. 

Mr. F. W. Rane of Massachusetts. 
Mr. W. T. Cox of Minnesota. 
Mr. C. P. WiLBER of New Jersey. 
Mr. E. C. Hirst of New Hampshire.. 

FiRB-PROTECTrVE EQUIPMENT. 

A discussion of the more recent developments in equipment for patrol and fire 
suppression, the results accomplished with improved devices, etc. 

1. Use of the bucket pump and water pack in fire fighting. 

Mr. W. O. FiLLEY of Connecticut.^ 

2. Use of chemical extinguishers in fire fighting. 

Mr. John P. Crowe of Massachusetts. 

3. Map-making for lookout stations. 

Mr. E. C. Hirst of New Hampshire. 

4. Use of the aeroplane for fire patrol. 

Mr. W. T. Cox of Minnesota. 
Mr. F. B. Moody of Wisconsin. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



67 



Railroad Fires. 

Our railroad fire reports show 434 railroad fires as follows: Boston & 
Albany, 105, Boston & Maine, 81, New York, New Haven & Hartford, 
212, Central Vermont, 36. These fires burned over an area of 2,257 acres, 
causing damage to the amount of $12,858, with a cost for extinguishing of 
$2,454.57. 

Our reports of locomotive inspections made by the inspectors of this 
department show a total of 1,325 locomotives inspected as follows: Boston 
& Albany, 157, of which 27 per cent, were defective; Boston & Maine, 
669, of which 24 per cent, were defective; New York, New Haven & 
Hartford, 499, of which 32 per cent, were found defective. A copy of each 
inspection report is placed on file with the PubHc Service Commission. 
Most of the defects found were of a minor character and were promptly 
repaired. We experience considerable trouble from fires caused by loco- 
motives coming from outside the State, particularly those from the States 
of Connecticut and Rhode Island. This is undoubtedly due to the fact 
that no especial attention is paid to the spark-arresting devices in use, 
which need constant attention and care if they are to accompUsh the 
purpose for which they were installed. The following reports from Mr. 
Morris 0. B. Campbell, special attorney of the Boston & Albany, Mr. E. 
A. Ryder, commissioner of the Boston & Maine, and Mr. Chas. B. Rood, 
general claim agent of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, give a 
summary of the fire-prevention work accomplished by their respective 
roads during the past year. 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 12, 1916. 
Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, State House, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your letter of the 5th inst., requesting a brief report of 
our activities relative to the prevention and settlement of forest-fire losses, I beg 
to advise that for the year 1916 the number of forest fires reported has been the 
smallest for several years and that in no instance has there been a fire covering any 
area of considerable extent. 

We are experimenting with a device installed in the front end and stacks of loco- 
motives, which results in a smaller quantity of black smoke, decided* reduction in 
the noise of the exhaust and in the quantity of sparks thrown from the stack. To 
date thirty-five locomotives have been equipped in this manner, and are running 
in the vicinity of the larger terminals and on some of the branches. It is felt that 
these devices have done effective work. 

As in the past, we have enjoyed in most cases the hearty co-operation of the local 
forest wardens, and feel that with their assistance the forest-fire hazards so far as 
locomotives are concerned are being reduced to a minimvun. 

Yours very truly, 

Morris O. B. Campbell, 

Special Attorney. 



68 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Boston, Mass., Dec. 8, 1916. 
Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request for information regarding fire- 
prevention work done by this company during the past season, we beg to submit 
the following : — 

The fact that there was a large amount of snow well into the spring, followed by 
frequent rains, accounts in a large measure for the comparatively small nimaber of 
fires in the season; but the sudden disappearance of snow the last part of April 
and the very high wind? during the month of May also account for the many fires 
that month. Since the month of May, however, there has been a very noticeable 
decrease in the number of fires. On our entire system of about 2,300 miles the 
number of fires average about 73 per month from Jan. 1, 1916, to Dec. 1, 1916, for 
which period we have paid fire claims amounting to $22,411.33, and $1,575.22 for 
outside help in fighting fires. 

During the eleven months of 1916 just passed we have received reports of 808 
fires on the system, compared with 2,330 for 1915, 2,313 for 1914, 3,189 for 1913 
and 2,520 for 1912. 

We have secured a number of permissions from owners of property contiguous 
to our lines to clean up and bum combustible material on their property; and we 
beg to assure you that we are not in any way lessening our efforts to bring about 
improved conditions in this respect. 

We believe there is improvement in the co-operation of owners of property along 
our right of way; they are seeing the value of keeping their property clean and are 
more willing to give us permission to do it if they cannot. We hope, however, for 
an improvement in the matter of keeping brush the prescribed distance of 40 feet 
from our fence and a greater distance where possible, and, instead of putting it in 
windrows, to have it placed in piles with as much space as possible between them. 

We take this opportunity to state we have received uniform assistance from all 
fire wardens and their deputies who have cheerfully and faithfully worked for the 
common good. We thank you and your district chiefs for your splendid work and 
help. 

Yours truly, 

E. A. Ryder, 

Commissioner. 

Boston, Mass., Dec. 12, 1916. 
Mr. M. C. HuTCHiNS, State Fire Warden, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — Complying with your request of Dec. 5, 1916, relative to the activ- 
ities of this department in cleaning up right of way, etc., beg to advise that during 
the past year, commencing Jan. 1, 1916, we have cleaned up approximately 200 
miles of right of way and adjacent property, cutting the underbrush and trimming 
trees for fixe protection, at a total cost of about $6,000. Practically the entire 
length of right of way in the State of Massachusetts has been burned over, with the 
exception of certain places where it has been too damp to burn up to the present 
time, although we hope to be able to do this work before the end of the calendar 
year, weather permitting. This is also true of many parcels adjoining our right of 
way where permits to burn could be obtained, and where it was not necessary to 
cut any brush or undergrowth. 

Since Jan. 1, 1916, up to and including this date, we have received 94 claims 
from property owners in the State of Massachusetts, of which 59 claims have been 
settled for a total of $2,107.61, leaving a balance of 35 unsettled claims, all of which, 
however, are for slight damages. 

We have paid $376.19 to various towns in the State of Massachusetts for services 
in extinguishing fires during the above period, of which amoimt $69.05 was paid to 




A forest-fire equipment trailer in use by the State District Forest Warden, Mr. A. R. 
Ordway, who has super^•ision over the fire work in that portion of the State west of 
the Connecticut River. An auxiliary amount of fire-fighting equipment is in this 
way made available in different parts of the Berkshires in a comparatively short 
time. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



69 



three towns on the "Cape," covering services extinguishing nine fires. There has 
been but one claim from a property owner, resulting from these nine fires, which 
claim was settled for $10, the balance of the fires being on wild grass land and causing 
no damage. 

Regarding the matter of patrol work, would say that it has long been our custom, 
during the dry seasons each year, to place patrolmen on practically every section 
of the Une, whose duty it is to follow up all trains as closely as possible and watch 
for fires. 

Yours very truly, 

C. B. Rood, 
General Fire Claim Agent. 

Fire Notices. 

During the season, 8,000 cloth and cardboard fire notices, prepared by 
this department, and 5,000 cardboard notices, printed in co-operation 
with the Massachusetts Forestry Association, were posted along streams, 
trails and in public places throughout the State by the town forest wardens, 
fish and game deputies and railroad officials. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

State Fire Warden. 

The Brown-tail Moth Situation. 

We are delighted to report that the brown-tail moths have 
continued to decrease this year, and that the favorable report 
of last year can even be improved this season. 

State-wide reports show very few nests this fall, and a great 
decrease even over last year. It is to be hoped that we have 
had our worst troubles from this obnoxious, foreign insect. 

Parasite Work. 
As has been the custom each year, Dr. L. 0. Howard, chief 
of the Bureau of Entomology, has favored us with a report 
of the progress of the parasite work during the year. His 
report dated Dec. 9, 1916, is as follows: — 

Dear Professor Pane : — As has become the annual custom, I am 
sending you, in accordance with your recent request, a brief account of the 
condition of the parasites of the gypsy moth and brown-tail moth, which, 
during the years 1906 to 1913, were imported into New England by this 
Bureau in co-operation with the State of Massachusetts and other official 
organizations and individuals in foreign countries and at home. 

No parasites have been imported since the outbreak of the great Euro- 
pean war, although an expert assistant in this Bureau, Mr. J. N. Summers, 
was in Germany at the time the war began and expected to send over 
some of the species which we have not as yet succeeded in estabhshing in 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



New England. As I wrote you last December, the colonization of para- 
sites imported from Europe and Japan continued during the fall of 1915, 
and this work was going on at the time of writing. One hundred and 
fifty-nine colonies of the Japanese egg parasite known as Schedius kuvanae 
were liberated in 28 towns in Massachusetts and 11 in New Hampshire, 
— 661,713 individuals in all. During the spring of 1916, another imported 
parasite of gypsy moth eggs, Anastatus bifasciatus . originally procured 
from Hungary, but also occurring in other parts of Europe as well as in 
Japan, was colonized in 14 towns in Maine, 31 towns in New Hampshire 
and 71 towns in Massachusetts, a total number of 12,286 colonies being 
liberated, containing 12,286,000 individuals. Both of these species of egg 
parasites are doing very good work, and recoveries have been made from 
very many of the colonies previously planted in the field. 

Apanteles lacteicolor, a Braconid parasite which attacks small cater- 
pillars of both the gypsy and brown-tail moths, has been recovered this 
year in greater numbers than during the previous years. Two other species, 
namely, Meteorus versicolor and Apanteles melanoscelis, have increased in 
most of the colonies which have been Uberated, and have spread over a 
large area from the original colony site. We have made an effort this year 
to secure a large number of both of these species in order to start new 
colonies in other locaHties. 

It has transpired that the imported tachitiid fly, Compsilura concinnata, 
attacks many species of native caterpillars. It is therefore a very beneficial 
insect, and, as it attacks native species, the continuity of its existence in 
this country is very sure. Another imported tachinid fly, Zygohothria 
nidicola, has been found more abundantly than before. 

The European tree-climbing ground beetle, Calosoma sycophanta, which 
has come to be known in New England as the Calosoma beetle, has ap- 
parently not been so numerous in certain locaHties as it was last year, but 
it has continued its good work and keeps on spreading. There is no 
doubt of the thorough establishment of this species nor of the fact that it 
is a very efficient enemy of both gypsy moth and brown-tail moth as well 
as of native caterpillars. For example, it feeds voraciously upon both the 
fall webworm and the tent caterpillar. 

Yours most truly, 

L. 0. Howard, 
Chief of Bureau. 

Report on Method of Spraying from the Top of Tank 

INSTEAD OF FROM THE GrOUND. 

After experiments in this method of spraying, noting results of 
work and costs, it was adopted in one division of the State 
under Mr. W. A. Hatch's supervision. This report is based 
upon the results of his experience. For a number of years we 
did not believe the w^ork could be done in this manner as 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



effectively as in the usual manner, that is, from the ground. 
The tank method presented some obstacles which required 
study and systematizing to overcome; but it was possible to do 
this, and now by this method effective work can be done at 
decreased cost. Reasons in favor of this method are: — 

First. — The work can be done with a decreased force of 
men, the proper number to operate being four men, super- 
intendent, engineer, driver and nozzleman. This can still be 
decreased by one man if the superintendent handles nozzle, 
but this is not economical as the fourth man is required on 
the odd ends of the work. 

Second. — There is a decreased wear on the spraying hose, as 
usually only 50 feet are in use. This is coiled on top of the 
tank and is not subject to dragging in the dirt nor does it 
require one or more men to carry it. 

Third. — Added height in throwing the spray is gained, which 
is a factor of the greatest importance, as the greatest flaw in 
all spraying work is insufficient drenching in the tops of the 
trees. 

Fourth, — Compactness of the operators is also a factor, 
superintendent, engineer, driver and nozzleman being so near 
together that the machine can be operated practically as by 
one man. 

Fifth. — The work is less laborious, and this is a point of 
value inasmuch as a man not overworked will do his work 
more thoroughly. 

Sixth. — These points all combine to decrease cost of the 
work. 

Reasons advanced against the method are mainly that the 
hose cannot be carried around the tree, thus insuring spraying 
from all sides. We overcome this obstacle by beginning our 
spraying simultaneously in all to^Tis just as the buds are 
breaking upon the trees and the young caterpillars are hatched 
and feeding. Under these conditions the leaves offer no shelter 
to the farther side of the tree, the spray passes through un- 
checked, and is very effective. It is possible to spray rapidly 
under these conditions, and we strive to do the greater part 
of the work while the leaves are small. Later when the leaves 
are larger, the nozzleman, being in constant communication 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



with the driver, has the team halted at the proper intervals, 
sprays the tree as he approaches it, then directly broadside, 
and then upon the other side when the tree is passed. A care- 
ful man by this method can cover the entire tree, as no tree 
is a solid, compact mass, every tree having open, clear spaces 
between the limbs and up through the top, and by directing 
the stream at these openings the spray passes through and 
falls on the farther side. 

Another reason against the tank method is that the road is 
sometimes too distant from the bordering trees. This is not 
generally the case. The team can usually be brought near 
enough, and then the added height and throwing power from 
the tank does the rest. But if it is not possible to approach 
near enough to a tree or group of trees, it requires but a 
moment to shift and spray from the ground. 

Here are a few points which are a distinct help in the appli- 
cation of the spray: — 

First. — That the nozzleman be provided with a seat of the 
proper height and dimensions in general, so that he can turn 
and move unhampered in the act of spraying. 

Second. — That he have nozzle tips of the different diameters 
directly upon his person, so that quick changes can be made 
when conditions require. 

Third. — That the length of hose under pressure be strapped 
to the tank by a buckled strap. 

Fourth. — That the short, light nozzle be used in all loca- 
tions where it will do the work, as it can be manipulated 
better. 

To apply the spray intelligently and with the greatest 
economy it is necessary to make frequent change of spraying 
tips, the one-quarter inch to the three-sixteenths inch, or con- 
versely. If a three-sixteenth inch tip should be devised, with 
a bore to fit upon a thread placed upon the one-quarter inch 
tip, it would facilitate -matters, as less than one-half the time 
would be required in making the change. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCraiENT — No. 73. 



73 



Apportionment of General Expenses. 
The Commission on Economy and Efficiency recommended 
in its report on this department filed in December, 1914, that 
the general expenses of the department be apportioned among 
the several appropriations made for its work. The question 
has been discussed during the past year with the Auditor's 
Department and the office of the Supervisor of Administration, 
successor to the Commission on Economy and Efficiency, and 
the conclusion reached that a better way to deal with the 
matter is to make a separate appropriation for these general 
purposes. 

Forestry Meetings. 

During the past year the American Forestry Association held 
its annual meeting in Boston on January 17-19, and it was our 
good pleasure to have a large number of friends from all sections 
of the United States and Canada here in Massachusetts on 
that occasion. The meeting was well attended and the papers, 
addresses and discussions proved of great interest. 

Following the above meeting, a meeting of Eastern Foresters 
was held in Boston at the invitation of this department. 
Among other things, arrangements were made to take the 
association and their guests in a special car to Weston, 11 
miles from the State House, where we entertained them at a 
regular New England lumber camp. After looking over the 
mill and general operations, a typical lumberman's dinner was 
served in the mess camp. The association then held its after- 
noon session in the bunk house, and altogether the occasion 
was a particularly appropriate ending to the meeting. 

One day was set aside also for a meeting of the collaborators 
of the United States Forest Service on forest-fire work. This 
meeting was held in the hearing room of the Massachusetts 
Public Service Commission. 

Co-operative Moth Work. 
Until last year this department has included each year in 
this report a detailed account of the splendid co-operative 
work that is done on the North Shore. The city of Beverly 
and the town of Manchester and the summer residents of that 



74 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



section have set an ideal example of how co-operation and 
public interest can be made to serve a section of the State. 
While we would still be pleased to incorporate this work in 
this report, it is a task too arduous to ask of the North Shore 
committee each year, as their work has expanded to road 
building, mosquito control, etc. Suffice it to say, however, 
that the North Shore work is being prosecuted with the same 
high standard of efficiency as ever. The work is handled by 
our division superintendent, Mr. Saul Phillips, and his assist- 
ant, Mr. Donovan, who have been at the helm for a number 
of years. The chairman of the committee. Col. Wm. D. Sohier, 
reports that his people are as enthusiastic as ever. The amount 
of work done and the expense of same are given below. 

Following the example set by the North Shore, the Dover 
woodland work, the Sagamore Beach moth work, and many 
similar enterprises have continued to accomplish satisfactory 
results. 

Special Funds. 



North Shore Fund. 

Balance from 1915, $6,810 30 

Receipts : — 

Paul D. Kneeland, agent, 189 24 

F. W. Rane, State Forester, .... 6,000 00 

Wm. D. Sohier, agent for property owners, . 2,462 90 

Wm. D. Sohier, agent, ...... 6,000 00 

City of Beverly, ....... 3,000 00 

Town of Manchester, 3,000 00 

Gasoline and oil sold, 6 10 

Massachusetts Highway Commission, . . 201 20 
Appropriation for suppression of gypsy and 

broT\Ti-tail moths, 3,406 20 

$31,075 94 

Expenditures: — 

Pay roU, $15,097 73 

Travel, 728 49 

Supplies, 10,122 27 

Rent of store, 290 00 

Maps, 2 31 

Sundries, 1,453 68 

■ 27,694 48 



Balance on hand, Nov. 30, 1916, $3,381 46 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



75 



Dover Gypsy Moth Fund. 



Balance from 1915, $198 30 

Receipts : — 

For wood sold, 2,410 63 

For spraying, 690 03 

$3,298 96 

Expenditures: — 

Pay roU, $2,761 27 

Supplies, 7 34 

Teaming, * . . . 59 00 

2,827 61 



Balance on hand, Nov. 30, 1916, $471 35 



There is an unpa d account for arsenate of lead, due the appropriation for 
suppressing gypsy and browTi-tail moths, which will be paid as soon as 
suflScient collections are made. 

Sagamore Beach Gypsy Moth Fund. 



Balance from 1915, $479 69 

Receipts: — 

For wood sold, 130 50 

For spraying, 464 03 

T. Walter Proctor, 100 00 

$1,174 22 

Expenditures : — 

Pay roU, $467 09 

Travel, 10 75 

SuppHes, 360 65 

Sundries, ' 6 00 

844 49 



Balance on hand, Nov. 30, 1916, .... $329 73 



Reports on Moth Work from Cities and Towns. 
These reports are all made and are in the hands of the State 
Forester. They give much valuable information, but as it 
would be a considerable expense to print these individual 
reports, and as this report is already comparatively large, we 
are compelled to omit them. They are on file in this office, 
subject to inspection from year to year. 



76 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

The following is a brief summary of the accomplishments of 
each division : — 

Mr. Parkhursfs Division. 
296 acres thinned; 116 acres reforested with white pine, 34,000 pines. 

Mr. Hatch's Division. 
480 acres thinned; 40 acres to be thinned this year and reforested. 
527 miles old roadside thinning, 73 miles new. 

Mr. Phillips's Division. 
609 acres thinned; 13,000 white pine and 2,000 hemlocks planted. 
101 miles old roadside thinning, 20 miles new. 

Mr. Fitzgerald's Division. 
277 acres thinned; 21,000 white pine planted. 
17 miles old roadside thinning, 27 miles new. 

Mr. Farley's Division. 

268 acres thinned. 

Mr. Holmes' Division. 
175 acres thinned; 35 acres reforested. 
470 acres being thinned at the present time. 
93 miles old roadside thinning, 55 miles new. 
35 acres to be reforested. 

Mr. Enwright's Division. 
763 acres thinned; 30,600 pines planted. 
95 miles old roadside thinning, 57 miles new. 

Mr. Ramsey's Division. 
75 acres of woodland brushed over. 
31 miles of old cutting along the roadsides. 
42 miles of new cutting along the roadsides. 



Improvement thinnings, done under the direct supervision 
of Mr. Kneeland and Mr. Cook, are reported elsewhere. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



77 



Care of Trees in the City of Boston. 



Dear Sir: — I beg to submit the following report of the moth work 
performed by the city of Boston for the season of 1915 and 1916. During 
the year the entire city was covered, the residential part being done by 
destruction and spray work and the entire woodland section by spra\nng 
It is gratifying to state that there was no defohation of any kind. 

At the present time we have sixtj^-five men emploj^ed on destruction 
work, and, during the sprajdng season, eleven large F. & G. sprayers and 
one auto F. & G. sprayer were kept busy. 

Infestation has completely disappeared in certain sections and is at 
least 80 per cent, less all over the city than it was ten years ago when we 
first started a systematic campaign to suppress the ravages of these pests. 

The brown-tail moths have left us and I hope they will never return. 

The woodland section of Boston is in first-class condition and under 
perfect control. 

Cavities in the street trees are being treated with cement, and dead 
branches are being removed as fast as possible. 

We have planted over six miles of street trees during the year, and 
have removed the leopard borer from over 7,500 young trees. 

The follo"wing items show the expenditures for the year: — 

Supervision and labor S26,32o 99 

General supplies, .......... 7,130 13 

Teaming, 2,145 00 

Total, $35,601 12 



Dear Sir : — The following is a report of the moth work done in 
Brookline for the year ending Dec. 31, 1916. 

The appropriation for the suppression of insect pests was $27,000, of 
which there is an unexpended balance of $853.89. The usual winter 
work of creosoting the egg clusters of the gypsy moths and the removal 
of broTVTi-tails has been done throughout the town. 

Sprajdng was done last summer as usual. 

The appropriation recommended this coming year for suppression of 
insect pests includes an item of $3,000 for leopard moth work. This insect 
is one of the most formidable enemies we now have on our trees, and a 
strenuous campaigning will be waged against him this coming year. 



Respectfully submitted, 

William F. Long, 
Superintendent, Street Trees and Moth Work. 



Dec. 19, 1916. 



Care of Trees in the Town of Brookline. 

Brookline, Mass., Dec. 27, 1916. 



78 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The department asks the town for an appropriation of $20,000 to carry 
on the work for this coming year. This is $7,000 less than last year. The 
decrease is made possible by the small amount of spraying necessary for 
the gJTsy naoth next season. 

Very truly yours, 

Daniel G. Lacy, 
Superintendent. 

State Highway Work. 
Along the State highw^ays spraying and cleaning for the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths and the elm-leaf beetle were done 
under the direction of this department. Bills for this w'ork 
were approved by us and transmitted to the State highway 
department for payment. The list of towms and cities in which 
the work was done is as follows: — 



Work on State Highways, 1916. 



Abington, 


9 on 




Denms, . 




*ZUO / O 


Acton, 


1 OK 

loo 


1 o 
16 


Dover, 




73 15 


Agawam, . 




crk 
OU 


Dracut, 




76 90 


Amesbury, 


35 


89 


Duxbury, . 




70 94 


Amherst, . 


oO 


uu 


Easthampton, 




1 Q Kn 


Andover, . 


51 


65 


Essex, 




21 74 


Ashburnham, 


77 


25 


Falmouth, 




164 85 


Ashby, 


57 


50 


Fitchburg, 




85 11 


Ashland, . 


38 


65 


Foxborough, 




22 96 


Attleboro, 


21 


07 


Framingham, 




84 71 


Avon, 


10 


30 


Franklin, . 




38 00 


Ayer, 


40 


35 


Gardner, . 




13 55 


Barnstable, 


121 


65 


Gloucester, 




71 14 


Barre, 


49 


98 


Grafton, . 




55 50 


Bedford, . 


45 


15 


Greenfield, 




36 90 


Beverly, . 


186 


46 


Groton, 




20 18 


Billerica, . 


72 


44 


Groveland, 




11 03 


Bourne, 


150 


57 


Hadley, 




50 00 


Boxborough, 


116 


40 


Hamilton, 




69 52 


Braintree, 


25 


00 


Hanover, . 




15 68 


Brewster, . 


87 


00 


Harvard, . 




50 33 


Bridgewater, 


28 


72 


Harwich, . 




6 00 


Brookfield, 


42 


39 


Haverhill, 




137 36 


Burlington, 


131 


00 


Hingham, 




20 11 


Canton, 


50 


20 


Holden, 




8 51 


Chelmsford, 


123 


30 


Holliston, 




23 27 


Chicopee, ... 


37 


50 


Hudson, . 




33 98 


Cohasset, . 


55 


22 


Ipswich, 




40 80 


Concord, . 


380 


49 


Kingston, 




4 18 


Dedham, . 


56 


25 


Lakeville, 




17 00 


Deerfield, . 


9 


55 


Lancaster, 




34 49 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 79 



Work on State Highways, 1916 — Concluded. 



Leominster, 


S44 24 


Scituate, . 


$57 70 


Lexington, 


107 51 


Shirley, 


22 75 


Lincoln, . 


58 73 


Shrewsbury, 


119 10 


Littleton, . 


79 16 


South Hadley, . 


55 00 


Lowell, 


52 30 


Southborough, . 


47 80 


Lunenburg, 


88 14 


Sterling, . 


150 90 


Marion, 


15 70 


Stockbridge, 


79 20 


Marlborough, 


286 73 


Stoneham, 


82 16 


Marshfield, 


97 05 


Sudbury, . 


149 51 


Mashpee, . 


24 10 


Sutton, 


12 20 


Melrose, . 


41 98 


Taunton, . 


10 40 


Merrimac, 


29 83 


Templeton, 


45 55 


Methuen, . 


71 65 


Tewksbury, 


110 96 


Middleborough, 


60 25 


Townsend, 


93 00 


Middleton, 


11 20 


Tyngsborough, . 


171 00 


Millbury, . 


29 86 


Uxbridge, . 


14 74 


Milton, 


10 00 


Ware, 


2 50 


Montague, 


30 50 


Wareham, 


39 61 


Natick, 


72 04 


Warren, 


48 79 


Needham, 


64 16 


Wayland, . 


55 11 


Newbury, . 


52 39 


Wellfleet, . 


19 75 


Newburyport, . 


23 58 


Wenham, . 


107 74 


North Adams, . 


57 80 


West Boylston, . 


62 85 


North Andover, 


153 01 


West Bridgewater, 


26 47 


North Reading, . 


58 25 


West Brookfield, 


27 95 


Northborough, . 


108 98 


West Newbury, 


107 35 


Northbridge, 


6 00 


West Springfield, 


35 00 


Northfield, 


75 00 


Westborough, . 


26 77 


Norton, 


25 50 


Westfield, . 


55 00 


Norwood, . 


86 15 


Westford, . 


142 80 


Orleans, 


27 60 


Westminster, 


42 71 


Palmer, 


41 83 


Weston, 


83 00 


Pembroke, 


35 18 


West wood. 


24 00 


Pepperell, . 


84 81 


Weymouth, 


122 29 


Princeton, 


7 50 


VVilliamstown, 


55 90 


Quincy, 


19 90 


Wilmington, 


73 41 


Reading, . 


104 00 


Winchester, 


66 63 


Rochester, 


44 45 


Woburn, . 


176 93 


Rockport, 


11 40 


Worcester, 


67 60 


Rowley, . 


91 64 


Yarmouth, 


28 00 


Salisbury, . 


96 79 






Sandwich, 


65 00 




$9,179 32 



so 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Distribution of Supplies. 
The following is a list of cities and towns, with amount of 
supplies for moth work furnished them, for the year ending 
Nov. 30, 1916. The amounts given are the gross amounts 
furnished, some of the cities and towns having made payments 
to the State Forester's office for all or a part of the amounts, 
according to the amount of their net expenditures or their 
class under the provisions of the law. For amounts received 
from this office in reimbursement and supplies see the table on 
page 87. The number of towns and cities receiving supplies 
has increased very materially, owing to the large demand for 
arsenate of lead which we are required by law to furnish. 



List of Totv^ns and Cities axd .I^iouxts of Supplies fukxished for 

1916. 



Acton, 


$790 30 


Concord, . 


$482 40 


Andover, . 


. 1,261 95 


Danvers, . 


. 1,023 81 


Ashbumham, 


106 19 


Dedham, . 


866 39 


Ashby, 


242 64 


Douglas, . 


1 83 


Ashland, . 


253 55 


Dover, 


640 00 


Attleboro, 


64 00 


Dracut, 


664 67 


Auburn, . 


75 52 


Dunstable, 


468 27 


Avon, 


48 70 


Duxburj', . 


. 1,076 42 


Ayer, 


477 46 


East Bridgewat«r, 


376 80 


Barnstable, 


. 1,038 24 


Easthampton, . 


64 00 


Bedford, . 


624 77 


Easton, 


384 00 


Berkley, . 


31 25 


Essex, 


146 74 


BerKn, 


557 48 


FaU River, 


96 00 


Beverly, , 


276 75 


Falmouth, 


320 00 


Billeriea, . 


. 1 2,250 26 


Fitchburg, 


640 00 


Blackstone, 


13 38 


Gardner, . 


77 55 


Bolton, 


760 52 


Georgetown, 


638 70 


Boxborough, 


670 44 


Gloucester, 


767 54 


B oxford, . 


. 1 1,993 00 


Grafton, . 


79 71 


Boylston, . 


29 25 


Greenfield, 


96 00 


Braintree, 


738 00 


Groton, . 


762 76 


Bridgewat^r, 


488 81 


Grovel and, 


243 64 


Burlington, 


931 15 


HaUfax, . 


. *543 74 


Cambridge, 


387 45 


Hamilton, 


795 62 


Canton, 


. 2 2,299 96 


Hanover, . 


684 88 


Carlisle, 


495 79 


Hanson, . 


. *848 68 


Carver, 


. 3 1,463 12 


Harvard, . 


902 11 


Chelmsford, 


. 1,131 74 


Harwich, . . 


110 84 


Clinton, 


128 00 


Hingham, 


. 1,122 75 


Cohasset, . 


. 1 2,433 42 


Holbrook, 


. "572 37 



^ Includes one large power sprayer. * Includes four small power sprayers. 

2 Includes two snaaU power sprayers. * Includes one small power sprayer. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



81 



List of Towns and Cities and Amounts of Supplies furnished for 

1916 — Continued. 



Holden, 


$146 38 


Peabody, . , 


SRTRR on 

• <1P / UO \J\J 


Holliston . • 


143 08 


Pembroke, 


3 2 184 93 


TTnrkVinton 


88 98 


Pepperell, 




Hudson 


628 33 


Plainville 


66 33 


Ipswich, ... 


1,156 53 


Plympton, 


2 520 10 


Kingston, 


392 58 


Prescott 


18 45 


Laksvills . 


1 1,921 99 


Princeton 


345 96 


L/Encd/Stor, 


640 00 


Quincy, 


1 2 319 61 


L6oniinst6r, . 


384 00 


Randolph, 


118 60 


Lexington, . 


1,514 99 


Raynham 


157 53 


Lincoln 


1,965 19 


Reading, . . 


1 fi4Q OS 


Littleton, 


805 51 


Rehoboth 


148 18 


Lowell, . . . 


. 1 1,880 52 


Revere, . . 


96 00 


Lunenburg, , 


919 15 


Rockland 


369 00 


Lynnfield, 


734 01 


Rockport, 


246 25 


I^3.1den, 


256 00 


Rowley, 


755 81 


Manchester, . 


251 50 


Royalston, 


6 40 


Mansfield, 


73 80 


Salisbury, 


518 00 


Marblehead, 


96 00 


Sandwich, . 


93 14 


r^arlborough, . 


830 67 


Saugus, 


720 33 


Marshfield, 


2 1^384 21 


Scituate 


1,431 97 


I^ashpee, 


2 96 


Sharon 


38 40 


Maynard, 


228 90 


Sherborn 


900 14 


Medfield 


1 2 067 69 


Shirley, 


552 40 


Medford, 


256 00 


Shrewsbury, 


113 59 


Medway, 


166 05 


Somerset • . 


164 00 


Merrimac, 


117 99 


South Hadley, 


32 00 


Methuen, . 


1,065 28 


Southborough, . 


450 98 


Middleborough, 


3 1^927 51 


Sterling, 


352 75 


IVIiddleton, 


474 21 


Stoneham . . 


955 89 


Millbury, 


26 33 


Sf.oi 1 DfVi t.on 


2 981 67 


Millis, 


268 80 


Stow, 


779 32 


Milton 


2,453 95 


Sudbury, 


1,016 20 


Natick, 


66 17 


Sutton, . . • 


1 79 


^eedham. 


1 2,395 15 


Sw3*iiipscott, 


295 20 




124 25 


X AUXl uLrll, • • • 


348 25 




691 51 




2 502 08 


Newburyport, . 


543 70 


Tewksbury, 


766 10 


Newton, . 


. 5,342 44 


Topsfield, . 


471 37 


Norfolk, . 


137 33 


Townsend, 


627 59 


North Andover, 


. 1 1,964 35 


Truro, 


76 69 


North Attleborough, . 


123 50 


Tyngsborough, . 


918 46 


North Reading, 


. 1,131 73 


Wakefield, 


546 92 


Northborough, . 


689 24 


Walpole, . 


218 15 


Northbridge, 


96 


Waltham, 


. 1,774 36 


Norton, 


64 00 


Wareham, 


256 54 


Norwell, . 


902 66 


Warren, 


128 00 


Norwood, 


866 75 


Watertown, 


115 20 



1 Includes one large power sprayer. 
» Includes one small power sprayer. 



» Includes two small power sprayers. 



82 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Towns and Cities and Amounts of Supplies furnished for 

1916 — Concluded. 



Wayland, . 


. $1,301 75 


Weston, 


. ^S3,974 01 


Wellesley, 


129 15 


Westwood, 


640 00 


Wellfleet, . 


2 11 


Weymouth, 


. 1,495 20 


Wenham, . 


548 54 


Wilmington, 


. 1,070 41 


West Boylston, . 


169 28 


Winchendon, 


319 48 


West Bridgewater, 


442 24 


Winthrop, 


76 80 


West Newbury, 


355 97 


Woburn, . 


639 63 


Westborough, 


224 63 


Worcester, 


. 1,036 92 


Westford, . 


. 1,120 77 






Westminster, 


126 17 




$118,374 17 



1 Includes one large power sprayer. 



Dover gypsy moth fund, ........ $995 65 

East Gardner State Colony, 61 74 

Pine Banks Park 218 75 

State Forest Commission, ........ 23 52 

Prevention of forest fires, . . . . . . . . 153 16 

State forester's expenses, ........ 58 06 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, ...... 66 15 

MetropoHtan Water and Sewerage Board, ..... 147 60 

Special North Shore fund, . 7,045 93 

Purchase and planting of forest lands, ...... 14 73 

Sagamore Beach gypsy moth fund, ....... 354 70 

Thinning work, 247 82 

Traveling sprayers, ......... 719 56 



$10,107 37 

Appeopriation for Suppression of Gypsy and Brown-tail 

Moths. 
Financial Statement. 



Balance on hand, Nov. 30, 1915, $88,944 48 

Less reimbursement paid for 1915, 18,224 48 



Balance for 1916 work, $70,720 00 

Receipts. 

Andover, $567 83 

Attleboro, 64 00 

Auburn, 47 30 

Ayer, 1,245 05 

Barnstable, 1,497 96 



Amounts carried forward, . . . . $3,422 14 $70,720 00 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



83 



Amounts brought forward, .... $3,422 14 S70,720 00 

Belchertown, 13 85 

Beverly, 276 75 

Blackstone, 13 38 

Boylston, 491 05 

Braintree, 738 00 

Cambridge, 387 45 

Canton, 89 10 

Clinton, 128 00 

Cohasset, 1,830 50 

Concord, 121 15 

Danvers, 260 21 

Dedham, 879 19 

Douglas, 1 83 

Dover, 640 00 

East Bridgewater, 376 80 

Easthampton, 64 00 

Easton, 384 00 

Edgartown, 1 45 

Essex, 797 24 

Fall River, 96 00 

Falmouth, 320 00 

Fitchburg, 640 00 

Franklin, 157 14 

Gardner, 77 55 

Gloucester, . 332 81 

Grafton, 78 96 

Greenfield, 96 00 

Hamilton, 219 30 

Hanson, 146 03 

Hingham, 1,122 75 

Holden, 1,051 61 

HoUiston, 140 80 

Hopkinton, 755 66 

Ipswich, 57 91 

Lakeville, 79 00 

Lancaster, 640 00 

Leominster, 384 00 

LoweU, 387 41 

Manchester, 251 50 

Mansfield, 73 80 

Marblehead, 96 00 

Maynard, 228 90 



Amounts carried forward, .... $18,349 22 $70,720 00 



84 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Amounts brought fancard, .... $18,349 22 $70,720 00 

Medford, 256 00 

Medway, 166 05 

IMethuen, 317 37 

MiUbury, ' 26 68 

IVIilUs 256 00 

Natick, 53 53 

New Bedford, 124 25 

Newburj'port, 543 70 

North Andover, 6 61 

Northbridge, 2 04 

Norton, 171 75 

Norwood, 866 75 

Orange, 1 80 

Oxford, 1 08 

Peabody, 768 00 

Prescott, 18 45 

Princeton, 848 10 

Quincy, 1,118 15 

Pleading, 454 17 

Rehoboth, . 144 10 

Revere, . 96 00 

Rockland, . 369 00 

Rockport, 246 25 

Rowley, 7 41 

Royalston, .... ... 6 40 

Saugus, 178 51 

Sharon, 38 40 

Shirley, 23 17 

Shrewsbury, 453 91 

South Hadley, 32 00 

Stoughton, 60 93 

Stow, 39 68 

Sutton, 1 08 

Swampscott, 295 20 

Taunton, 348 25 

Templeton, 1,475 68 

Topsfield, 2,293 64 

Upton, 1 08 

Uxbridge, 1 08 

Wakefield, 520 01 

Walpole, 218 15 

Waltham, 116 99 



Amounts carried forward, .... $31,316 62 $70,720 00 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCraiEXT — No. 73. 85 

Amounts brought forward, .... $31,316 62 $70,720 00 

Wareham. 256 54 

Warren, 128 00 

Watertown, 115 20 

Wellesley, 129 15 

Wenham, 90 79 

West Boylston, 816 05 

West Newbury, 38 44 

Westborough, 39 81 

Westwood, 640 00 

We}Tnouth, 1,495 20 

Winthrop, 76 80 

Woburn, 857 72 

Worcester, 854 75 

East Gardner State Colonj^ .... 55 35 

Grafton State Hospital, 5 63 

Massachusetts School for Feeble-minded, , 66 15 

Metropohtan Water and Sewerage Board, . 147 60 

M. Guptill, 12 80 

Paul D. Kneeland, agent, 6 00 

Paul D. Kneeland, agent, use of outfit, . . 70 16 
Rebate, Boston Woven Hose and Rubber Com- 
pany, 145 57 

Refund, Geo. M. Roundy, ..... 26 70 

Tires sold, 12 35 

State Forest Commission, . . . 19 29 

State Forester's expenses, 72 74 

Prevention of forest fires, 329 08 

Purchase and planting of forest lands, . . 14 73 

Sagamore Beach gypsy moth fund, . . . 354 70 

Special North Shore fund, 6,812 83 

Special South Shore fund, 1 39 

45,008 14 



S115,728 14 

Appropriation for 1916, 175,000 00 



§290,728 14 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Office expenses : - Expenditures. 

Salaries of clerks, S3,090 97 

Rent of offices, 1,204 98 

Stationery and postage, 1,138 61 

Printing, 1,293 25 

Experts, 69 20 

Moth thinnings (supplies), 116 67 

SuppUes, 172 75 

Books, photographs, maps, etc., ... 212 68 

Sundries, 567 98 



Field expenses: — 

Pay roll, 22,020 32 

Town pay rolls, 26,885 11 

Travel, 11,083 50 

SuppHes, 125,293 58 

Teaming, repairs, etc., 659 09 

Special work, 6,000 00 

Rent of store, ....... 275 00 

Store equipment, 124 37 

Reimbursement to towns, 12,152 53 

212,360 59 



Balance Nov. 30, 1916, $78,367 55 



Financial Summary of Moth Work by Towns. 
The following table shows the reimbursement, amount of 
supplies furnished, and net amount received from this office 
by cities and towns for 1915, the required expenditure before 
receiving reimbursement from the State, the total net expendi- 
ture, the amount received for work on private property 
returned to this office, the amount paid in reimbursement, 
gross amount of supplies, and total net amount received from 
this office by cities and towns for 1916, and also the required 
expenditure for 1917; — 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,498 09 
1.007 59 
516 42 
2.910 97 
3.570 38 
."i.ono no 


603 74 
319 16 
639 81 
2,708 91 
5,000 00 
735 02 
467 46 
998 17 
3,721 72 


«o 

T-l 

a* 

\ 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$741 66 
441 75 


364 02 
397 44 
293 67 

181 91 
156 42 


Tools 
supplied. 


$790 30 
1.261 95 


106 19 
242 64 

253 65 

64 00 
75 52 
48 70 
477 46 
1,038 24 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$257 83 
} 164 80 
40 12 

133 21 


Private 
Work. 


/ $532 47' 
146 50 

1,061 88 


f 11 25' 
1 205 00 
/ 143 94' 
1 3 96 

148 15 

228 99 
56 90 
176 20 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$957 12 
2,868 00 


724 18 
470 81 
614 12 

363 32 
583 82 
614 28 


Required 


ture. 


$1,505 35 
1,005 76 
487 08 
2,712 77 
3.577 76 
6.000 00 


466 35 
316 01 
674 00 
2,677 37 
5,000 00 
714 63 
450 61 
975 67 
3,788 26 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 


from 
State. 


$754 36 
187 20 


689 88 
472 51 
138 45 

199 26 
209 42 
2,388 43 


Tools 
supplied. 


$574 77 
755 03 


341 88 
264 74 
138 45 

47 30 
81 89 
285 60 
2,862 88 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$179 59 


348 00 
207 77 

117 37 


Class. 


CO CO CO M .-1 


eoeoeo«»-ieoeocoe^ 


Cities and Towns. 


Acton 

Amesbury, 


Ashby, ' 

Ashland, 

Athol 

Attleboro 

Auburn 

Barnstable 



ss 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


. 

Hi 


$1,137 36 

856 03 
411 08 
443 66 
5,000 00 
238 32 
209 80 
5.000 00 
2,312 06 
1,004 08 
438 01 
5.000 00 
3,112 44 
122 74 
579 58 
234 29 
3,989 76 


1916. 


TotMl 
Amount 
recoivod 
from 
State. 


$1,475 68 

918 08 
1,050 20 
1.384 81 


1.414 90 
1,393 00 
426 66 


.•2 


$624 77 

31 25 
557 48 
276 75 
2.250 20 
13 38 
700 52 


^ 670 44 
1,993 00 
29 26 

738 00 


imburse- 
ment. 


$850 91 

1 300 00 

024 29 
2.000 00 

744 46 

390 41 


Private 
Work. 


$766 19 

68 30 

/ 176 40' 
1 339 33 

296 49 

86 45 
14.703 42 


389 83 • 

/ 119 37' 
1 41 n no 

263 02 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,046 42 

107 25 
628 73 

2,583 68 

937 42 
12.488 20 


800 68 
1,041 23 
024 74 


Hi 

Ir 


$1,132 90 
795 51 
400 34 
410 00 

4.563 81 
228 51 
208 13 

5,000 00 

2,203 17 
980 20 
313 13 

5.000 00 


2,903 65 
122 22 
641 48 
228 33 

8,794 33 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,485 90 

68 79 
668 99 

702 54 

818 71 
3.000 00 

1,445 20 

985 30 
Oil 83 


It 

^^ 


13 85 

16 62 
868 09 

784 13 

600 63 


595 20 
419 29 
108 69 


imburao- 
ment. 


1 

$700 00 

52 27 
200 00 

228 08 
3.000 00 


o >* 
o o 

§ § 3 

00 O lO 


1 

O 




C<I CO M CO « 


B 

Q 

2: 
•< 

s 


Barre 

Bedford 

Bolchertown, .... 

Bellingham 

Bolmont, 

Berkley 

Berlin 

Beverly, 

Billoripn 

jiniorica, ..... 

Blaoketon© 

Bolton 

Boston, 


Braintree, .... 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



89 





THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 




ivequirea 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1.101 28 

$620 02 
754 62 
764 67 
3,652 23 
1,000 90 
1,008 86 
284 99 
1,426 07 
1,169 82 
3,217 03 
3,049 75 
610 36 
638 61 
5.000 00 
1,978 57 
6,000 00 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,288 73 

1,158 10 
2,041 05 

450 34 


Tools 
supplied. 


- 

$1 83 

640 00 
664 67 

408 27 
1,070 42 
370 80 
64 00 
384 00 

140 74 

96 00 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$024 06 

089 83 
965 23 

309 60 


Private 
Work. 


- 

$770 03 

201 11 

698 57 

182 97 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


- 

$1,659 88 

8G0 11 
2,527 25 

199 46 
839 91 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,060 71 

602 44 
693 15 
634 02 
3,309 97 
1,035 82 
1,000 61 
170 28 
1,562 02 
1,100 47 
3,139 59 
2.914 34 
671 79 
530 31 
6.000 00 
1.800 64 
6,000 00 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


- 

$1,234 64 

842 34 
052 27 

460 94 


Tools 
supplied 


- 

$734 64 

192 53 
252 27 

40 17 

92 30 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


- 

$500 00 

049 81 
400 00 

420 77 


Class. 




coe<9eccoc*eo«f<5«e>5we*co«-HCO-H 


Cities and Towns. 


Deerfield 

Dennis 

Dighton 

Douglas 

Dover, 

Drucut, 

Dudley, 

Dunstable, 

Duxbury, ..... 
East Bridgewater, 
lOasthampton, .... 

Easton 

Edgartown, .... 

Essex 

Everett 

Fairhaven, .... 
Fall River 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



91 



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I 



92 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$748 20 

805 27 
1,280 56 
3,507 84 
795 86 
322 27 
1,752 91 
3,882 18 
2,419 40 
697 60 
531 77 
2,825 00 
5,000 00 
1,019 31 
3,378 92 
6,000 00 
4,087 50 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$447 37 

633 65 

171 96 

807 76 
- 

1,156 53 
595 13 
1,321 99 

2,193 33 


Tools 
supplied. 


$672 37 
146 38 
143 08 

88 98 

628 33 

1.156 53 
392 58 

1,921 99 
640 00 

384 00 
1.514 99 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$487 17 

82 98 
179 43 

} 202 55 

} 981 34 j 


Private 
Work. 


$201 76 

272 32 

63 20 

802 76 
- 

1.279 43 

/ 33 40' 
\ 323 22 

104 04 

/ 1 60> 
1 1,465 48 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$837 81 
1,251 27 

877 14 

1,891 75 

2,220 68 
885 03 
549 59 

5,813 22 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$713 13 
764 10 
858 93 
3,567 90 
794 10 
317 51 
1.712 32 
3,688 76 
2,287 70 
682 48 
513 82 
2,815 60 
5,000 00 
1,005 64 
3,.390 83 
5,000 00 
4,011 27 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,300 93 

56 34 

526 35 

706 90 
703 48 

1,847 17 


Tools 
supplied. 


$175 08 

05 90 

526 35 

764 81 
262 64 
79 00 

1,310 21 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$1,125 85 

440 84 
800 00 


Class. 




m 

o 

o 
< 

6 


Holbrook 

Holden 

HollUton 

Hopedale 

Hopkinton, .... 
Hubbardston, .... 

Hudson, 

Hull 

ipawicn, ..... 

Kingston 

Lakeville 

Lancaster, 

Lawrence, 

Ix^icester 

Lenox, 

I/eominster, .... 
Lexington, . . . . 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



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13 >> -a -O 13 ^ = 

c3 eS o o « O o 

S S S S S S S 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


S694 12 
4,158 82 
2,082 34 

383 89 
4,222 93 
1,336 42 

622 75 
5,000 00 

809 53 
3,055 50 
3,556 01 
2,241 19 
3,801 28 
3,915 13 
5,000 00 

172 77 

167 66 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


S606 01 
852 23 
4,611 70 
1,192 72 

1,226 97 
697 60 


Tools 
supplied. 


$117 99 

1,065 28 
1,927 51 
474 21 

26 33 
268 80 
2,453 95 

66 17 
2,395 15 
124 25 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$488 02 

2,934 25 
718 51 


Private 
Work. 


$272 31 
1,522 10 
982 99 
221 38 

5,370 74 

1,233 34 
2,600 32 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,046 61 
4,102 02 
6,169 07 
1,088 11 

6,224 92 

6,957 01 
2,531 19 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$558 69 
3,893 50 
1,984 82 

369 60 
4,188 83 
1,359 65 

689 23 
6,000 00 

791 36 
2,401 69 
3,375 80 
1,869 67 
3,717 30 
3,604 35 
5,000 00 

168 90 

159 18 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$745 61 
611 86 

2,074 06 
977 20 


Tools i 
supplied. I 


$211 99 
929 23 

1,075 64 
227 22 

1 08 

36 20 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$533 62 

998 42 
750 00 

1 

- 


Class. 




Cities and Towns. 


Merrimac, 

Methuen 

Middleborough 

Middleton 

Milford 

Millbury 

MiUis 

Milton 

Monson, 

Montague, 

Nahant 

Nantucket, 

Natick 

Needham 

New Bedford, .... 

New Braintree 

New Salem 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



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^ ^ Z 'Z 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


528 25 
$978 77 

468 73 

131 86 

428 75 
5,000 00 

188 57 
86 81 

902 84 
1.111 97 
5,000 00 
1,176 00 

402 67 
3,327 59 

432 90 
5,000 00 

425 37 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$3,055 06 

1,339 79 

1,825 22 

2,079 44 

600 00 

151 61 
1,249 47 


Tools 
supplied. 1 


$2,184 93 

503 26 

66 33 

520 10 
18 45^ 
345 96 1 

2,319 61 
118 60 
157 53 
1,649 08 j 
148 18 I 
96 00 1 
- \ 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$1,120 13 

836 53 

1 1.430 12 
1,733 48 

- I 

" i 


Private 
Work. 


$879 80 
649 38 

130 88 

/ 10 00» 
\ 114 00 

178 00 i 

1,519 80 ! 

137 72 1 
2,118 00 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,656 56 
1,778 71 

176 40 

1,741 33 

2,299 53 

6,323 70 

390 46 
3.074 98 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1 

$498 69 
942 18 
416 26 
122 27 
423 38 

5,000 00 
186 21 

566 05 

980 88 
5,000 00 
1,266 86 

396 38 
3,162 20 

428 10 
5.000 00 

420 63 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,282 95 
1,124 09 

43 34 
1,322 80 
2.209 96 

160 62 
509 81 


Tools 
supplied. 


$549 98 
572 47 

43 34 
225 49 
387 33 

160 62 
1,418 15 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. ^ 


$732 97 
551 62 

1,097 31 
1,822 63 


Class. 




Cities and Towns. 


Pembroke 

Pepperell 

Petersham 

Phillipston 

Plainville 

Plymouth, 

Plympton ' . 

Prescott 

Princeton 

Provincetown, . . . 
Quincy, . . . 

Randolph, 

Raynham 

Reading, 

Rehoboth 

Revere 

Rochester, 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 




^ ' ' ^ £? ' . * 

'■3 o_r >>— a 3-^ =5>5>H.o. 

eS « e5 ej S S^jS^J O O O O acS 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,828 02 
2,499 86 
1,925 92 
464 29 
382 53 
672 37 
618 76 
5,000 00 
810 01 
5,000 00 
819 06 
988 44 
970 27 
2.071 56 
585 99 
220 42 
334 41 


1916. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$764 59 

645 48 
1,324 30 

1,085 21 

634 13 
1,473 93 

439 26 
1,032 60 
45 17 
2,421 40 


Tools ' 
supplied. 


$955 89 ' 
981 67 
779 32 

1,016 20 
1 79 
295 20 

348 25 
502 08 
766 10 

471 37 
627 59 
76 69 1 
918 46 ' 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1 $544 98 
69 01 

132 05 
707 83 

405 01 
1,502 94 


1 

Private 
Work. 


$1,410 17 

369 89 
/ 249 371 
1 299 68 

783 98 

ii 

- ,1 
447 76 1 
426 92 

761 90 
442 63 
14 00 
675 18 


Total Net \ 
Expendi- ! 
ture. 


$2,438 18 
1,826 37 
1,135 59 

715 40 i 

1,067 08 
1,452 54 

1,685 82 
983 14 
176 16 

1,804 31 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,807 00 
2,438 34 
1,740 18 
590 61 
382 04 
646 39 
619 97 
5,000 00 
780 74 
5,000 00 
810 03 
744 71 
863 41 
1,717 93 
678 13 
207 68 
301 37 


1915. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,081 32 
170 64 
1,093 73 

1,321 94 

187 34 
1,605 65 

287 66 
750 01 
147 64 
2,207 90 


Tools 
supplied. 


$881 32 
231 57 
677 21 

791 36 

122 93 
709 32 

230 06 
350 01 
147 54 
757 90 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$200 00 
416 62 
530 58 

64 41 
896 33 

57 60 
400 00 

1,450 00 


Class. 


CO CO CO CO CO CO ^ CO ^ CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 


Cities and Towns. 


Stockbridge, .... 

Stoneham, 

Stoughton, . . . 

Stow 

Sturbridge, 

Sudbury, 

Sutton 

Swampscott 

Swansea, 

Taunton, 

Templeton, .... 
Tewksbury, .... 

Tisbury, 

Topsfield 

Townsend, 

Truro, 

Tyngsborough 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



99 




S ? o 6 . I . ^ I i u ^ = S ^ ^ I .2 £ -H 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



1917. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1405 24 

5,000 00 
1.003 72 
2,370 23 
5,000 00 

301 28 
2,465 83 

875 87 
1,787 01 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
5.000 00 
5,000 00 

660 53 
1.025 43 


1916. 


Total 
Amount ; 
received 

from 

State. 


$1,061 48 

2.819 21 

2.331 56 
1,081 57 


Tools 

supplied. 


$126 17 

3,974 01 

640 00 
1,495 20 

1,070 41 
319 48 

76 80 
639 63 
1,036 92 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$926 31 

1,261 15 
762 09 

- 


Private 
Work. 


$168 21 

2,760 00 

827 04 
247 95 

/ 223 621 
i 1,200 76 


Total Net 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$1,326 48 
4,023 48 

2,062 12 
2,540 89 

5,259 64 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


$401 17 
3,484 34 

982 63 
1,804 62 
5,000 00 

303 93 
2,303 84 

843 89 
1,778 80 
5.000 00 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 
5,000 00 

642 18 
1.023 11 


IMS. 


Total 
Amount 
received 
from 
State. 


$1,302 11 
931 43 

1,821 13 
610 34 

726 93 


Tools 
supplied. 


$105 41 
1,862 87 

871 13 
331 69 

219 29 
1,453 86 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


$1,196 70 

950 00 
278 65 


OQ 
OS 

o 




Cities and Towns. 


Westminster, .... 

Weston 

Wostport 

Westwood, 

Weymouth, .... 
Wlmtely 

Wilmington, .... 
Wincnendon, .... 
Winchester, .... 

Winthrop 

Woburn, 

Wrentham, ..... 
Yarmouth, 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



Report of the State Forester on the Resolve author- 
izing HIM TO ASSIST IN THE CuTTING AND DISPOSING OF 

Merchantable Timber on Lands on and Adjacent to 
Mount Grace in the Town of Warwick. 

To the General Court. 

In regard to the aid and assistance to owners of property on Mount 
Grace and adjacent property as directed by the General Court in the 
following resolve: — 

Chapter 129. 

Resolved, That the state forester is hereby authorized and directed to assist, 
upon request, subject to the terms and conditions of section two of chapter four 
hundred and nine of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, owners of 
land on or adjacent to Mount Grace in the town of Warwick, upon which there is 
merchantable timber, in the cutting and disposing of the timber thereon, by recom- 
mending the use of modern forestry principles and methods pertaining thereto. 
The state forester is further directed to estimate the value of the timber cut on the 
lands on and adjacent to Mount Grace during the current year and to report 
thereon to the next general court not later than the second Wednesday in January. 
[Approved May 23, 1916. 

I respectfully state that this investigation has been made and is herewith 
reported upon. Mr. Frank L. Haynes, the forest engineer, who made the 
investigation and survey for last year's report, has again furnished the 
data upon which the following is based. 

In accordance with the provisions of the legislative resolve calling for 
further investigation of the Mount Grace area and lands adjacent thereto, 
and in compliance with your instructions for a report covering the execu- 
tion of the provisions of the legislative resolve, the following is submitted. 

Investigation of Mount Grace and areas adjacent thereto and informa- 
tion received from timberland owners in that vicinity indicate that no 
cutting of consequence has been undertaken during the period between 
May 23, 1916, and Dec. 19, 1916. That no operating has been carried 
on is probably due to the fact that it has been almost impossible during 
the past season to secure enough woodsmen to carry on a lumbering opera- 
tion in this section of any material size. No requests have been received 
from the Mount Grace timberland owners asking for assistance in the 
management of their holdings in keeping with modern forestry principles, 
and inasmuch as no timber is known to have been cut, it is impossible to 
carry out the provisions of the legislative resolve calling for an estimate 
of the timber cut. The entire Mount Grace matter stands as it did at the 
time the last report on the project was submitted, reference to which may 
be had. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. Rane, 
State Forester. 

Dec. 23, 1916. 



102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Report of the State Forester on the Resolve providing 
FOR A Further Investigation relative to the Advis- 
ability OF TAKING Mount Holyoke as a State Reser- 
vation. 

To the General Court. 
In the matter of the investigation for further information relative to a 

State reservation being made of Mount Holyoke, as directed by the Gren- 

eral Court in the following resolve: — 

Chapter 145. 

Resolved, That the state forester is hereby authorized and directed to investigate 
further as to the advisability of acquiring Mount Holyoke in the towns of Hadley 
and South Hadley as a state reservation. He is also directed to ascertain, so far as 
possible, what proportion of the citizens of the commonwealth would be benefited 
by the said acquisition, and the probable number of people who will visit the 
mountain during the present year, and to gather such other information as will 
enable the general court to determine the wisdom of acquiring the mountain, and 
to report to the next general court not later than the second Wednesday in January. 
[Approved May 24, 1916. 

I respectfully state that this investigation has been made and is herewith 
reported upon. The State Forester made two trips to the mountain and 
also made arrangements for securing data through Mr. John A. RoweU, 
the proprietor of the Mountain House, and for further assistance through 
Mr. Frank L. Hajoies, an assistant forester in the State's service, who 
made the original survey and report submitted last year to the General 
Court. 

Mount Holyoke Lands. 
In the report on the Mount Holyoke Reservation submitted to the 
Legislature last year it was recommended that the several thousand feet 
of standing chestnut be cut as soon as possible on account of its being 
infested by the chestnut bark disease. Preparations are being made for 
the cutting and removal of this chestnut during the winter of 1916-17. 
The removal of this standing chestnut, estimated to total 500,000 board 
feet, wdU not materially decrease the value of the tree growth on the 
mountain as a whole, owing to the fact that most of -the chestnut is in a 
dead or dying condition and would, unless cut and utihzed soon, be 
without a value in itseK. Also on account of the chestnut being scattered 
in amongst other hardwood trees, its removal will not leave the area from 
which it is cut in an entirely open or bare condition and of less value for 
park purposes. 

Use of the Mountain. 
The legislative resolve asks for an estimate of what proportion of the 
citizens of the Commonwealth would be benefited by the acquisition of 
the reserv^ation by the State. It is rather difficult to form even an ap- 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 



proximate estimate. It appears reasonable to state that the major part 
of the visitors to Mount Holyoke are those citizens of the State Uving in 
that portion of the thickly settled Connecticut River valley from which 
the mountain is the most readily accessible, but there are also hundreds 
of people visiting the mountain each year who come from nearly all parts 
of this and other States. 

Visitors yearly. 

As to the number of people visiting the mountain each year, the follow- 
ing figures furnished by Mr. Howell, manager of the hotel on Mount 
Holyoke, may be of interest. During the seasons of 1914, 1915 and 1916, 
15,213 guests were registered at the Mountain House, as follows: 1914, 
4,100 guests; 1915, 5,576; 1916 (up to October 1), 5,537. 

The accessibility of Mount Holyoke for automobihsts, made possible 
by the excellent road running to the summit, is shown by the fact that 
approximately 2,800 automobiles have been to the top of the mountain 
during the past three seasons. Most of the travel to the mountain occurs 
on Sundays and hohdays, on which days about 200 people and 30 to 50 
automobiles are Tecorded. 

Further investigation of the Mount Holyoke Reservation proposition 
has not brought forth additional data or information having a tendency 
to change the status of the matter as a whole over the report submitted to 
the last Legislature, reference to which may be had. (See the twelfth 
annual report of the Massachusetts State Forester, pages 113 to 122, or 
the last year's Mount Holyoke bill.) 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. Rane, 
State Forester, 

Dec. 23, 1916. 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Report of the State Forester on the Resolve author- 
izing HIM TO Assist in the Cutting and Disposing 
OF Merchantable Timber on Lands on and Adjacent 
TO the Mohawk Trail. 

To the General Court. 

In regard to aid and assistance to owners of property along the Mohawk 

Trail as directed by the General Court in the following resolve: — 

Chapter 147. 

Resolved, That the state forester is hereby authorized and directed to assist, 
upon request, subject to the terms and conditions of section two of chapter four 
hundred and nine of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, owners of 
land on or adjacent to the Mohawk trail, so-called, in Berkshire and Franklin 
counties, upon which there is merchantable timber, in the cutting and disposing of 
the said timber by recommending the use of modern forestry principles and methods 
pertaining thereto. The state forester is further directed to estimate the value of 
the timber cut on the said lands during the current year, and report thereon to 
the next general court not later than the second Wednesday in January. [Ap'proved 
May 26, 1916. 

I respectfully state that this investigation has been made and is herewith 
reported upon. The State Forester has made several trips over the 
Mohawk Trail during the year, but has depended upon Mr. Frank L. 
Haynes, the forest engineer, who made the original report last year, to 
investigate the conditions and furnish the available data upon which the 
folloTving is based. 

During the period of time between May 26, 1916, the date on which 
the above legislative resolve was approved, and the present, there have 
been no requests from landowners in the vicinity of the Mohawk Trail for 
assistance in managing their woodland holdings along forestry Imes. 
Inspection of the immediate Mohawk Trail areas and information secured 
from some of the o'VMiers themselves indicate that no cutting of material 
consequence has been carried on during the past seven months. This 
condition of affairs is to a considerable extent both fortunate and unusual, 
and can be accounted for as follows. It has been extremely difficult for 
woodland owners desiring to operate their holdings to secure sufficient 
woodsmen to carry on their cutting and hauling. This condition of affairs 
has obtained in all parts of the State, the Mohawk Trail section being no 
exception. Also during the past season the woodworking plant located at 
Charlemont was destroyed by fire, thereby ehminating for one season a 
mill which ordinarily utilized a large proportion of the wood cut on lands 
immediately bordering the trail itseff. This mill is being rebuilt, and, 
should woodsmen be available another season, it appears reasonable to 
believe that the trail woodlands wiU be cut into, and possibly in such 
a manner and to such an extent that the natural beauty of the lower 
trail scenery wiU be seriously disturbed for a considerable period of time. 
This is true for the reason that the birch, and especially the white birch, 
which adds so materially to the natural beauty of the trail in all seasons. 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUIVIENT — No. 73. 



105 



is the tree in greatest demand for woodworking purposes in that imme- 
diate vicinity. There has been a small amount of cutting done during the 
past season, but the amount and value are not of sufficient magnitude to 
consider. On the whole, the Mohawk Trail lands matter stands as it did 
at the time the last report was submitted to the Legislature, reference to 
which may be had. Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. Rane, 

Dec. 23, 1916. State Forester. 

Meetings and Addresses. 
The department is called upon each year for talks and 
addresses before various organizations. We endeavor to do as 
much of this kind of work as seems consistent with accomplish- 
ing best results. The following organizations and meetings 
were attended the past year: — 



Worcester County Farm League, 

Worcester. 
Boston Market Gardeners Association. 
Topsfield Grange and Citizens Club. 
Marshfield Agricultural Society. 
Wellesley Club. 
Northampton Board of Trade. 
Newton Technical High School. 
EUiott Church Men's Club, Lowell. 
Meeting of local moth superintendents, 

Boston. 

Tree Wardens and Foresters Associa- 
tion, Boston. 

Boston Public Library course. 

Conservation Commission, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Forest Owners Club, Tuxedo Park, 
N. Y. 

Massachusetts Forestry Association, 
Springfield. 

West Medway Grange. 

Cornell University, " Massachusetts 
Forest Policy." 

Society for the Protection of New 
Hampshire Forests, Crawfords, N. H. 

Southeastern Agricultural Society, Lin- 
coln Park, Westport. 

Harvard G?range. 

Amesbury and Salisbury Agricultural 
Society. 

Hampden County Improvement 

League. 
Massachusetts State Grange. 
Weeks Law Co-operative Forest Fire 

Conference, Boston. 
Forest Fire Wardens' conferences at 

Pittsfield, Greenfield, Springfield, 



Worcester, Fitchburg, Lawrence, 
Middleborough and Boston. 

Fire Chiefs Club, Springfield. 

Hingham Fire Department. 

Massachusetts State Board of Agricul- 
ture, Boston. 

Middlefield Agricultural Society. 

Society for the Promotion of Agricul- 
tural Science, Washington, D. C. 

Cape Cod Cranberry Growers Associa- 
tion, Wareham. 

Citizens* meeting, Warwick. 

Dracut Grange. 

Sudbury Women's Club and Grange. 
Needham Board of Trade. 
W'oUaston Improvement Association. 
Opening of town forest, Walpole. 
Old home day. Carver. 
Hingham Agricultural Society. 
Alpha Club, Blackstone. 
Public meeting, Northborough. 
Waverley Improvement Association. 
Rockland Grange. 
Hubbardston Men's Club. 
Hanson Grange. 

Uxbridge High School Alumni Associa- 
tion. 

Old Bajrtist Brotherhood, Cambridge. 
Convention of Eastern Foresters Asso- 
ciation. 

Entomological conference under aus- 
pices of United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Marshfield Grange. 

Farmers' week, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College. 
Boston Lumber Trade Club. 



106 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The following address was delivered by the State Forester 
at Washington, D. C, before the thirty-seventh annual meet- 
ing of the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science 
on Nov. 14, 1916: — 

Forest Depredation and Utilization. 

It is hardly necessary to emphasize to an American the fact that forests 
are primarily used in our industries, for we have been only too cognizant 
of the truth of this statement from resultant conditions. 

Without going into the discussion of wasteful and deplorable forest 
methods, it is the purpose of this paper to point out wherein practical 
forestry may aid in the solution of many perplexing forest problems. 

By forest depredations we include a very large number of troubles, the 
more important of which are damage to forests from fire, disease, insects, 
wind and animals. 

In a comparatively new coimtry like ours where practically no atten- 
tion was given to future conditions, and where due consideration is gained 
only by severe experience, we awaken to find many disastrous things have 
been done which now must be rectified. 

The problems now are many and complicated, and they could have 
been avoided with comparatively Httle effort, if we had had our present 
knowledge. 

In forest troubles coming from insects and diseases, we are finding, as 
was the case in the fruit-growing industry, our greater troubles come from 
introduced or so-called foreign insects and diseases brought to us usuaUy 
on imported stock. Steps have been taken to regulate future importations 
through careful inspections and powers of restriction, but this is of Httle 
use in overcoming and neutrahzing the depredations of those already 
established. 

It is these insects and diseases that are causing us a great amount of 
trouble. To cope with these unwelcome guests has proven in many cases 
extremely troublesome and expensive. 

The writer has had much experience with forest depredations, and the 
results secured through a careful study of utiHzation as a practical aid in 
the solution of a few of our forest troubles in Massachusetts seem very 
encouraging. 

This probably explains why the secretary of this society has asked the 
writer to discuss at this time, first, the latest developments in the work 
of suppression of the gypsy and brown-tail moths in Massachusetts, and, 
second, the present status of the chestnut blight and the blister rust 
diseases of more recent years. 

In order to succeed in aiding the woodland owner in our State in his 
fight against the invasion of his forest growth by pests, a very careful and 
complete surv^ey of the whole question of markets, materials, labor costs, 
cost of teaming, transportation charges, milling expenses, supervision, 
etc., was made in order to utilize aU dormant capital possible, which 



1917.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



107 



otherwise would be almost a total loss. This study has proved worth the 
effort, as not only have we been able to make the sale of forest products self- 
supporting, but in many cases a substantial net revenue has been secured. 

For a number of years the gypsy and browTi-tail moth work was con- 
fined largely to shade trees and orchards, and the work of combating and 
suppressing these insects was directed towards overcoming the great loss 
following their ravages measured largely in aesthetic values. 

As was ine\'itable, although the very best brains of the nation assisted 
by experts from abroad were focussed upon the suppression of these 
insects, the spread continued throughout the forests of the eastern part 
of the State. As these insects became intrenched in our woodlands, which 
are composed of a great variety ranging from valueless scrub and brush 
growth to superior stands, the same methods practiced upon preservation 
of trees in cities and towns were prohibitive on account of the great ex- 
pense entailed. It was found that to spray an acre of woodland of average 
conditions with arsenate of lead, for example, would cost S40, while the 
assessed value of the whole property might not average that amount. 

Anticipating these conditions, the Massachusetts State Forester set at 
work to meet the situation, and in a year's time evolved a sprajdng machine 
that revolutionized all pre^dous methods. This machine was constructed 
of parts made of bronze metal instead of cast iron and perfected in such 
a way as to obtain greater efficiency in sprajdng and at the same time re- 
duce the expense of operation. The result of this improvement in our 
spraying equipment was to lower the comparative cost of woodland 
spraying from S40 to $6 per acre. In accomphshing this result, the State 
Forester desires to acknowledge the assistance of L. H Worthley and 
Melvin Guptill. The former was an assistant in the department in charge 
of moth work and the latter was responsible for executing the engineering 
work. This powerful machine, making possible the sprajong of tall trees 
without climbing, is economical of team and manual labor. No patents 
were ever appHed for and the results were given to the world. This machine 
has been in common use in Massachusetts and elsewhere, and, aside from 
the natural improvements suggested from experience and minor inventions 
each j'-ear, is the same machine. 

Other methods of moth suppression besides spraying have been used, 
such as introducing parasites, creosoting egg masses, etc., all of which 
are of value when used inteUigently, but spraj-ing is commonly resorted to 
when immediate results are desired. During the past season the contract 
for arsenate of lead by the State Forester was for 700 tons, and it is be- 
heved that 1,000 tons may have been used in Massachusetts. 

As soon as the moths began to make inroads into the forests, we were 
confronted not only with improving and perfecting our sprajdng methods 
but other economic measures suggested themselves. 

It was found to be a poor poKcy to spray good, bad and indifferent 
trees ahke. It naturally followed, therefore, that the undesirable ones 
were taken out, thus enabling the remaining trees to_^be sprayed more 
economically. 



108 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Herein lies the main thought of this discussion, the point to be em- 
phasized, namel}^, forest utilization in connection with depredations. 

The chief purpose of the forester is to bring order and system out of 
chaos, and meanwhile to determine ways and means of reducing our 
methods to scientific and economic practice. 

Upon studying the moth situation from the broad standpoint of future 
results when applied to forest conditions, the correct method of procedure 
was self-evident. As already indicated, it was an advantage to thin the 
forests to accomplish better spraying, and this practice naturally fell to 
the trained forester. 

As soon as modern forestry practices were appHed and syhacultural 
studies made, better results followed. It was soon demonstrated that 
certain trees were the natural food of the moths while others were to a 
greater or lesser extent immune from their attack, and particularly so 
when in so-called clear stands or in mixtures with other species equally 
undesirable as moth food. 

Taking advantage of these fundamentals and encouraged by actual 
results from the field experience, the so-caUed forestry methods of moth 
control have rapidly come to the front. During the past few years the 
State Forester has executed some large forest operations which have not 
only proven satisfactory in handling the moths, but from the economic 
standpoint have aided in estabUshing better forestry practices. The 
result from moth invasion in woodlands was to throw upon the market an 
oversupply of dead and dying forest products. 

The forests of eastern Massachusetts are the remains of a culled-out 
and cut-over country which has restocked itself without regulation or 
future concern. All sorts of forest types, species, mixtures, ages and con- 
ditions are found. 

When the moths invade these woodlands they readily find enough of 
such species as they prefer to five upon until they are fairly grown, and 
then, if compelled to do so, they finish their feeding period on whatever 
remains for them to devour. 

Taking advantage of this fact, we have inaugurated the practice of 
taking out those species upon which the insects thrive best, their so-called 
natural food trees, with the result that the conditions are unhealthy for 
their propagation. The evergreens, the white pine in particular, one of 
our most valued species, we find are practically immune from the gypsy 
moth when grown in clear stands, for the reason that the very young 
caterpillars are unable to eat the needles. Hence, if there are no decidu- 
ous trees present upon which they may feed during their earlier stages of 
existence, the pine is unmolested. Had this fact alone been known earher 
in the moth suppression work, great areas of white pine could have been 
saved. Our present treatment, therefore, with white pine stands is simply 
to thin out the growth upon which the gypsy moth naturally feeds, such 
as oak and gray birch, and the stand is thereafter self -protecting. 

To work out a poHcy whereby all of the various conditions and methods 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



109 



could be made to harmonize and still accomplish results has been no small 
undertaking. 

The earlier moth work entailed great expense and this in itself rendered 
it unpopular. The constant aim at present is to conduct the work along 
seK-supporting lines as far as possible. In forestry methods of moth 
control, estimates of costs are made and the forest products practically- 
sold before the operation is begun. The State Forester and his assistants 
supervise the work, let contracts for the milling, chopping, hauling, etc., 
but the owner advances the funds for the undertaking. 

During the past three years approximately 45,000 cords of wood and 
between 7,000,000 and 8,000,000 feet of lumber have been operated under 
this plan. 

Every time an operation of this sort is properly done, it is not only an 
example of good moth-suppression work, but a beginning of better forestry 
practice; the territory for future infestation is lessened by just that much, 
and, best of all, it is self-supporting. Any one can spend money in this 
work, but it takes men with experience and ability to break even or, still 
better, return a profit to the owner. 

To find a market, or utihzation alone, has been a perplexing problem. 
It has been necessary actually to create a market for our products. The 
wood-using industries had well-established sources of supply, and many 
ingenious plans were attempted before the trade could be interested. 
Three years ago, under very unfavorable markets, the work was made a 
success, and since the European war, of course, the only difficulty to sur- 
mount is that of getting efficient labor. The demand for forest products 
is far beyond our abihty to supply. 

Word has been sent out recently from the Massachusetts State Forester, 
through his local town officials and by means of the press, to all farmers 
and woodland owners, emphasizing the fact that this year offers excep- 
tional opportunities for doing splendid constructive forestry work. The 
price of coal is very high, and, should present conditions continue, even 
more direful need for fuel may exist another season. At any rate every- 
thing is favorable for the better solving of our moth troubles and estab- 
lishing permanent forestry conditions. 

This whole subject is discussed more fully in the pubHcations of the 
Massachusetts State Forester, which are available to those interested. I 
trust I have pointed out that utihzation, particularly in our fight in the 
moth-control work in Massachusetts, has been a very practical method of 
attack. This work will necessarily need to be continued for years. 

If the gypsy and brown-tail moths have done nothing else, they have 
driven us to a stern reahzation that we need to practice more and better 
methods of forestry management if we are to get best results. 



110 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Chestnut Blight. 

The disease known as the chestnut blight has swept over the north- 
eastern part of the United States, and apparently stands ready to annihi- 
late the chestnut tree in this section. It is common to Massachusetts 
generally, although in some sections of the State conditions are worse 
than in others. As the disease is communicable from tree to tree and is 
very virulent, the outcome is entirely problematic. 

As is the case with moth work, Massachusetts is giving all possible aid 
to chestnut tree owners in utilization of their products, and at the same 
time is determining upon some forestry policy for the cut-over land. 
Where the chestnut is in mixtures of pine, the pine is retained with the 
idea of supplanting the chestnut growth with this species. Chestnut poles, 
ties and saw timber are all in demand at good prices; hence conditions are 
very favorable for owners to reaUze on this crop. 

White Pine Blister Rust. 

This disease has been introduced into this country on nursery stock of 
either the white pine or other five-leaved pines, or on the currants and 
gooseberries, the plants belonging to the genus Ribes. 

Unlike the chestnut bark disease it does not spread from pine to pine, 
but must alternate from pine to Ribes to complete its life cycle. 

The disease is common in Europe and was found in New York State on 
imported stock several years ago. At that time, upon the invitation of 
Mr. J. S. Whipple, then forest, fish and game commissioner of New York, 
a conference of officials from various States and the government met at 
Albany and later in New York city, where the whole matter was fully 
discussed. The result of these meetings was to cease importing foreign 
white pine stock, rigidly inspect all future imports, grow our own stock in 
this country, and practice a close inspection of all foreign stock already 
planted here with a view to destroying it should the disease appear. 

Recognizing the importance of having an inspection of the foreign 
stock already planted in Massachusetts, the State Forester had an official 
representative of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States 
Department of Agriculture visit our plantations and advise us regarding 
them in 1911. 

Last year the disease was found on two of our large private estates, one 
in the eastern or North Shore section, and the other in the western or 
popular Berkshire country. Upon finding these outbreaks, interest was 
aroused in determining more fully the conditions elsewhere. It was found 
that the currants proved a good index for determining the presence of the 
disease, and an inspection over a considerable portion of the State showed 
its presence. BeHeving it of sufficient importance to make even further 
investigation in order to determine more fully to just what extent the 
disease may be found and to eradicate its evils, the State appropriated 
$10,000 for use the past season. The United States Congress also appro- 
priated $50,000 for similar use throughout the Nation. 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Ill 



Scouting investigations have continued throughout the year and prac- 
tically the whole State of Massachusetts has been covered. It is under- 
stood that the disease is found very generally ^distributed over the State, 
being, however, more commonly found in some sections than in others. 

White pines are far less affected than are currants, but here and there 
the pines are found with the disease. In no case, as far as the writer is 
aware, is there an infection of sufficient magnitude to destroy a stand of 
white pine of any appreciable size. Here and there, where the disease has 
been present for a period of years, a few fairly good sized trees, ranging up 
to 12 inches in diameter, contained more or less bhster rust cankers on 
their branches and some upon the upper main trunk. In most cases here, 
however, the trees themselves were groT\dng in abnormal conditions and 
were equally unhealthy from an unfavorable environment, and were in- 
fested with all the other disease and insect enemies common to their kind. 

In plantations of imported stock the disease is likely to be found, and in 
our younger plantations, if the disease is present, it is in all likelihood 
accounted for in this way. Plantations of native stock are practically free 
from the disease. There is a possible danger, however, from these native 
plantations having been filled in with foreign stock, which might account 
for some infestations. 

Our Massachusetts plantations of foreign stock have been gone over 
each year, and the infected trees have been puUed and burned. This 
practice, now running over a period of six years, has resulted in less and 
less infected trees each year, and at no time has the percentage of trees 
affected been as large as 1 per cent. 

With our present knowledge of the subject, what remains for us to do in. 
the future? The writer is frank to say that it is his beHef that more harm 
than good has been done by the unnecessary agitation in the pubHcity 
campaign so systematically carried on at great expense, exciting people 
over a subject about which enough is not yet known even by experts 
themselves. It is a very easy matter to tear down, but quite another to 
build up and accomplish something. For the past ten years we have been 
working hard in Massachusetts to encourage better forestry practices, 
and reforestation, particularly with white pine, has just gotten under 
headway. Our people are interested and enthusiastically co-operating. 
We have millions of trees in our nurseries ready to go out, and all at once 
under the guise of pubKc-spirited co-operation, and before there has been 
sufficient evidence, a campaign is set in motion to discourage and thwart 
all our laudable reforestation endeavors. 

Reahzing that the bHster rust disease needs attention, and beheving 
that it could be properly safeguarded by those who are made responsible 
for so doing, last year the following recommendation was made in the 
State Forester's annual report, and it is beheved it will bear repeating 
now, as follows : — 



112 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The white pine blister rust, one of the diseases of the white pine, should be given 
due consideration at the hands of our various State ofl5cials, particularly the pathol- 
ogist of the Agricultural Experiment Station and the State Nursery Inspector, in 
determining our conditions as regards this disease. Some definite policy of holding 
the disease in check, or exterminating it if possible, should be arrived at. It is 
believed that while this disease may become very destructive to our white pines, 
nevertheless the danger is not sufficient to discourage prospective planters of the 
white pine. It is not our purpose to minimize the importance of this disease, nor 
do we intend to lessen our endeavor to combat it. "We do, however, believe it is a 
good policy not to overexaggerate the question, and thus necessarily deter the 
constructive work of reforestation, until there is more convincing proof than is to 
be had at present that the disease is likely to become a great menace to white pine. 
It is to be hoped that the average Massachusetts citizen will go ahead planting 
white pine as enthusiastically as ever, leaving the problem of its protection from 
diseases and insects to be looked after by technically trained officials. 

We certainly have not sufficient knowledge at the present time to deter- 
mine how serious a menace confronts us in this disease. Investigation 
and experience will have to serv^e as a guide to future operations. 

From a more or less careful study of conditions my personal recom- 
mendations in handling this disease for this coming year would be as 
follows : • — 

1. Empower a State department with authority to regulate and control 
any and all diseased white pines and Ribes (currants and gooseberries), 
declaring them a pubHc nuisance and to be dealt with in a similar manner 
to that in which gypsy moths are now controlled. 

2. That a sufficient appropriation be made for carrying the work on as 
the exigencies of the occasion demand from year to year. 

Results are what is desired, and the sooner this disease is gotten in 
hand the better. Meanwhile optimism rather than pessimism will the 
better aid in solving our forestry problems. Where there is a will there is 
a way, and Massachusetts does not concede for one minute that we are 
going to lose our white pines, from any diagnosis that her State Forester, 
at least, can make thus far. 



! 
I 

i 



f 




An example of where a young white pine tree lost its leader, due to the pine weevil, 
and in two years' time one of the lateral branches had assumed the position shown 
in this photograph. The last season's growth measured 42 inches. This demonstrates 
how a tree may outgrow its injury. 



1917J PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



113 



List of Foeest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 

[Alphabetically by towns and cities.] 



Telephone 
Numbek. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


157-W, Rockland, 


Sumner L. Deane, . 


Abington, . 


C.F.Shaw, . 


7 


71-4, . 


Wm. H. Kingsley, . 


Acton, . 


J. O'NeU, . 


4 


2003-M, 


Henry F. Taber, 


Acushnet, . 


A. P. R. Gilmore, . 


8 


201, Kippers, 


John Clancy, . 


Adams, 


John Clancy, 


5 


1431-M, 


E. M. Hitchcock, . 


Agawam, 


E. M. Hitchcock, . 


5 


161;6, Great Bar- 

rington. 
179-M, 


W. F. Milligan, 
Jas. E. Feltham, 


Alford, 
Amesbury, . 


- 

A. L. Stover, 


- 

3 


541-M, 


A. F. Bardwell, 


Amherst, 


W. H. Smith, 


5 


324-M, 


Chas. S. Buchan, 


Andover, 


J. H. Playdon, . 


3 


35 or 206, . 


Walter H. Pierce, . 


Arlingrton, . 


Daniel M. Daley, . 


1 


2-12, . 


John T. Withington, 


Ashburnham, 


Chas. H. Pratt, . 


4 


8014, . 


W. S. Green, . 


Ashby, 


Fred C. Allen, 


4 


3-5, . 


Ralph Tredick, 


Ashfield, 


Chas. A. Smithfc . 


5 


1018-W, 


Horace Piper, . 


Ashland, 


Theodore P. Hall, . 


6 


6 or 485, 


Frank P. HaU, 


Athol, . 


W. S. Penniman, , 


5 


34-R-4, 


H. B. Packard, 


Attleboro, . 


W. E. S. Smith, . 


6 


5-12, . 


J. F.' Searle, . 


Auburn, 


J. F. Searle, . 


5 


3259-M, 


Jas. W. McCarty, . 


Avon, . 


W. W. Beals, 


7 


- 


Douglas C. Smith, . 


Ayer, . 


D. C. Smith, 


4 


144-2, . 


H. C. Bacon, . 


Barnstable, 


Robt. Cross, 


8 


83-4, . 


A, E. Traver, . 


Barre, . 


K. M. Urquart, . 


5 


8000 or 18, . 


P. B. McCormick, . 


Becket, 


- 


- 


- 


Irving C. Waite, 


Bedford, 


W. A. Cutler, 


1 


10-2, . 


J. A. Peeso, 


Belchertown, 


E. C. Howard, 


5 




L. F. Thayer, . 


Bellingham, 


Lewis E. Whitney, 


6 


409-W, 


J. F. Leonard, . 


Belmont, 


C. H. Houlahan, . 


1 


1367-M, 


G. H. Babbitt, 


Berkley, 


A. A. Briggs, 


6 


14-6, . ' . 


Walter Cole, . 


Berlin, 


E. C. Ross, . 


4 


43-12, . 


Edson W. Hale, 


Bernardston, 


Edwin B. Hale, . 


5 


319-J, . 


R. H. Grant, . 


Beverly, 


James W. Blackmer, 


2 


22-2, . 


E. N. Bartlett, 


Billerica, 


John W. Bostwick, 


1 


479-J-3, Woon- 

socket. 
12-2, . 


John H. McLaughlin, 
I. E. Whitney, 


Blackstone, 
Blandford, . 


A. J. Gibbons, 


5 


9-3, .. . 


Albert I. Pardee, 


Bolton, 


C. E. Mace, . 


4 






Boston, 


Park and Recrea- 
tion Department. 


1 



114 THE STATE FORESTER. ,[Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


116-3, Sagamore, . 
11-2, . 


E. A. Ellis, 

H. J. Livermore, 


Bourne, 
Boxborough, 


Edward D. Nick- 

erson. 
C. E. Sherry, 


8 
4 




Harry L. Cole, 


B oxford, 


C. Perley, 


3 


4-4, 


John N. Flagg, 


Boylston, 


Walter G. Brigham, 


5 


433-R, 


J. M. Cutting, . 
T.IB. Tubman, 


Braintree, . 
Brewster, 


Clarence R. Bes- 
tick. 

Allison D. Rogers, 


7 

8 


281-3, . 


F. C. Worthen, 


Bridgewater, 


F.[C.LWorthen, 


7 


18-2, . 


GJE. Hitehcock, . 


Brimfield, . 


C.LW.[King, . 


5 




Wm. F. Daley, 


Brockton, . 


George C. Kane, . 


7 


109-13, 


P. E. Gadaire, 


Brookfield, . 


J. H. Conant, 


5 




Geo. H. Johnson, 


Brookline, . 


Ernest B. Dane, . 


1 


52-8, Shelburne 

Falls. 
15-4, . 


Gilbert E.[Griswold, 
W. W. Skelton, 


Buckland, . 
Burlington, 


W. W. Skelton, . 


1 






Cambridge, 


J. F. Donnelly, , 


1 


47-M, . 


Frank C. Estes, 


Canton, 


Wm. H. GaUivan, . 


7 


76-M, Concord, . 


Geo. G. Wilkins, . 


Carlisle, 


G. G. Wilkins, . 


1 


16-2, . 


H. F. Atwood, 


Carver, 


H, F.[Atwood, 


8 


14-12, . . . 


A. L. Veber, . 


Charlemont, 






42-2, . 


E. A. Lamb, 


Charlton, 


J. D. Fellows, 


5 


28-3, . 


Geo. W. Ryder, 


Chatham, . 


Chas. R. Nicker- 


8 


1597-R, Lowell, . 


A. C. Perham, 


Chelmsford, 


son. 
M. A. Bean, . 


1 






Chelsea, 


Alfred L. Maggi, . 


1 


236-W, 


Geo. F. Korn, . 


Cheshire, 






7-4, . 


W. E. Major, . 


Chester, 






4, . . . 


Chas. A. Bisbee, 


Chesterfield, 






149-M, 


John E. Pomphret, . 


Chicopee, 


Edw. Bourbeau, 


5 




Robert W. Vincent, 


Chilmark, . 


A. S. Tilton, 


8 


352-24, 


D. W. Blanchard, . 


Clarksburg, 


F. E. Bishop, 


5 


312-W, 


A. J. Robinson, . 


Clinton, 


Ppt.pr T? Oihhnnq 

X CI/Cl XV. VJilUL'UXlS, 




260, . 


Wm. J. Brennock, . 


Cohasset, . 


Joseph E. Grassie, 


7 


23-2, . 


Frank A. Walden, . 


Colrain, 


Edgar F. Copeland, 


5 


75-W, . 


Frank W. Holden, . 


Concord, 


H. P. Richardson, 


4 


15-2, . 


Edgar Jones, . 


Conway, 






8001, . 


Thos. A. Gabb, 


Cummington, 






24-12, . 


Samuel L. Caesar, . 


Dalton, 






North Dana pay 

station. 
295-W, 


Leon H. Stone, 
M. H. Barry, . 


Dana, . 
Dan vers. 


T. L. Thayer, 
T. E. Tinsley, 


5 
2 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 115 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


1283-V. 


Chas. H. Mead, 


Dartmouth, 


E. M. Munson, 


8 


35-R, . 


Henry J. Harrigan, . 


Dedham, 


J. T. Kennedy, . 


7 


1171-M, 


Wm. L. Harris, 


Deerfield, . 


Wm. L. Harris, . 


5 




Chas. E. Pierce, 


Dennis, 


Joshua Crowell, , 


8 


29-3, . 


Ralph Earle, . 


Dighton, 


Albert N. Goff, . 


6 


11-4, . 


W. L. Church, 


Douglas, 


F. J. Libby, . 


5 


63-11, . 


John Breagy, . 


Dover, . 


H. L. MacKenzie, 


6 


3353-2, 


F. H. Gunther, 


Dracut, 


T. F. Carrick, 


1 


- 


F. A. Putnam, 


Dudley, 


Herbert J. Hill, . 


5 


5-11, Tyngs- 

borough. 
108, . 


A. W. Swallow, 
F. B. Knapp, . 


Dunstable, . 
Duxbury, . 


W. H. SaviU, 
John D. Morrison, 


4 

7 


8110. . 


Horace L. Belknap, 


E, Bridge water, . 


Frank H. Taylor, . 


7 


8-5, .. . 


A. Markham, . 


E. Longmeadow, 


Hermon W. Bang, . 


5 


24-3, . 


Adin L. Gill, . 


Eastham, 


N. p. Clark, 


8 


8080, . 


J. M. Dineen, . 


Easthampton, . 


Chas. Kuhfuss, 


5 


76 or 67, 


Fred Hanlon, . 


Easton, 


R. W. Melendy, . 


6 


241-2, . 


Manuel Swartz, 


Edgartown, 


John P. Fuller, . 


8 


165-25, 


Frank Bradford, 


Egremont, . 


- 


- 


17-11, . 


Herbert A. Coolbeth, 


Enfield, 


H. C. Moore, 


5 


- 


C. H. Holmes, 


Erving, 


Charles H. Holmes, 


5 




Otis 0. Story, . 


Essex, . 


0. 0. Story. . 


2 






Everett, 


P. 0. Sefton. 




1686-Y, 


C. F. Benson, . 


Fairhaven, . 


G. W. King. . 


8 


822-W, 


Wm. Stevenson, 


Fall River, . 


Wm. Stevenson. . 


6 


136-2, 


H. H. Lawrence, 


Falmouth, . 


Wm. W. Eldridge, 
Jr. 

Page S. Bunker, . 


8 


745, . 


Page S. Bunker, 


Fitchburg, . 


4 


9417-3, H o o s a c 
Tunnel pay sta- 
tion. 

96-5, . 


Horace B. Brown, 
Ernest A. White, . 


Florida, 
Foxborough, 


F. S. Richardson, . 


6 


352-4, . 


B. P. Winch, . 


Framingham, 


N. I. Bowditch, . 


6 


66-12, . 


Edw. S. Cook, . 


Franklin, . 


J. W. Stobbart, . 


6 






Freetown, . 


G. M. Nichols, . 


6 


191-M 


G.*^. Hodgman, 




T. W. Danforth, 


5 




L. B. Smalley, 


Gay Head, . 


J. W. Belain, 


8 


18-2 and 8046-2, . 


Thos. A. Watson, . 


Georgetown, 


Elwood T. Wildes, 


3 


15-12, Bernards- 
ton. 


Lewis C. Munn, 
H.J.Worth, . 


GUI, . 
Gloucester, 


Henry D. Clark, . 
H. J. Worth, 


5 
2 


18-4, . 


John S. Mollison, 


Goshen, 







116 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 

UMBER. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 




Rodney E. Bennett, 


Gosnold. 


_ 




18-2, . 


Elmer E. Sibley, 


Grafton, 


C. K. Despeau, 


5 


6-4, .. . 


Geo. L. Murray, 


Granby. 


Geo. A. Harris, 


5 


25, . . . 


H. A. Root, . 


Granville, . 


_ _ 




327-W, 


D. W. Flynn, . 


Great Barring- 


T. J. Kearin, 


5 


ton. 




533-W, 


J. W. Bragg, . 


Greenfield, . 


J. W. Bragg, . 


5 


33-24, Enfield, . 


W. H. Walker, . 


Greenwich, 


B. A. Sawtelle, . 


5 


71-5 and 10, 


Chas, M. Raddin, . 


Groton, 


Herbert W.Taylor, 


4 


2939-M, 


Sidney E. Johnson, 


Groveland, . 


R. B. Larive, 


3 


651-33, 


E. P. West, 


Hadley, 


Leroy C. Sabin, . 


5 


5-2, .. . 


Wm. L. Robertson, . 


Halifax, 


F. D. Lyon, . 


7 


128-M, 


Fred Berry, 


Hamilton, . 


E. G. Brewer, 


2 


5-14, . 


E. P. Lyons, . 


Hampden, . 


_ _ 




17-F-2, 


Chas. Tucker, . 


Hancock, 


_ 




51-5, Rockland, . 


Chas. E. Damon, 


Hanover, 


L. Russell, . 


7 


12-23, . 


Geo. T. Moore, 


Hanson, 


Geo. T. Moore, . 


7 


3-12, GilbertviUe, 


Geo. J. Fay, . 


Hardwick, . 


Geo. J. Fay, 


5 


46-3. . 


Benj. J. Priest, 


Harvard, 


G. C. Maynard, . 


4 


103-3, . 


John Condon, . 


Harwich, 


Arthur F. Cahoon, 


8 


72-4, . 


Fred T. Bardwell, . 


Hatfield, 


Seth W. Kingsley, . 


5 


_ 


John B. Gordon, 


Haverhill, . 


M. J. Fitzgeraia, . 


3 


17-7, . 


H. A. Holden, . 


Hawley, 






5-18. . 


S. G. Benson, . 


Heath, 


_ 




500, . 


Geo. Gushing, . 


Hingham, . 


T. L. Murphy, . 


7 


_ _ 


A. N. Warren, . 


Hinsdale, . 


_ 




134-W, Randolph, 


Melvin L. Coulter, . 


Holbrook, . 


Bradford Parks, . 


7 


42^, . 


Winfred H. Stearns, 


Holden, 


W. H. Stearns, . 


5 


5-21, Brimfield, . 


Oliver L. Hewlett, . 


Holland, 


A. F. Blodgett, . 


5 


113, . 


W. A. CoUins, . 


HoUiston, . 


Herbert E. Jones, . 


6 


1167-W, 


C. J. Haley, . 


Holyoke, 


T. A. Bray, . 


5 


248-W, 


Samuel E. Kellogg, . 


Hopedale, . 


C. E. Nutting, 


5 


19, . . . 


Geo. W. Smith, 


Hopkinton, 


W. A. MacMillan, . 


5 


35-11, . 


W. L. Lovewell, 


Hubbardston, . 


Ralph W. Hartwell, 


5 




Melvin P. Mitchell, . 


Hudson, 


F. P. Hosmer, 


4 






Hull, . 


J. Knowles, . 


7 


4-11, . 


John J. Kirby, 


Huntington, 






163-M, 


Arthur H. Walton, . 


Ipswich, 


J. A. Morey, 


2 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 117 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


15-3, . 


Dr. A. B. Holmes, . 


Kingston, . 


R. F. Randall, . 


8 


261-W, 


N.F.Washburn, . 


Lakeville, . 


N.F.Washburn, . 


7 


218-J, . 


Arthur W. Blood, . 


Lancaster, . 


L. R. Griswold, . 


4 


1295-24. 


Bang D. Keeler, 


Lanesborough, . 


Geo. H. Judivine, . 


5 


362 and 90, . 


D. E. Carey, . 


Lawrence, . 


John A. Flanagan, 


3 


66-M, . 


Jas. W. Bossidy, 


Lee, 


- 


- 


37-5, . 


B. H. Fogwell, 


Leicester, 


J. H. Woodhead, . 


5 


135, . 


0. R. Hutchinson, . 


Lenox, . 


T. Francis Mackey, 


5 


28 and 29, . 


F. A. Russell, . 


Leominster, 


D. E. Bassett, 


4 


9-44, Cooleyville, 


0. C. Marvell, . 


Leverett, 


I. H. Taylor, 


5 


480, . 


Robert Watt, . 


Lexington, . 


0. J. Gorman, 


1 


284-41, 


Jacob Sauter, . 


Leyden, 


Wm. A. Campbell, 


5 


44-W, . 


John J. KeUiher, 


Lincoln, 


J. J. KelUher, 


4 






Littleton, . 


A. E. Hopkins, . 


4 


6375-J, 


Oscar C. Pomeroy, . 


Longmeadow, . 


- 


- 


3400, , 


Edw. F. Saunders, . 


Lowell, 


J. G. Gordon, 


1 






Ludlow, 


Ashley N. Bucher, 


5 


20, . . . 


J. S. Gilchrest, 


Lunenburg, 


James S. Gilchrest, 


4 


3015 and 1174, . 


Geo. A. Cornet, 


Lynn, . 


John R. Graham, . 


2 


- 


Lewis F. Pope, 


Lynnfield, . 


L. H. Twiss, 


2 


- 


Watson B. Gould, . 


Maiden, 


W. B. Gould, 


1 


319-W, 


Peter A. Sheahan, . 


Manchester, 


P. A. Sheahan, . 


2 


1-Rand281-W, . 


Herbert E. King, 


Mansfield, . 


E. Jasper Fisher, . 


6 


355, . 


John T. Adams, 


Marblehead, 


W. J. Stevens, 


2 


117-2', . 


Geo. B. Nye; . 


Marion, 


J. AUenach, . 


8 


- 


Edw, C. Minehan, . 


Marlborough, 


M. E. Lyons, 


4 


43-3, . 


Wm. G. Ford, ... 


Marshfield, . 


P. R. Livermore, . 


7 


31-2, . 


Darius Coombs, 


Mashpee, 


W. F. Hammond, . 


8 


13-3, . 


Frank A. Tinkham, 


Mattapoisett, 


Frank A. Tinkham, 


8 


115-4 or 8-^, 


Geo. H. Gutteredge, 


Maynard, . 


A. Coughlin, 


4 


39 or 119-4, . 


Wm. E. Bell, . 


Medfield, . 


G. L. L. Allen, . 


6 


53 or 138, . 


C. E. Bacon, . 


Medford, 


Hugh G. Kennedy, 


1 




John B. Durfee, 


Medway, 


F. Hager, 


6 






Melrose, 


J. J. McCullough, . 


1 


188-M, Milford, . 


F. M. Aldrich, 


Mendon, 


F. M. Aldrich, . 


5 




Chas. E. Hoyt, 


Merrimac, . 


C. R. Ford, . 


3 


2747, . 


Wilbur M. Freeman, 


Methuen, . 


A. H. Wagland, . 


3 



118 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


232-W, 


W. H. Connor, 


Middleborough, 


Linam'Chute, 


7 


8000, . 


G. E. Cook, . 


Middlefield, 






63-14 and 63-25, . 


Loren G. Esty, 


Middleton, . 


B. T. McGlauflin, . 


2 


419-W, 


E. J. Burke, . 


Milford, 


P. F. Fitzgerald, . 


5 


152-2, . 


Harry L. Snelling, . 


Millbury, . 


E. F. Roach, 


5 


5-2, . 


Chas. LaCroix, 


Millis, . 


Everett Caldwell, . 


6 


1442-25, 


Ralph S. Carpenter, 


Milton, 


Ralphs. Carpenter, 


7 


8-22, Readsboro, 

Vt. 
12-22, . 


H. S. Tower, . 

0. E. Bradway, ' . 


Monroe, 
Monson, 


Robert S. Fay, . 


5 


14-4, . 


Thos. Berard, . 


Montague, . 


F. H. Gillette, 


5 


164-25, 


Jasper H. Bills, 


Monterey, . 


- 


- 


3-24, . 


Andrew J. Hall, 


Montgomery, 






17-21, Copoke, 

n. Y. 


G. W. Patterson, . 


Mt. Washington, 
Nahant, 


T, Roland, . 


2 


16-5, . 


Peter M. Hussey, 


Nantucket, 


C. C. Macy, . 


8 


31 or 244-M, 


Bernard DarUng, 


Natick, 


H. S. Hunnewell, . 


6 


195-W, 

_ _ 


H. Howard Upham, 
Chas, S. Baker, 


Needham, . 
New Ashford, 


E. E. Riley, . 
- 


6 
- 


2280, . 

6-4, Gilbertville, . 


Edw. F. Dahill, 
Frank A. Morse, 


New Bedford, 
New Braintree, . 


Wm. P. Hammers- 
ley. 
E. L. Havens, 


8 
5 


10, Cooleyville, . 


Sewell V. King, 


New Marlbor- 
ough. 
New Salem, 


_ 

Sewell V. King, . 


- 

5 


173-5, . 


Wm. P. Bailey, 


Newbury, . 


Percy Oliver, 


3 


380, . 


Chas. P. Kelley, . 


Newburyport, . 


C. P. Kelley, 


3 


30, Newton South, 


W. B. Randlett, 


Newton, 


W. W. Colton, 


1 


41-5, . 


Jas. T. Buckley, 


Norfolk, 


Wm. Buckley, 


6 


205-W and 265, . 


H. J. Montgomery, . 


North Adams, 


Jackson L. Temple, 


5 


1029-J. 


Wm. L. Smith, 


North Andover, . 


Fred W. Phelan, . 


3 


317-2, . 
63-4, . 


C. F. Gehrung, 
Oscar C. Hirbour, . 


North Attlebor- 

ough. 
North Brookfield, 


F. P. Toner, . 

S. D. Colburn, . 


6 
5 


49, . . . 


Geo. E. Eaton, 


North Reading, . 


G. E. Eaton, 


1 


165, 


F. E. Chase, . 


Northampton, . 


Chas. A. Maynard, 


5 


32-13 and 65-2, . 


Arthur Johnson, 


Northborough, . 


Lewis H. Smith, . 


5 


13-3 and 71-5, 


W. E. Burnap, 


Northbridge, 


A. F. Whitin, 


5 


114-2, , 


F. W. Doane, . 


Northfield, . 


F. W. Doane, 


5 


29-11, . 


Geo. H. Storer, 


Norton, 


G. H. Storer, 


6 


7-12, . 


John S. Sparrell, 


Norwell, 


J. H. Sparrell, . 


7 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 119 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 

NUMBEB. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div, 
No. 


417-M, 


F.W.Talbot, . 


Norwood, . 


C. A, Bingham, . 


6 


119-4, . 
17-5, . 


H. W. Chase, . 

Chas. H. Trowbridge, . 


Oak Bluffs, 
Oakham, 


Frank F. Blanken- 

ship. 
C. H. Trowbridge, 


8 
5 


232-12, 


Wm. Walsh, . 


Orange, 


Joseph W. Oberg, . 


5 


33-2, . 
- 


James Boland, 
D. A. Witter, . 


Orleans, 
Otis, . 


A. Smith, . 


8 
- 


9-5, .. . 


Clin D. Vickers, 


Oxford, 


C. G. Lamed, 


5 


53-12. . 


James Summers, 


Palmer, 


C. H. Keith, 


5 


159-J, Cedar, 


F. L. Durgin, . 


Pazton, 


F. L. Durgin, 


5 


182-Y, 


M. V. McCarthy, . 


Peabody, 


J. J. Callahan, 


2 


144-3, . 


Edw. E. Adriance, . 


Pelham, 


Marion E. Richard- 
son. 
Wm. C. Jones, 


5 


7-23, Bryantville, 


Jos. J. Shepherd, 


Pembroke, . 


7 


136-3, . 


G. M. Pahner, 


Pepperell, . 


J. Tune, 


4 


11-2, Hinsdale, . 


Arthur Kilbourne, . 


Peru, . 






61, . . . 


George Marsh, 


Petersham, . 


Daniel Broderick, 


5 


176-6, Athol, 


W. H. Cowlbeck, . 


Phillipston, 


W. H. Cowlbeck, . 


5 


535-M, 


Chas. L. Klein, 


Pittsfield, . 


- 


- 


33-11, Cumming- 
ton. 

283-J, North At- 

tleborough. 
264, . 


F. J. Butler, . 
R. P. Rhodes, . 
Ira C. Ward, . 


Plainfield, . 
Plain ville, . 
Pljrmouth, . 


- 

George H. Snell, . 
A. A. Rajrmond, . 


- 

6 
8 


13-7, Kingston, . 


D. L. Bricknell, 


Plympton, . 


D. L. Bricknell, . 


8 


19-4, Coolejrville, 


Fred W. Doubleday, 


Prescott, 


C. M. Pierce, 


5 


13-1, . 


F. W. Bryant, . 


Princeton, . 


F. A. Skinner, 


5 


49-11, . 


J. H. Bamett, . 


Provincetown, . ' 


J. M. Burch, 


8 


1, . . . 


Faxon T. Billings, . 


Quincy, 


A. J. Stewart, 


7 


35-4, . 


Richard F. Forrest, 


Randolph, . 


John T. Moore, , 


7 


_ 


Erving Chickering, . 


Saynham, . 


G. M. Leach, 


6 


518-W, 


H. E. Mclntire, 


Beading, 


H. M. Donegan, . 


1 


11-12, . 
_ 


B. F. Munroe, . 
- 


Rehoboth, . 
Revere, 


R. E. Anderson, . 
G. P. Babson, 


6 
2 


8-2, .. . 


Timothy B. Salmon, 


Richmond, . 






12-32, . 


Jjaniei hi. Hartley, . 


Rochester, . 


isamuei ±l. L/orse, . 


Q 
O 


55-X, . 


John H. Burke, 


Rockland, . 


F. H. Shaw, . 


7 


28-4, . 


John C. ^Martin, 


Rockport, . 


F. A. Babcock, . 


2 


21-6, . 


Merritt A. Peck, 


Rowe, . 






3-13, . 


Daniel O'Brien, 


Rowley, 


Chas. Curtis, 


3 


279-2, Athol, 


L. G. Forbes, . 


Royalston, . 


P. F. Richards, . 


5 



120 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


11-3, . 




S. S. Shurtleff, 


Russell, 






4-12, . 


_ 


Henry Converge, 
_ 


Rutland, 
Salem, . 


H. E. Wheeler, . 
Warren F. Hale, , 


5 
2 


123-21. 




James H. Pike, 


Salisbury, . 


H. C. Rich, . 


3 


202-12. 




A. V. Wilber, , 


Sandisfield, 






43-2, . 




J. R. Holway. . 


Sandwich, . 


B. F. Dennison, . 


8 


346-W, 




T. E. Berrett, . 


Saugus, 


T. E. Berrett, 


2 


4-16, . 




Clinton E. Tilton, . 


Savoy, . 






129-3, . 




E. R, Seaverna, 


Scituate, 


Lester D. Hobson, 


7 


462-J-2, 

tucket. 
185-3, . 

26, 


Pa w- 


John L. Baker, 
W. C. Morse, . 
A. H. Tuttle, . 


Seekonk, 
Sharon, 
Sheffield, . 


C. A. Smith, 
J. J. Geissler, 


6 
6 


130-2, . 




Chas. S. Dole. 


Shelburne, . 


Chas. S. Dole, 


5 






Milo F. Campbell, . 


Sherborn, . 


J. P. Dowse, 


6 


16-21, . 




Asa A. Adams, 


Shirley, 


A. A. Adams, 


4 






Edw. A. Logan, 


Shrewsbury, 


Robert C. Clapp, . 


5 


2-14, Cooleyville, 

2632-M. Fall 
River. 


N. J. Hunting, 

Wm. F. Griffiths, . 
_ _ 


Shutesbury, 
Somerset, . 
Somerville, . 


Clarence A. Has- 
kell. 
C. Riley, 

A. B. Prichard, . 


5 
6 
1 


22, Holyoke, 


Louis H. Lamb, 


South Hadley, . 


Louis H. Lamb, . 


5 


151-23, 




C. S. Olds, 


Southampton, . 


C. S. Olds, . 


5 


13, Marlborough, 


Harry Burnett, 


Southborough, . 


H. Burnett, . 


5 


11, 




Aimee Langevin, 


Southbridge, 


A. Langevin, 


5 








Southwick, 


_ _ 


_ 


125-2, . 




A. F. Howlett, 


Spencer, 


G. Ramer, . 


5 


20, Indian Or- 
chard. 
5-12, . 


C. S. Taylor, . 
J. F. Wilder, . 


Springfield, 
Sterling, 


J. Alden Davis, . 
J. H. Kilburn, 


5 
4 






Geo. Schneyer, 


Stockbridge, 


Brown Caldwell, . 


5 


176-3, . 




Albert J. Smith, 


Stoneham, . 


G. M. Jefts, . 


1 


121-3, . 




Fred H. Pye, . 


Stoughton, 


W. P. Kennedy, . 


7 


225-X, 




W. H. Parker, . 


Stow, . 


H. W. Herrick, . 


4 


6-1, . 




C. M. Clarke, . 


Sturbridge, 


C. M. Clarke, 


5 


5-4, . 




Seneca W, Hall, 


Sudbury, . 


W. E. Baldwin, . 


4 


46, South 

field. 
58-32, . 


Deer- 


A. C. Warner, . 

R. H. Richardson, . 


Sunderland, 
Sutton, 


Richard Graves, . 
R. H. Richardson, 


5 
5 


1911-J, 




Everett P. Mudge, . 


Swampscott, 


E. P. Mudge, 


2 


468-W, 




Thos. L. Mason, 


Swansea, 


A. E. Arnold, 


6 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 121 



List of Forest Wardens and Local 1\Ioth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


1 or 320, 


Fred A. Leonard, . 


Taunton, 


L. W. Hodgkins, . 


6 


30 or 26-5, . 


C. A. Fletcher, 


Templeton, 


J. B. Wheeler, 


5 


4249-J, 


Harris M. Briggs, 


Tewksbury, 


H. M. Briggs, 


1 


161-4, . 


Elmer C. Chadwick, 


Tisbury, 


H. W. McLellan, . 


8 


269-14, 


Claude L. Vining, . 


Tolland, 




~ 


8038, . 


C. W. Floyd, . . 


Topsfield, . 


C. W. Floyd, 


2 


37-2 or 51-2, 


F. J. Piper. 


Townsend, . 


G. E. King, . 


4 


- 


Walter F. Rich, 


Truro, . 


J. H. Atwood, 


8 


1, . . . 


Otis L. Wright, 


Tyngsborough, . 


C. J. AUgrove, 


1 


3-6, . 


Clifford Canon, 


T3rringham, 


- 


- 


8000, . 


Geo. Z. Williams, . 


Upton, 


Clarence L. Good- 


5 




rich. 








TJxbridge, . 


Willard Holbrook, 


5 


58 or 455-M, 


W. E. Cade, . 


Wakefield, . 


W. W. Whittredge, 


1 


13-21, . . . 


A. A. Hubbard, 


Wales, . 


M. C. Royce, 


5 


107-2, . 


Jas. J. Hennessey, . 


Walpole, 


Philip R. Allen, . 


6 


6, ... 


Geo. L. Johnson, 


Waltham, . 


W. M. Ryan, . 


^ 


117-13, 


Joseph Dupre, 


Ware, . 


F. Zeissig, 


5 


45-23, . 


Delbert C. Keyes, . 


Wareham, . 


J.J.Walsh, . 


8 


- 


Timothy M. Collins, 


Warren, 


Alex. A. Gendron, 


5 


- 


Chas. A. Williams, . 


Warwick, 


Charles Bass, 


5 


12-4. . 


Lester G. Heath, 


Washington, 


- 


- 


116, Newton 


Van D. HortOn, 


Watertown, 


Van D. Horton, . 


1 


North, 










31-3, . 




Wayland, . 


D. J. Graham, 


4 


101-R, 


E. L. WaUis, . 


Webster, 


C. Klebart, . 


5 


9 or 359-M, . 


John P. Doyle, 


Wellesley, . 


F. M. Abbott, 


6 


- 


John Holbrook, 


Wellfleet, . 


Wm. H. Gill. 


8 


&-23, Cooleyville, 


Chas. A. Fiske, 


Wendell, 


G. E. Mills, . 


5 


74, HamUton, 


Jacob D. Barnes, 


Wenham, 


J. E. Kavanagh, . 


2 


10-6, . 


Geo. M. HaU, . 


W. Boylston, 


M. D. Potter, 


5 


4137. . 


W. P. Laughton, . 


W. Bridgewater, . 


0. Belmore, . 


7 


114-3, . 


John H. Webb, 


W. Brookfield, . 


J. H. Webb, . 


5 




Louis H. Flook, 


West Newbury, . 


Frank D. Bailey, . 


3 


6961-J, 


E. B. Jones, 


W. Springfield, . 


Geo. W. Hayden, . 


5 


8000, . 


B. P. Bissell, . 


W. Stockbridge, . 






92-3, . 


Wm. J. Rotch, 


West Tisbury, 


H. W. Athearn, . 


8 




Geo. E. Walker, 


Westborough, . 


Geo. Hayden, 


5 


lU-Y, 


Thos. H. Mahoney, . 


Westfield, . 







122 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden, 


Town or City. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Div. 
No. 


_ 


Harry L. Nesmith, . 


Westford, . 


H. L. Nesmith, . 


1 


148-14, 


Clayton A. Bartlett, 


Westhampton, . 


_ _ 


_ 


1-3 


W. F. Neal, . 


Westminster, 


G. A. Sargent, 


5 


1392-M, Waltham, 


B. R. Parker, . 


Weston, 


E. p. Ripley, 


4 


41-21, . 


Frank Whalen, 


Westport, . 


H. A. Sanford, . 


8 


635-W,'Dedham, . 


Elmer E. Smith, 


Westwood, . 


Martin Sorenson, . 


6 


185-M, 


Walter H. Pratt, 


Weymouth, . 


C. L. Merritt, 


7 


39-14, . 


J. H. Pease 


Whately, 


Rylan C. Howes, . 


5 


349-W, 


C. A. Randall, 


Whitman, . 


C. A. Randall, . 


7 


1-4, North WUbra- 


Henry I, Edson, 


Wilbraham, 


F. B. Metcalf, 


5 








8011-2," 


John L. Brown, 


Williamsburg, 


S. EUis Clark, 


5 


34-W, . 


Wm. H. Davies, 


Williamstown, . 


Wm. Davies, 


5 


28-2, . 


OUver McGrane, 


Wilmington, 


0. McGrane, 


1 


29, . . . 


A. D. Bailey, . 


Winchendon, 


Jos. W. Crocket, . 


5 


123-2, . 


David DeCourcy, . 


Winchester, 


S. S. Symmes, 


1 


201-12, 


Amos S. Ferry, 


Windsor, 










Winthrop, . 


Fred A. Whitte- 


2 








more. 






Frank E. Tracy, 


Woburn, 


H. V. Macksey, 


1 


7110. Park, . 


Arthur V. Parker, . 


Worcester, . 


H. J. Neale, . 


5 


10-22, . 


Chas. A. Kilbourn, . 


Worthingrton, 






23-5, . 


G. H. E. Mayshaw, 


Wrentham, . 


W. Gihnore, . 


6 


53-31, . 


J. W. Hamblin, 


Yarmouth, . 


C. R. Bassett, 


8 



1917.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



123 



New Legislation. 
No new legislation was enacted at the last session of the 
General Court affecting the work of this department, except 
that the law relative to setting fires in the open air was so 
amended as to make it apply to all cities and towns in the 
Commonwealth. Prior to the passage of this amendment, 
this law has been operative only in such cities and towns as 
had by vote accepted its provisions. Several special resolves 
were passed authorizing and requiring the State Forester to 
make certain investigations of forest lands, and the reports 
upon these matters appear on other pages of this volume. 

Recommendations. 

(1) That the co-operative work with the towns and indi- 
viduals, where cranberry growing is being interfered with due 
to gypsy moth invasion, should be given further consideration 
and sufficient funds to prosecute the work begun last year. 

(2) That an appropriation for moth suppression equal to 
the amount asked for last year be made this year. The price 
of spraying material, arsenate of lead in particular, was nearly 
doubled in price the past year, and we very much fear it will 
continue to be expensive this year. Labor is also much higher 
and very scarce as well. 

(3) That the offices of tree warden and moth superintendent 
in towns and cities be combined and that the new official be 
known as town or city forester, to be appointed by the select- 
men in towns and by the mayor and council in cities, subject 
to the approval of the State Forester, as is the present method 
in appointing the moth superintendent. ^ 

(4) That the white pine blister rust be handled in a very 
drastic and systematic way the coming season. It is recom- 
mended that sufficient funds be appropriated for carrying on 
the work of eradication and suppression. It is believed that 
this work can best be accomplished by the joint efforts of the 
State Board of Agriculture and the State Forester. 

(5) That sufficient funds be appropriated to plant and pro- 
tect such part as is suitable of the three State forests pur- 
chased by the State Forest Commission and cared for by law 



124 



THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 1917. 



by the State Forester. At present there are no available 
funds for such work. It is estimated that $20,000 should be 
available for this purpose, either through the State Forest 
Commission or this department directly. 

(6) That the time has come iot some wholesome regulations 
for the prevention of fires caused by sparks escaping from 
portable steam sawmills, steam rollers, steam tractors and 
steam shovels. Our reports through the State Fire Warden 
point out the necessity for this legislation. 

(7) The Commission on Economy and Efficiency recom- 
mended in its report on this department filed in December, 
1914, that the general expenses of the department be appor- 
tioned among the several appropriations made for its work. 
The question has been discussed during the past year with the 
Auditor's Department and the office of the Supervisor of 
Administration, successor to the Commission on Economy and 
Efficiency, and the conclusion reached that a better way to 
deal with the matter is to make a separate appropriation for 
these general purposes. A bill is therefore submitted herewith 
to authorize such a separate appropriation. 

F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 



\ 



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'iil:.n,.,,;i:;.l.;t!.,il;,;ib.(!! 




THE MASSACHUSETTS 

STATE FORESTER 

FRANK W. RANE 

FOURTEENTH 
ANNUAL REPORT 

1917 




BOSTON: WRIGHT AND POTTER PRINTING COMPANY. STATE PRINTERS g 
32 DERNE STREET ^ g 

''Iliilitilililitllllllllillillillilitlllllliiiiijiii 



Ac, Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FORESTEE 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



POURTEENTH ANNUAL EEPORT, 
1917. 



F. W. RANE, State Forester. 




BOSTON: 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
32 DERNE STREET. 
1918. 



Publication of this Document 

approved by the 
Supervisor of Administration. 



2^ 



Commontocaltl) of itla0sacI)U0ctt0. 



To the General Court. 

In accordance with the provisions of chapter 409, Acts of 
1904, the report of the State Forester for 1917 is herewith sub- 
mitted. 

In the stress of war times your State Forester is firmly con- 
vinced that we should make it a patriotic duty to try to enforce 
the fundamental principles of forestry, both in utilizing our 
present forestry products in the industries, and also in providing 
if possible for future needs. 

With appreciation of the continued co-operation and good will 
accorded this department in its work, this report is 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Introduction, 7 

Organization, 16 

War activities, 19 

Saw-mill units sent to England, 19 

Recruiting for forestry battalions, ....... 20 

Furnishing wood to the army, ......... 20 

Fuel emergency, .......... 21 

Utilization of forest products, . . ...... 22 

Tliinning operations, 22 

Walpole municipal forest, ......... 23 

Reforesting scrub oak or acorn brush lands, ...... 24 

Oriental hag moth, 24 

Tussock moth, ........... 25 

Co-operation with county farm bureaus, ....... 26 

General forestry activities, ......... 26 

Forest examinations, .......... 27 

Reforestation work, .......... 31 

Nursery work, ........... 32 

Inventory of stock. State nurseries, 1917, . . . . . . .37 

State forest administration, ......... 38 

Forestry and reforestation work: — 

Financial statements, ......... 40 

Mo^^ng-picture reels, . . . . . . .41 

Creosoting gypsy moth egg clusters, ....... 41 

Auto-truck sprayers, .......... 42 

Moth thinning work, .......... 43 

Report of Dr. L. O. Howard on parasite work, ...... 45 

Gypsy moths and co-operative cranberry work, ..... 46 

Paste V. powdered arsenate of lead, ........ 47 

Meeting of gypsy moth officials at the State House, ..... 47 

Meeting of town officials and moth superintendents at Bourne, . . .48 

Special moth work at Nantucket, ........ 48 

Chestnut blight, 49 

State Fire Warden's report, ......... 50 

Financial statement, ......... 61 

Reimbursement for fire equipment, ........ 52 

Inventory of fire equipment, ......... 53 

Forest fires, 1917, 57 

Classified causes of forest fires, 1912-17, ....... 58 

Types of land burned over, ......... 59 

Classified damages by fires, ......... 59 

Comparative damages by fires, 1910-17, ....... 59 

Fires reported from observation stations, 1914-17, ..... 60 

Precipitation, 1911-17, .61 

Railroad fires, ........... 62 



6 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Federal co-operation in forest fire expenditure, ...... 64 

State highway work, .......... 65 

Co-operative moth work, ......... 65 

Special funds: — 

Financial statements, ......... 65 

Office salaries and incidentals: — 

Financial statements, ......... 66 

Distribution of supplies, .......... 67 

Gypsy and brown-tail moth suppression: — 

Financial statement, . . . . . . . • . .69 

Financial summary of moth work by towns, ...... 72 

Meetings and addresses, .......... 87 

List of forest wardens, .......... 89 

List of local moth superintendents, ........ 89 

Remarks, . . . . . . . . . . ' . .98 



One of the State Forester's new motor truck sprayers in operation on a State highway. The 
same engine that propels the truck also runs the spray pump. Three of these machines 
were in use throughout the past season, and easily replaced many horse-drawn sprayers. 




A photograph of the State Forester's nursery at the Bridgewater State Farm in Plymouth 
County. Ten acres have been set aside by Colonel Blackstone for the State Forester's 
use. With the exception of a foreman the entire work is done by the inmates of the State 
Farm. The trees shown are Scotch pine transplants, and will be used with white pine in 
planting throughout the State next spring. There are approximately 1,000,000 trees 
in this nursery at present. 



®l)e ijrotnmontoealtl) of itla00acl)UBettB. 



FOURTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

Forestry in Massachusetts in the future will be what we of to- 
day are far sighted enough to make it. 

Massachusetts is a State that is naturally expected to be, and 
as a matter of fact is, a leader in most worthy undertakings, as 
her history shows. In forestry work a very creditable showing 
has already been made. We undoubtedly have the best forest 
fire protective system of any State. Our reforestation work is 
well under way, with approximately 15,000 acres set out to 
young forest trees. The practice of improvement thinnings 
and modern methods of forest management is yearly receiving 
more attention by woodland owners. Forest depredations of 
diseases and insects are given special consideration in regard to 
their eradication and control in this State. Yet with all our 
endeavors thus far, hardly more than a beginning has been 
made in the vast amount to be accomplished. 

During the year the activities of the State Forester's Depart- 
ment have been more vigorously prosecuted than ever. To- 
gether with the usual work that has been reported upon from 
year to year, the changed conditions and new duties that have 
come as a result of the world war have necessarily completely 
altered many of our plans. While appropriations have been 
normal in general forestry work and gradually lessening in 
moth suppression, labor and materials of all kinds have greatly 
advanced. The department has practiced the strictest economy, 
and we believe a careful perusal of our activities as shown in 
this report will give the reader a better appreciation of our 
work. 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



In reforestation and nursery work, although labor has been 
scarce and high, we were able to secure enough of our old fore- 
men and men to round out a most creditable year. While the 
planting season was interfered with by many rainy days, this 
weather was very favorable for the young trees, which came 
through the season in fine shape. The State Forester's nurseries 
everywhere are in splendid condition. One of the United 
States government forest officials upon a recent trip to New 
England highly complimented the department upon its accom- 
plishments. Besides enough trees to use in our reforestation 
work, this year the State Forester has the sanction of the 
Governor and Council to distribute to persons who will plant 
them in Massachusetts not less than 1,000 nor more than 10,000 
pine transplants at a fixed price of $7 a thousand, packed for 
shipment at the nursery. It is believed this offer will tend to 
increase the interest in forest planting. Send in your orders at 
once if you wish to be on the list. The trees will be shipped in 
April. Every one interested in seeing young trees growing in 
nurseries should take a trip to the State Forester's nursery on 
the farm of the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst, 
and to the Barnstable Nursery at Barnstable. A good be- 
ginning has been made in a transplant nursery at the State 
Farm at Bridgewater, where the work is done by the inmates 
under supervision of one of our foremen. A beginning is also 
being made in a similar way at the Norfolk State Hospital 
which it is hoped will grow in importance. Here, again, the 
work is done by the inmates of the institution. 

During the year this department has consulted with the 
various county agents and schools soliciting their co-operation 
in forestry work, and it is believed much good will come out of 
our united action. The county officials are in direct touch with 
the landowners, and whenever an opportunity is afforded for 
forestry work this department can back them up with practical 
assistance, thereby getting something actually done. In the 
case of the county schools, it is an easy matter to start a small 
nursery here for demonstration purposes, and if the students 
have the time to spare, they could be used in April and May on 
our reforestation work throughout the county, receiving com- 
pensation for their services. In these war times labor will neces- 



1918.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



9 



sarily be hard to get; therefore, why not plan on utilizing our 
young men of public school age in this work? The labor neces- 
sary in transplanting small trees is well adapted to the strength 
of boys of twelve years or over, and the experience gained 
would give them an interest in forestry in the future. We ask 
teachers and parents to think this over and take counsel with 
this department. 

During the year the State Forester concluded, after giving 
much study to the question, to redistrict the moth work. As is 
shown by a map elsewhere in this report, this work is now 
organized practically according to counties. As the work is 
largely confined to the eastern part of the State, all of the 
western counties are included with Worcester County. All of 
the division men in charge of moth divisions as at present con- 
stituted are provided with automobiles which enable them to 
cover their territories, keep them in close personal touch with 
local public officials, and allow them to give necessary super- 
vision for best results. The former division men who are 
without automobiles will be used on special moth work that 
may arise in co-operation with the various divisions. This plan 
will also have a tendency to bring about more uniform results, 
and allow us to give greater concentration to projects thought 
worthy of more consideration. The moth work has been raised 
in efficiency as a whole, and it naturally follows that the local 
moth superintendents who are experienced, and who have the 
confidence of the townspeople, do not need such close super- 
vision as in the past. It is desirable as ever to keep the ma- 
chinery well oiled and in good repair, but when this is in good 
running order, the time, attention and expense exercised in 
getting these results may be utilized in other and more im- 
portant directions. Now that many of the cities and towns that 
have long been infested and have had State aid, not only in re- 
imbursement, but also in supplies and machinery furnished, are 
gradually becoming self-supporting, it becomes the State's duty 
to render equal assistance to those towns and cities that have 
more recently become generally infested and are worthy of State 
aid. 

The State appropriation at present is but a little over one- 
half of what it formerly was for moth work, and with materials 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



greatly increased in cost, and labor more expensive, we are not 
in a position to do as much as heretofore. We are, however, 
getting more work done each year by individuals, and this, 
being self-supporting work, accomplishes results in the most 
satisfactory way. We, as a people, believe in self-reliance and 
self-help; the idea is associated with liberty and self-respect. 
Acting upon this principle, and with the belief that this is the 
true interpretation of the law, the State Forester has governed 
himself accordingly in dealing with the whole moth question. 
While the moth law plans for certain methods of assistance to 
towns from the State appropriation, this assistance is expected 
to be forthcoming only when it is a question of real need. One 
Massachusetts town deserves commendation in that while it 
spends large sums in excess of its liability, and could demand 
State reimbursement, it has never asked for one cent. The 
Commonwealth is to be congratulated upon such public-spirited 
communities as this. 

A few of the main principles that the State Forester has en- 
deavored to follow in moth work are : — 

1. To develop a capable man in each city and town to have charge of 
the work, who has sufficient knowledge and experience to command the 
respect and confidence of his people. 

2. To see that each town has sufficient modern equipment and materials 
to work with, and that they are properly cared for so that it is possible 
to accomplish good results. 

3. To keep a practical working knowledge of moth conditions and 
estimates for getting results. 

4. To avoid unnecessary expenses and keep the work as near self- 
supporting as possible. 

5. To encourage private liability work, either by the local moth super- 
intendent's force or private contractors. Whatever work is thus done 
lessens the infestation and betters conditions just so much, — a step in 
the right direction towards suppression and control. 

6. To keep cities and towns that have become self-supporting from 
getting careless and indifferent, thus allowing bad conditions to return. 

7. To assist owners of infested woodlands and fore